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Washington's First Campaign, 







** O-athei* up the fl^raamentft tliAt remnin.** 





Entered fMSCordine to Act of Coofirress, in the year 1878, by 

in the office of the Librarian of Congress at WaRhington. 

WUl B. Lowd«rmilk, PrinUr 
CumberbuMl, Hd. 









Fort Cumberland, Frontispiece. 
Plan of Fort Necessity, .... Page 76 
Plan of Fort Cumberland, . 92 

Portrait of Braddock, . .100 
Map of Braddock's Route, .... 140 
Braddock's Grave in 1850 .188 
Braddock's Grave in 1877 .... 190 
Cresap's Fort 254 

The Old Milestone 257 

Washington's Headquarters .... 280 

Plat of Cumberland 284 

The "Narrows" 332 

City Hall 426 

Court House 434 

Allegany County Academy . . .434 




Academy of Mosio 427 

Allegany ConDtj erected 267 

Attorneys, admitted to bar of Allegany Court 435-437 

Baker. Lieatenaut 226 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 3dO-352, 361, 365. 376, 377 

Banks 340, 343, 369, 360, 38o, 386, 408 

Beall, Thomas of Samuel 25b 

Big Ball, The 347 349, 356 

Blair, Captain Thomas 297-299 

Bland, Chancellor Theodoric 235, 243 

Boquet, Colonel Henry 232, 234, 236, 242 

Bridges, over Will's Creek 237, 271, 284, 285. 306, 342, 363. 378, 379 

Braddock, General Edward 96101 

at Alexandria 104 

at Fort Cumberland 114-137 

letter to Governor Sharpe 130 

" ref^ardioK Franklin 135 

" to General Shirley 136 

route to the Mononi;ahela 136-154 

discipline and habits v L17 

holds a conference with the Indians .« 124 

contempt for Indians 134 

march towards the Monongahela 136 

route of march 136-154 

criticism of, by officers 154 

on the battle field 160-162 

wounded 162 

death of. .'.....169 

place of burial 169. 188-191 

Orderly Book 497 

Cainctncuck 17-20 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal; petition against high level 338 

funds exhausted 339 

riots amongst employees ut Oldtown 342 

riots at tunnel suppressed by militia 346 

public meetings in behalf of completing work 349 

water le& in for first time 368, 369 

passenger packet 372 

experiments with steamboats 386 

ceremonies at opening navigation 438-447 

Charlottesbnrg 31 

Cholera : 378,379 

Chriae, William S., tried and executed 354-356 

Churches 321,338, 343, 344, 448-487 

City Hal], description of 425-428 

CiTil War: Union meetings • 389-393 405 

Indiana Zouaves 398 

Twenty- first Bridge 401 

Potomac Home Brigade 402-405 

Citizens who joined the Confederate army 406 


Civil War: atvGaard in 1862 406,407 

VofuDt«er8 from Allegany eonnty - ..407 

Enrollioff the militia 407 

General Kelly's headqaarters 408 

Capture of the town by Confederates » 410-412 

Emancipation of Slaves 414 

Battle of Folck's Mills 416 

Citisen Volunteers 417,418 

Bounty for Volunteers 420 

Capture of Generals Crook and Kelly 420-422 

County Commissioners 428 

Court, the first held 269 

Court Houseejails. Ac 270, 276.840, 345, 368 

Cresap. Colonel Thomas 26. 86, 131, 136, 141, 254, 255, 259 

Croghan. George 28, 109, 116, 123 

Cumberland, the town established 258-261 

laid off. 258. 266 

first settlers ..262 

Commissioners 266 

a post town 275 

resurveyed 285-288 

property owners in 1813 293-295 

incorporated 301, 302 

Commissioners elected 303 

population 320, 349, 371, 388 

assessable property 350, 351, 357 

divided into two Districts 360 

grant to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad .....361 

night watch established 375 

lighted by gas 380 

subscribes to Pittsburgh and Connellsville Railroad 384 

city limits extended ...385 

military hospitals 404,408 

captured by Confederates 410-412 

land grant to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 425 

Waterworks 425.426 

Dagworthv Captain 199, 202, 227 

De Beaujeu 173, 174. 177, 178 

De C<»ntraCoeur 08 

De Langlade, Charles 170-178,212, 213 

Dent. Frederick 262 

De RochebUve 176 

Dinwiddle, Governor 39,48, 101, 110, 203,204, 215, 216 

Disputes as to Rank 73, 102, 104, 202, 206 

Dunbar, Colonel 95,118, 166-170, 182-184 

Fire, the great, of 1833 324-329, 331, 341 

Flight of Settlers 185 

Forbes, General 231, 251 

his army .« 249 

Fort Cumberland, erected 89 

description of 90-93 

strengthened and improved 100 

visited by Governor Sharpe 103 

a demoralised garrison 104 

arrival of Sir John St Clair 108 

letter from Thomas Walker 109 

" " Captain Rutherford 110 

General Braddock arrived at 114 

troops and Indians at 116, 117 

Indian conference at 119 

punishment of soldiers 121 

letters from Washington 121, 132, 180 

amilit4ry funeral 122 123 


Fort Cumberland, Indian women and Jealoasj 123-127 

letter from Braddock 130,136-137 

Colonel Innes appointed Governor 135 

Maryland militia sent to 162 

arrival of the retreating army 174-184 

letter from Captain Orme 180 

" Colonel Dunliar 184 

Oanbar's retreat from 186 

Newspaper reports from.,^ 193, 194 

the wounded at 197 

Indian ontrages at 198-201, 244 

Qovemor Sharpens opinion of it 198 

the garrison is strengthened 199 

trouole as to the command 202-206 

^ letter from General Shirley ■ 205 

beseiged by Indians 207, 210 

Colonel Innes' queer letter 209 

Killbuck's visit 211, 212 

Washington urgrs its abandonment 214 

Oiowidgie opposes the idea 215,216 

question referred to a council 215,216 

orders to strengthen 216 

Colonel Stephen in command , 217 

memorandum of affairs at 218 

spies arrested at 219 

Lord Loudon's opinion of 220 

Washington's headquarters at 221, 222 

Virginia troops ordered away 224 

Maryland refuses to garrison 226 

Washington depart8 from 226 

Dagworthy in command 227 

an Indian alarm 227 

Reinforcements arrive at 227 

address in Maryland Legislature regarding 229 

Washington returns to 233 

Indian reinforcements at 234 

scanty supplies and sickness at 242 

Governor Sharpe arrives at v 244 

explosion of magazine at. 248 

Washington's command leaves 247 

a garrison of British troops 253 

abandonment of. 256 

Fort Dnqnesne 232 

Fort Frederick 197 

Fort Mount Pleasant 83-88 

Fort Necessity 73-80 

capitulation of 77, 78 

Fonitt, Thomas, claims he shot Braddock 187 

Franklin, Benjamin's letter to Pennsylvanians ..112-114 

Fry, Colonel Joshua 48.61,71 

Qage, General, letter to Governor Sharpe 256 

Gftrrett county established 432 

Giat, Christopher 27, 28, 41, 71, 82. 86, 152, 153 

Gtot, Nathaniel..., 167 

Glass works /. 303 

Graff, Henry, murdered ^ 381 

Grant, Major 249-251 

Hadel, Dr. J. F. C. murdered 381 

Halkett, Major Francis 247, 248 

Halkett. Sir Peter 95, 130, 135, 154, 155, 161 

Harris, an ezcentrio character 315 

Highwaymen on National Road 335 

Home Industry 337 


10 INDEX. 

Hotel rates established by law 277 

Indians, towns 18, 19 

graves 24,25 

conference at Fort Cumberland ^ 119 

incursions 207 

at Fort Cnmbcrlaud 220.224 

massacres by 198-201 

wardance 120, 126 

warriors and women 123, 124 

" Will" 21, 22 

" Killbuck" 21 1,212 

Scarooyadd^ 115, 125, 149, 161 

Innes, Colonel James 82, 87, 89,135, 138, 179, 197, 202. 209 

Jack, Captain 109, 133. 134 

Jumonville 47, 54, 67, 69, 70. 74 

La Choisie 176 

Letters from Fort Cumberland, reporting Braddock's defeat 183 

Little Meadows 53 

Livingstone, Major Jaraes, in command of Fort Cumberland 208 

surprise;! the Indiana 210 

degrades Killbuck , 211-212 

. (succeeded by Colonel Stephen 217 

Ijou<lon, Lord, letter to Dinwiddie 220 

MacKaye, Cnptain 73, 79, 81 

Marquette, Father 35 

Maryland Assembly 196, 196 

Maryland supplies men and money s 232 

Markft House 276,350 

McLaughlin, Captain William'!*, company in war of 1812 296, 297 

McLaughlin, Thomas, executed 370 

McSwine, Hugh's, flight for life 223 

Militia 301,309,383 

Monongahela, battle ot 159-162 

night before the battle 154, 155 

on the battle field '. 157 

the retreat 163 

the killed and wounded 1(>4-166 

the victorious French .175 

Miller, Frederick, murders two citizens 381-383 

Munford, Robert, letter to Colonel Bland 235, 236 

Nemacolin * 29 

Newspaper Reports of affairs at Fort Cumberland 193, 194 

Newspapers 301, 306, 316, 321, 329, 357, 375, 377, 386. 402, 408, 423, 429 

Ohio Company, The 26-33 

Old houses 280-284, 289-291, 299, 300 

Ord, General E. O. C 282 

Orroe, Lieutenant, aid-de camp 104 

letter to Washington 107 

wounded 161, 164 

devotion to Braddock 16'i 

letter to Governor Sharpe 180-182 

Political Campaifrns 347, 356 

Postoffice establisned at Cumberland 275 

Potomac River 23, 312, 313 

Postinrt"*Trrv. JiHt of. 435 

Postoffice, established in Cnmberland 275 

Powder House blown up 358, 359 

Property owners in 1813 293-296 

Public schools 279, 314, 366 

Quantrell, Jesse D. E 362-^64 

Remarkable accident 308 

River transportation 311-313, 316, 333 

Road, the first to the West 61 

Road, Braddock's 136-154 

INDEX. 11 

Road^Tbe Nutiooal 332*334,336, 339, 341, 344, 365 

Roads, a compariaon «f. 242 

Road between Porta Cuuiberland and Frederick 252,253 

Road, second to the Ohio 237 

Rocbeblave, de l76, 218 

Settlers, earlv of the town 262 

Westot Fort Cumberland 263 266 

Sbarpe, Governor, bis yisit to Will's Creek 83 

inspects the Potomac River 103 

address to the Legislature regarding Indian outrages 150-151 

visits Fort Cumberland to reassure the settlers 192 

returns to Annapolis 252 

again visits Fort Cumberland '. 244 

takes command of Fort Cumberland 248 

Shirley, UeneraPs letter to Governor Sharpe 205 

reception of Washingvon 204 

Spendelow, Lieutenant 136, 137 

SUge lines 309-311, 353, 354, 369 

Stanwix Colonel marches to Fort Cumberland 227 

letter to Governor Sharpe 228 

Stephens, Captain promoted 201 

in command of Fort Cumberland 202 

letter to Governor of Fennitvlvania 217 

march to Raystown * 233 

his obituary of live heroes a 267 

Stewart, Hon. Andrew 188,.189, 191 

St. Clair, Sir John, Deputv Quartermaster General 95 

arrives at Fort Cumberland 103 

ten ifiic threats of. 108 

purchases of transportation 106 

Spottswood, Captain and party massacred 228 

Spy executed at Fort Cumberland 219 

Swann, Robert 373, 374 

Swearingen, George 317-319 

Taoacharison, the Hall-Kinff 43,49 

Trent, Captain's mission to Indians 39 

neglect of duty 49 

Van Braam, Jacob 41, 79 

Vandreville, M. letter regarding Fort Cumberland 218 

Virginia troops withdrawn from Fort Cumberland 224 

Waffgooer, Cfxptain 161 

Walnut Bottom 258 

War of 1812 295-299 

Ward, Ensign 47,49 

WaabiDgtoo's lirst visit lo Wiirs Creek 41-48 

journal 55-72 

lit Logstown 43 

Lieutenant Colonel, at WiU's Creek 48 

letter to Governor Sbarpe 59 

" " the flalf-King 59 

at Fort Necessity 56-82 

resignation 102 

aiddeeamp 107, 117 

letter to his brother 121 

, *' " William Fairfax 132 

sicken the march v"149 

at the battle of the Monongabela 154, 160, 167, 168 

letter to Governor Inoes 178 

letter to his brother 180 

retarn to Mount Vernon 197 

appointed Commander-in-Chief 201 

letter to Speaker Robinson 214 

** " Dinwiddie ...215-217, 219-222 

wants Fort Cumberland abandoned 218 

plan of defense 217 

12 INDEX. 

Washington, letter to Dinwiddle 225 

march to Fort Camberiaod 233 

letters to Colonel Boaquet 233, 236, 237, 238, 240,244 

men in Indian dress 234 

expenses of his election...., 236 

letter to Speaker Robinson 245 

«' " Mrs. Fairfax 246 

retarn to Mount Vernon 253 

Washinfftontown 259 

Whisky Insurrection 273-275 

Will's Creek: origin of name 21 

. a trading post 29, 30 

affiiirs at...M 34-88 


For years past I have spent much time in gathering 
scraps of history regarding Fort Cumberland and its 
surroundings, having no other object than the grati- 
fication of my curiosity as to the early events of 
the place of my birth and that of my ancestors. 
Becoming constantly more interested in the work, 
and finding so much of national as well as local 
importance clustered about the old Fort, I finally 
determined to embody in as comprehensive a form 
as possible, for future preservation, all that could 
be learned of the place, from the time its primeval 
forests were first disturbed by the crack of the 
pioneer's rifle up to the close of the centennial 
year of our nation. The task thus self-imposed was 
found to be no easy one, but was persevered in from 
the conviction that it was a duty not to be neglected. 
The paucity of reliable history, in every section of 
Maryland, made this duty more apparent. The 
difficulties to be overcome, and the obstacles to be 
surmounted, were greater than I had anticipated, 
since the events of many years were involved in 
almost total obscurity, or left to the chances of 
tradition, which is at best uncertain. 

Some of the ideas originally entertained as to the 
scope of this work have been, of necessity, abandoned. 


Of these, I may mention the purpose of recording the 
family history of the first, or earlier, settlers of the 
town. Satisfactory data as to but few of these 
families can now be obtained, despite most strenuous 
efforts made in that direction. Consequently this 
purpose could not be carried out without laying the 
author open to the charge of invidious discrimination. 

To make this history perfect, the careful perusal 
of old manuscripts and newspapers, volumes of history, 
local and general, records of Legislative, court and 
council proceedings, miscellaneous collections of notes 
and memoranda, as well as private papers, became 
necessary; and in many instances these were so 
imperfect as to seem to baffle the most dilligent 
research. The labor of interviewing the oldest 
citizens was conscientiously performed, and many 
missing links thus obtained. Their recollections 
form part of the chain connecting the earlier and 
latter existence of Cumberland, and binding the story 
of the settlement to the town's birth. 

The impossibility of making such a work perfect, 
in every detail, must be apparent to every one ; and 
is certainly fully comprehended by the author. 1 
have, however, striven in good faith, and without 
stint of labor, to lift the veil which has so long 
shrouded the past of our city, and to give a faithful 
and accurate record of the march of events, from the 
traditionary period ante-dating the establishment of 
the "King's Fort," through the years of bloodshed 
when the banner of England was borne over these 
hills in the face of a savage foe, up to the present day 
and generation. While asking for its imperfections 


the most lenient judgment, I trust the reader may 
find as much pleasure in the perusal of this volume, 
as the writer has found in its preparation. 

I am under obligations, for valuable assistance, to 
Mr. A. R. Spofford, the learned and indefatigable 
Librarian of the Congressional Library; to Colonel 
Brantz Mayer, of Baltimore; Hon. A. R. Boteler, 
of Virginia; Mr. Lyman C. Draper, of the Wisconsin 
Historical Library ; Mr. James Anglim, publisher, of 
Washington; Dr Joseph Toner, of Washington ; Mr. 
E. D. Butler, of the Department of Maps, British 
Museum, London; Mr. R. A. Brock, Librarian of the 
Virginia Historical. Library ; Mr. James Veech, of 
Pittsburgh ; Mr. A. C. Nutt, of Uniontown, Pa.; Mr. 
D. Shriver Stewart, of Washington City ; Mr. Benson 
J. Lossing, the eminent historian ; Mr. John B. 
Hurley, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury ; Mr. H. 
D. Black, of New York; the Librarian of the Maryland 
Historical Society; Messrs. Theodore Luman, Clerk 
of the Court ; T. Leiper Patterson, Civil Engineer ; 
L B. Millner and L. T. Dickinson, of Cumberland ; 
the last two named for some of the sketches given. 

For many of the facts recorded I have had recourse 
to the pages of Spark's Writings of Washington, 
Irvings Life of Washington, Sargent's Braddock, 
the Colonial Records, Pennsylvania Archives, The 
Olden Time, the Pennsylvania Gazette, the Universal 
Magazine, Sharpe's MS. correspondence. The Monon- 
gahela of Old, KerchevaFs History of the Valley, 
Dodriddge's Notes, and others. 





For nearly two hundred and fifty years after the 
discovery of the New World had been made known 
to the nations of the Eastern Hemisphere, by the 
great Genoese navigator, the country lying along the 
base of the AUeghanies was a trackless wilderness. 
The march of civilization made but little advance 
in its progress from the sesrshore to the mountain 
fastnesses, and the new-comers seemed content to 
settle down upon the coast, whence they could look 
out upon the expanse of ocean which separated 
them from the ideas and theories they had left 
forever when they spread their sails to the heaven- 
invoked breezes which were to waft them to a 
strange but prolific world. For nearly two centuries 
and a half had the gorgeous hues of autumn tinted 
these boundless forests, ere the white man came to 
behold their beauties. These mountains and valleys 
were peopled by the Red Man, whose history was 
dimly preserved in unsubstantial legend, and who 
was destined to yield his possessions to the sure 

encroachments of Anglo-Saxon intelligence. 


The first attempt to penetrate this virgin wilder- 
ness, with an idea looking to conquest and possession, 
was made by Governor Spottswood in 1714, when 
he, with a following of the youthful chivalry of 
Virginia, sought to realize the golden visions he had 
long delighted in, regarding the paradise beyond the 
mountains. His zeal and enthusiasm led him to the 
discovery of the beautiful Valley of Virginia, as well 
as the realization of the fact that the geography of 
the region was on a grander scale than he had 
anticipated. The great Apalachian range still 
separated him from the head-waters of the Ohio, 
which he had expected to find at the western base 
of the Blue Ridge, but the daring enterprise of 
himself and his followers opened a charming valley 
to the hundreds of immigrants who were then 
arriving upon our shores. 

Of the region bordering on the upper Potomac, 
however, there is no history, either written or oral, 
to enlighten us as to the events of an epoch earlier 
than about 1728. At that date there was located 
in the Province of Maryland, at the junction of 
two streams known as the Cohongaronta and the 
Caiuctucuc, an Indian town, which also bore the 
latter name. The town of Caiuctucuc was built on 
the ground lying between these streams, from their 
confluence to a point some distance up the river 
Cohongaronta, the greater portion of the town being 
located upon the site of the west side of the present 
city of Cumberland. Other towns were dotted along 
the river 8 bank, for a distance of more than forty 
miles, the most easterly being the present site of 


Oldtown, Allegany county, Maryland. A century 
ago the settlement at that point was called 
'^Shawanese Oldtown, " but of late years the 
explanatory prefix has been entirely dropped, and 
the place is now known simply as Oldtown. Other 
villages were scattered about between the Virginia 
and Pennsylvania lines, two of which were not far 
distant from Caiuctucuc. One of these was located 
in the narrow valley, three miles westward, on the 
banks of Braddock's Run, on what is now known as 
the Eckles' place, and within a few yards of the line 
of the present National Road, just where it is crossed 
by the Eckhart Railroad. Within the memory of 
men now living there were many relics of this village 
in existence. The ground was heavily timbered 
throughout that valley, and a clearing of several 
acres had been made there^ in which were still to be 
seen the remnants of the small huts used by the 
natives. Just across the ridge, in Cash Valley, was 
another village of the same character; and still 
another, of greater dimensions, was situated near the 
spot on which Cresaptown stands, probably a little 
nearer the river. 

The inhabitants of this region were a portion of 
the Shawanese tribe, a sub-division of the Algonquin 
group, one of the most warlike combinations of that 
period. The warriors engaged in hunting and 
fishing, and game was sufficiently abundant both in 
wood and water to supply them with all that was 
needed of food and furs. While the men engaged 
in the pursuits of the chase, or went upon the war 
path, their families were left at home to till the soil, 


the rich bottom lands yielding abundant orops of 
maize and grass. At what time the village of 
Caiuctacuc was deserted is left to conjecture, as 
the earliest map of this region, which was made 
in 1751, and is now to be seen in the Congressional 
Library, at Washington, simply marks the territory 
designated as ^^ Abandoned Shawanese Lands/* and 
at that time roving bands of Indians of other tribes, 
with scattered lodges, were found here by the hardy 
pioneers, whose venturesome spirits led them so far 
beyond the limits of civilization; while the Shaw- 
anese thickly peopled the banks of the Ohio, and the 
Monongahela, west of the AUeghanies. 

The town of Caiuctucuc was of respectable dimen- 
sions, and consisted principally of lodges built in a 
primitive manner. Two forked posts were driven 
firmly into the ground, and on these was laid a 
ridge pole. Small saplings, cut to a length of about 
eight feet, were laid against this pole, one end resting 
on the ground, forming a shelter similar to the /^ 
shaped tents so long in use in our armies. This was 
covered with bark and skins, and made tight enough 
to form a satisfactory protection against both rain and 
snow. On the floor were spread furs, which were 
made to do duty both as seats and beds. The 
village had its Sachems and chief men, and was 
subject to the general form of government which 
controlled all branches of the Shawanese family, and 
which was well suited to their condition. A favorite 
article of diet amongst these Indians was a cake made 
of maize beaten as fine as the means at command 
would permit. This was mixed with water, and 

1728.] INDIAN "WILL," 21 

baked upon a flat stone which had been previously 
heated in the fire. The trappers followed the Indians' 
example in the baking of "Shawnee, cakes," as they 
called them, and the lapse of a few years was 
sufficient to corrupt the term into that of "Johnny 
Cake," so familiar throughout the South, and in 
common use at this day.'^ 

The daring trappers who first came to make Mends 
of the Red Man evidently had more regard for the 
peltries, which were exchangeable for coin, than for 
the beauty of difficult Indian names, by which 
mountains and streams were designated; and with 
the merciless hardihood of their natures they ruth- 
lessly extinguished the aboriginal titles, and cut out 
for after generations meaningless names, which had 
nothing to commend them beyond their ease of 
pronunciation. Thus, we have to-day no "Caiuctu- 
cuc," but simply " Will's Creek. " Caiuctucuc Creek, 
and the great mountain which forms the northern 
boundary of the city of Cumberland, were baptised 
by the earliest settlers here, as "Will's Creek," 
and "Will's Mountain." "Will" was a full blooded 
Indian, who with his family and a few followers, 
remained in the land of their fathers, and despite 
the approach of the white men did not remove 
their wigwams, but received their strange visitors 
with a kindly greeting, and lived upon terms of 
intimate friendship with them. His wigwam was 
built in a little cove lying between the west side of 
Will's Mountain and Will's Knob, about three miles 
from the mouth of the creek, and in the vicinity of 

*1t has been generally olaimed that "Johnny Cake" was a corruption of 
"Jonraey Cake." 


the rocky formation known as the "Devirs Ladder." 
He had for a neighbor another Indian, known as Eve. 
Indian Will exercised a sort of proprietary right over 
all the land in the vicinity of his lodge, and one of 
the earliest tracts surveyed, by Colonel Thomas 
Cresap, at the instance of Governor Bladen, was 
designated "Will's Town," and was located along the 
creek from the mouth of Jenning's Run, containing 
915 acres. The claims of Will to the ownership of 
property were respected to a certain extent; that is 
to say, when grants were obtained the settlers did not 
fail to give him some trifle as a pretended compensa- 
tion. In referring to this place it became customary 
with the settlers and trappers to use Will's name as 
the easiest method of designating it, and in a little 
while, very naturally, they came to speak of "Will's 
Creek." Thus the original Indian name for the 
stream was lost; and the mountain finally obtained 
its name from the creek. 

The date of Will's death is not definitely known, but 
that event is supposed to have occurred about the close 
of the revolutionary war, or shortly thereafter. His 
remains were buried on the very top of Will's Knob, 
and the place of his sepulture is still pointed out to 
those who are curious enough to visit it. He left 
several children, who intermarried with white settlers, 
apd their descendants lived near the Pennsylvania 
State line, on Will's creek, as late as 1810, but the 
last of them has now disappeared. 

In the map referred to above, and which was drawn 
in 1751, Will's Creek is marked as "Caiuctucuc Creek,'* 
and at that date was known by no other name 

1743.] THE POTOMAC. 23 

amongst the Indians. It was a stream of no great 
pretensions during the sunmier months, but frequently 
overflowed its banks after heavy freshets, and spread 
over much of the bottom land near its mouth. Its 
shores were thickly fringed with trees and shrubbery, 
and its waters flowed lazily through the cooling 
shadows of the "Narrows," a grand rent in the 
mountain, a mile to the north of the junction of the 
creek with the river. 

The Potomac* River obtained its name doubtless 
from the Potomac tribe of Indians. At the time of 
the grant of Maryland to Lord Baltimore, in 1632, it 
was specified as the boundary line between Virginia 
and Maryland, and referred to as "Quiriough, or 
Potomac." This title was applied to the river only 
as far up as the mouth of the Shenandoah. From 
the point of its confluence with that stream up to 
the source of the North Branch it was called 
Cohongaronta, or Upper Potomac, while the South 
Branch bore the name of the Wappacomo or Wappa- 
tomaka. The Cohongaronta was said to have been 
surveyed from the mouth of the Shenandoah to the 
head springs, in 1736, by Mr. Benjamin Winslow, 
but it is quite probable that Mr, Winslow grew 
weary of his task, for some reason, and abandoned 
it prematurely, as the maps of fifteen years later are 
far from being correct. Inasmuch as the Potomac 
was declared the boundary line between Virginia and 
Maryland there was much doubt expressed on the 
part of the proprietary of Maryland as to the justice 
of taking the North Branch as the main stream. 

*The word Potomac signifies the *'Place of the burning pine/' ''resembling 
a eoancil fire." 


Virginia, however, claimed through her Commissioner, 
Hon. Charles James Faulkner, in 1832, that while 
the South Branch was the longer, the North 
Branch was the wider and deeper, and had the 
greater volume of water; in addition to which 
facts the valley of the South Branch has not the 
general direction of the Potomac, while that of the 
North Branch has. The discussion of this matter 
has been frequent and of long duration, the Legisla- 
tures having on several occasions appointed "Boundary 
Commissioners" with a view to its settlement. There 
has been no result further than to confirm the original 
boundary, and the matter is now, doubtless finally 

The lands in the vicinity of Cumberland are rich 
in Indian relics, and an interesting collection of stone 
pipes tomahawks, rings, tablets, quoits, &c., has been 
made by Mr. F. M. OfFutt. These were taken from 
graves which have been opened by various persons. 
Along the banks of the Potomac the curious may still 
find these graves, and the writer has himself assisted 
in the exploration of a number of them. The custom 
of the Indians was to lay their dead upon the surface 
of the earth, and to deposit beside them their bows, 
arrows, tomahawks, and food in jars or crocks of 
pottery, made of clay mixed with finely crushed flint, 
and burned. The friends then deposited such articles 
as they chose, and the bodies were afterwards covered 
with stones, which were laid on to a height of about 
two feet. Usually the stones used were boulders from 
the bed of the river. It is probable that the graves 
thus constructed were those of parties who were on 


the war path, or traveling from one place to another, 
as usually not more than two or three graves are 
found together. This is rendered more probable 
from the fact that few such graves are found in the 
immediate vicinity of their towns. At Brady's 
Mills, a number of skeletons were unearthed some 
years ago, by workmen who were excavating the 
ground for the foundations of a distillery built there 
by Mr. Samuel Brady. These were, beyond doubt, 
the remains of Indians, and were buried in a sitting 
posture, some depth below the surface. This was 
doubtless the burial ground of the Indian village 
which lay between that place and Cresaptown, On 
the farm of Mr. Christopher Kelley, fourteen miles 
below Cumberland, one of these stone piles was 
opened recently, and a beautiful serpentine pipe, of 
green tinted stone, besides rings, &c., taken therefrom. 
In that neighborhood, and on the opposite side of the 
river, are several other graves of a similar character, 
while in the valley of the South Branch they have 
been discovered in great numbers, and hundreds of 
relics taken from them have found their way to the 
Smithsonian Institute. The articles thus recovered 
were all of stone, or bone, the latter being used 
freely as ornaments. The tomahawk was of 
sharpened stone, having a place hollowed out on both 
sides near the head, in which the handle was 
fastened by strong vines, or withes. The use of 
metals was evidently unknown to those people. 


Inasmuch as the Ohio Company took a most active 
part in the early settlement of this immediate section 
of country, and as it has been so frequently alluded 
to in the past, and must necessarily be, in the future, 
it is deemed expedient to embody here a brief history 
of the Company, and its transactions. Indeed, this 
work would be incomplete and unsatisfactory, so far 
as the history of Cumberland is concerned, were not 
the important operations of the Ohio Company 

In 1748, a number of energetic Pennsylvanians had 
succeeded in establishing an extensive trade with the 
Indians, throughout the valleys along the Alleghany 
and headwaters of the Ohio. These traders employed 
in their service a class of hardy, daring backwoods- 
men, whom they sent into the Indian villages, with 
supplies of blankets, rum, trinkets, guns, ammunition, 
paints, &c., which they bartered to the Bed Men for 
fiirs. The traffic became so profitable that in a little 
while it attracted the attention of others, who* were 
ready to embark in an enterprise promising such 
rich returns. Col. Thomas Cresap, who had built for 

1749.] THE OHIO COMPANY. 27 

himself a cabin at Oldtown, and who will be more 
particularly referred to hereafter, joined Lawrence 
and Augustine Washington in the project of forming 
a company for engaging in this business, and 
they soon united with themselves Thomas Lee, 
one of His Majesty's Council in Virginia, and 
twelve other persons in Virginia and Maryland, 
besides John Hanbury, a London merchant of wealth 
and influence. Afterwards several other English 
gentlemen joined the company, and in 1749 the 
British government gave them a charter, under the 
name of "The Ohio Company," and a grant of five 
hundred thousand acres of land, to be located between 
the Monongahela and Kanawha Rivers, west of the 
Alleghanies. The company originally issued but 
twenty shares of stock, and some of this changed 
hands in a short while. Governor Dinwiddie and 
George Mason becoming purchasers. Mr. Lee was 
chosen as the principal manager of the company's 
affairs, but he died a few months later, and Lawrence 
Washington became his successor. One of the re- 
quirements of the charter was, that the company 
should select a large proportion of its lands at once, 
8ome two hundred thousand acres, settle upon them 
one hundred families within seven years, erect a 
fort and maintain a garrison against the Indians. 
When these terms were complied with the land was 
to be held ten years free of quit-rent. They accord- 
ingly set about exploring the country without delay, 
and employed in the work Christopher Gist, an 
energetic, fearless pioneer, and a man of considerable 
intelligence, whose home had been on the borders of 


North Carolina. Gist* was instructed to examine 
the quality of lands, keep a journal, draw plans of 
the country, and to report in full. He came to Will's 
Creek in October, 1749, where he made all the prepar 
rations necessary for his trip, and on the Slst day of 
the same month he started on his explorations, follow- 
ing an Indian trail, which was the only route through 
the wilderness. He was gone some months, and made 
his way almost to the falls of the Ohio, where 
Louisville now stands, besides pretty thoroughly 
exploring the ground along the Miama River. He 
succeeded in securing the friendship of the Miamas 
and other tribes, and although Monsieur Celeron 
de Bienville had deposited leaden plates, bearing 
inscriptions which proclaimed that all the lands on 
the Ohio and its tributaries were the property of the 
king of France; and although Captain Joncaire, with 
his eloquence and his wit, used every method that 
art could invent to induce the Indians to take up 
arms against the English, yet Gist, with the assistance 
of George Croghan, a popular trader, succeeded in 

*Chrlskoph«r Gist waa of Kngllah d«aoent. HIa Krandfather wtm Chriatophar Olat, who dted in 
Aaltlmore oounty In IWl. Hla Rrandmotber waa Edith Cromwell, who died in 1694. They bad 
one child, Richard, who waa aarTeyor of the Weatern Shore, and waa one of the oommieaionera, 
in ITSB. for l*yins off the town of Baltimore, and preaidlr.g magistrate in 1788. In 17115 be 
married Zipporah Murray, and Chriatopher waa one of three soum. He married Sarah Howard; 
hla brother, Nathaniel, married Mary Howard; and Thomaa, the third brother, married Violetta 
Howard, annta of Oen. John Eagor Howard. Prom either Hathaniel or Tnomaa deaeended 
General Gist, who waa killed at the battle of Franklin, Tenn.. near the cloae of the late otrll 
war. Christopher had three aona, Nathaniel, Bichard. and Thoman, and one daughter, Nancy, 
none of whom, except Nathaniel, were married. Becaaiie of his knowledge of toe country <» 
the Ohio, and hia akiU in dealing with the Indiana. Ctiristopher Gist waa chosen to aooompanT 
WasElngton on hia miaaion in I7A8. and it waa from his journal that Sparks and Irving derived 
their account of that expedition. With hia sons Nathaniel and Thomas, he waa with Braddoek 
on the fatal Held of Monongahela, and for his services received a grant of 12.V00 acres of land 
from the King of England. Richard was killed in the battle of King'a Mountain. Thomaa 
lived on the plantation, and was a man of note then, pr«Hiding in the courta till his death about 
178S. Nancy lived with him until hia death, when she joined ner brother, Nathaniel, and re- 
moved with him to the grant in Kentucky, about the beginning of this century. 

Nathaniel Gist, the grandfather of Hon. Montgomery Blair, ol Maryland, married Judith 
Oarey Bell, of Buckinsham county, Va., a grand-niece of Archibald Carey, the mover of the 
Bill of Rights, in the House of Burgesses. Matbaniel waa a Colonel in the Virginia line during 
the levolutionarv war, and died early in the present century at an old age. He left two aona, 
Henry Carer and Thomaa Cecil. His eldest daughter, Sarah Howard, married the Hon. Xesee 
Bledsoe, a u. B. Senator fh>m Kentucky, and a distinguished jurist; hia grandson, B. Grata 
Brown waa the Democratic candidate for Vice Prealdent In 1872. The aeoond daughter of Col. 
Olat, Anne (Nancy) married OoL Nathaniel Hart, a brother of Mra. Henry Clay. The third 
daughter married Dr. Boawell, of Lexington ,Ky. The fourth daughter married Francia P. Blair, 
andthey were the parenta of Hon. Montgomery Blair, and Pranda P. Blalr, Jr. The fifth 
daogbtax married Benjamin Grata, of Lexington, Ky. 


having the Indians declare their friendship for the 
English, afterwards, at the council held at Logstown, 
in 1762. 

In 1750 the company built a small storehouse at 
Will's Creek, and ordered goods to the value of 
£4,000 from London. Later on, in 1751, Colonel 
Thomas Cresap, who still lived at Oldtown, undertook 
to lay out the course of a good road from Will's Creek 
to the mouth of the Monongahela, now Pittsburgh. 
He employed, as his assistant, a friendly Indian 
named Nemacolin, and they together marked out the 
road to be followed by the company. 

In June of 1752, Mr. Gist, as agent of the Ohio 
Company, with Colonel Fry, and two other gentlemen, 
commissioners from Virginia, went to Logstown,* 
some seventeen miles below the Forks,f and made a 
treaty with the Indians at that point. The Indians 
agreed not to molest any settlements on the south 
east side of the Ohio River, but at the same time they 
did not concede that the English had a right to any 
lands west of the Alleghany Mountains. After the 
treaty at Logstown, Gist was appointed surveyor for 
the company, and was told to lay off a town at 
Shurtee's Creek, a little below Pittsburgh, on the east 
side of the Ohio, and the sum of £400 was assessed 
to pay for the construction of a fort. He, with 
several other families, then settled in the valley of 
the Monongahela, not far from the Creek above 

In this year, the Company concluded to make 

•LoffBtoirn wm inhabited by 8h»waii«Be mad X>«lftw»TW until 1780, at wbloh tfaa* thtor abaa- 


Will's Creek a permanent trading post, and with that 
object in view they erected another storehouse and 
magazine, which became known throughout the 
country as the "New Storehouse." The first store- 
house built by this company was located on the west 
side of Will's Creek, north of the river, but the New 
Storehouse was located on the Virginia side of the 
river, at the foot of the bluff on which now stands 
the beautiful residence of Captain Roger Perry, very 
near the point occupied by the abutment of the 
Potomac bridge. It was constructed of logs, and was 
of sufficient dimensions not only to contain the mer- 
chandise of the company, but to afford a home for its 
agents, as well as a place of retreat and defense, in 
case of a hostile demonstration on the part of 
unfriendly Indians, which event was liable to occur 
at any hour. 

This point was regarded as a very favorable one 
for the future operations of the company, since Indians 
were numerous, and the furs obtained here were of 
excellent quality, great variety, and satisfactorily 
abundant. A heavy consignment of goods was 
received, and as the temper of the Indians did not 
warrant a venture further into the wilderness 
the merchandise was all disposed of at Will's Creek, 
the Indians and trappers being eager buyers. After 
the completion of the New Storehouse, a number of 
trappers were engaged, who could be relied upon to 
defend the post in case of savage hostility, as well as 
to hunt and trap for their employers. The Company 
seems to have regarded Will's Creek as a part of their 
grant, and they evidently expected it to become an 


important point as it should be developed by immi- 
gration and civilization. The ground was surveyed 
on both sides of Will's Creek, and laid off into a 
town, with streets, lanes, &c., the squares being sub- 
divided into lots. The name of Charlottesburg* was 
given it, in honor of Princess Charlotte Sophia, 
afterwards wife of King George III. 

The charter of the Ohio Company gave the 
members thereof important advantages in trading 
with the Indians, and as this was a grant which 
must drive out of the market many other traders, the 
latter, of course, felt greatly aggrieved thereby, and 
undertook to get rid of this monopoly by inciting the 
Indians to hostility against it, and fomenting troubles 
of such a character as to make it unsafe for the 
Company to send goods further west than the post at 
Will's Creek. 

The lands granted the Ohio Company were claimed 
both by the British and French governments. The 
former assumed to have obtained its title from the 
Iroquois, through a treaty made at Lancaster, in 
1744, when the British had paid these Indians the 
sum of £400, in consideration of which the crown 
was to receive and hold all the land west of the 
Alleghanies to the Mississippi River. Two things 
tended to make this transfer rather a doubtful 
transaction : first, the Indians were made drunk with 
rum before the bargain was entered into; and 
secondly, they did not rightfully own a foot of the 

*A map of this Town waa Mnongti the pftpan of th% Ohio Compuij, whioh wera In the poo- 
MMton of 0«Det-ml CharlM Fenton Mercer, who died »t Howanl, near Alexandria, in I8S7. 
Rrerj effort was made to trace the destiny of these papent, but it is altogether probable that tbej 
have been deetroyed, es the papers of General Meroer were consigned to the care of a dbtant 
leiaiiTe at the time of bb death, and daring the war the house or this gentleman was occupied 
by troops. The papers were contained in chests, and when the troopeiook their departure all 
too doeomeats baa dkappeaied, since which time no trace of them has been fooad. 


territory thus bartered. The tribes who were in 
possession of the land treated the affair with 
contempt, and asserted their rights with evident 
determination. The French claimed all this territory 
by right of discovery, alleging that, since Father 
Marquette had made a voyage from the Lakes to the 
mouth of the Mississippi, the title to all that region, 
under the customs governing nations, was rightfully 
vested in his sovereign. The operations of the agents 
of the Ohio Company and of the English rulers aroused 
the jealousy of the French, and they forthwith 
undertook to establish their authority in the Ohio 
valley. The country was populated entirely by 
Indians, not a solitary settlement of whites having 
been established. The Red Men found themselves 
placed between two fires; and -as the struggle thus 
begun between the two nations, which were contending 
for the supremacy over the rich valleys and plains, 
progressed, each labored zealously to win the alliance 
of the natives, and thus strengthen itself for the 
great contest, which they foresaw must soon come 
to pass. 

The troubles between the French and English put 
a stop to the movements of the Ohio Company, and 
it seems to have done nothing further in the prose- 
cution of its enterprise, until 1760. At that date a 
statement of the Company's case was drawn up by 
Mr. John Mercer, Secretary to the Board, and an 
appeal was made to the King for such further orders 
and instructions to the government in Virginia as 
might enable the Company to carry its grant into 
execution. This appeal seems to have met with but 

1763.] THE OHIO COMPANY. 33 

little attention, and the matter remained in suspense 
for three years. The Board having by that time 
grown impatient over the delay, determined to send 
an agent to England to attend to its petition, and to 
endeavor to secure such action as would enable it to 
obtain the benefits of the grants made long before. 
Colonel George Mercer was chosen for this important 
duty, and went to London, where he remained for 
the space of six years, constantly urging the 
Company's case. But all his efforts proved fruitless, 
and it was eventually agreed to merge the Ohio 
Company into another organization, known as the 
^* Grand Company," formed under Walpole's grant. 
The latter Company partly resulted from a pamphlet 
published by Anselm Yates Baley, Esq., in London, 
in 1763, entitled "The Advantages of a Settlement 
upon the Ohio in North America." Thus ended 
^'The Ohio Company." 

will's creek. 


The apparently boundless territory lying west of 
the AUeghaqy Mountains was a prize well calculated 
to excite the interest of ambitious monarchs, and it 
is not surprising that the struggle between the British 
and French for its possession soon became of the 
most determined character. It was a grand park of 
natural beauties, where majestic forests were watered 
by countless streams, and rich plains lay in wait for 
the plough, ready to yield an abundant harvest in 
return for little labor. 

Both parties proceeded upon the ground that their 
claims were legitimate and perfect, and the rights of 
the Indians were wholly ignored, as being of no 
consequence whatever. England laid claim to these 
lands upon the strength of her treaties with the 
Indians, but to the most ordinary judgment it must 
be apparent that these treaties were of no merit 
whatever, so far as title was concerned, and the real 
owners utterly repudiated the British pi'etensions. 
The French cited still higher authority, and based 
their claims upon the fact of prior discovery, by 


Marquette, and Jolliet,* and upon the treaties of 
Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix-la-Chapelle. The treaties 
of the English had been made with the Six Nations, 
a confederacy which bordered on Lake Ontario, 
powerful in its numbers, and upon hostile terms with 
the French and all the tribes on the Canadian side of 
the Lakes, who were adherents of the French. The 
tribes of the Six Nations boasted that their ancestors 
had, in days long past, conquered the territory west of 
the mountains, even to the waters of the Mississippi. 
They persisted in this statement, in the face of the 
utter denial given it by the Indians who dwelt upon 
the lands, and entered into treaties with the English, 
whereby they formally transferred all this region to 
them, for an insignificant consideration. The English 
consulted their own interests in the matter, and 
chose to recognize the Six Nations as the parties 
who alone had the power to dispose of this property. 
The French declared that, not only was their title 
based upon the rights secured by the discoveries of 
Marquette, JoUiet, Lasalle, and other pioneers, but 
upon actual settlements made south of Lake Michigan, 
and on the banks of the Illinois River. They further 
declared that these settlements were made many 
years before the English had crossed the AUeghanies, 
and that their title was recognized by England in 
various treaties made with the European powers. 
This was rather a far-fetched fancy, doubtless, 

^Father James Marquette and Louis Jolliet, in a bark canoe, descended 
from the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Mississippi, in June, 1673. Father 
Marquette was a native ot Laon in Picardy ; he was a man of great sicill and 
learning;; as well as of extraordinary courage, and devoted to the spread of the 
Christian religion. Louis Jolliett was the son of a wheel- wrisnt, and was 
born in Quebec in 1645. He was thoroughly educated, talented and pious, 
and devoted to mathematics and geography. 


inasmuch as the passage of a Frenchman down the 
Mississippi, and the establishment of a few settlements 
on that and some adjacent streams, could scarcely be 
called, by any stretch of the imagination, a discovery 
of the immense territory which covered at least one 
fourth of the continent. Their claim might, with 
equal propriety, have been made to embrace the 
region west of the Mississippi to the Rocky Moun- 

The proprietary of the actual inhabitants, the 
Indians whose ancestors for ages had held these 
lands, was wholly ignored by the intruders from the 
Old World, and the natives questioned amongst 
themselves how it was that they should so suddenly, 
and without any act of their own, have all their 
estate put in jeopardy, and be brought to the verge 
of a homeless and landless condition. 

The Six Nations occupied a position on the borders 
between the French and English colonies, a geographi- 
cal location giving them great influence, the importance 
of which they were not slow to comprehend, and they 
lost no opportunity to make the most of the 
advantages they enjoyed. Shortly after the first 
settlement of French on the Lakes, a warfare of 
the most sanguinary character was waged between 
them and the Indians of these tribes, the result of 
which was that the Six Nations threw their interests 
into the scale with the English. The French 
endeavored by every means of persuasion and bribery 
to win the savages to their cause, and the English 
found it necessary to be constantly manifesting their 
friendship by the liberal distribution of such gifts as 


were most dear to the Itidian heart. The ambition 
of these tribes was hardly surpassed by that of the 
white powers struggling for territorial aggrandize- 
ment, and they had previously laid claim to much 
of the land embraced in the colonial grants of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. This had been a source 
of great annoyance to the Governors of these States, 
and, as the easiest method of getting rid of the matter, 
the Six Nations had been called to Lancaster, Pa., 
on the 30th of June, 1744, when a treaty was made, 
whereby the Indians relinquished all their claims to 
Maryland territory, in consideration of the sum of 
^300 paid them. That treaty read in part as follows : 
"Now, know ye, that for and in consideration of 
the sum of three hundred pounds, current money of 
Pennsylvania, paid and delivered to the above named 
Sachems or Chiefs, partly in goods and partly in gold 
money, by said commissioners,* they, the said 
Sachems or Chiefs, on behalf of the said Nations, do 
hereby renounce and disclaim to the right honorable 
the Lord Baltimore, lord proprietary of the said 
province of Maryland, his heirs and aasigns, all 
pretence of right or claim whatsoever, of the said 
Six Nations, of, in or to any lands that lie on 
Potomac, alias Cohongaronton, or Susquehanna 
Rivers, or in any other place between the great bay 
of Chesapeake and a line beginning at about two 
miles above the uppermost fork of Cohongaronton or 
Potomac on the North Branch of the said fork ; near 
which fork Captain Thomas Cresap has a hunting or 

*Theie oommissionen were Edmund JenningB, Philip Thomas, Robert 
King, and Thomas CoWille. 




trading cabin, and from thence by a* north course 
to the boundaries of the Province of Pennsylvania, 
and so with the bounds of the said Province of 
Pennsylvania to Susquehanna River; but in case suoh 
limits shall not include the present inhabitants or 
settlers, then so many line or lines, course or courses^ 
from the said two miles above the fork, to the 
outermost inhabitant or settlement, as shall include 
every settlement and inhabitant of Maryland, and 
from thence by a north line to the bounds of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, shall be deemed and 
construed the limits intended by these presents; 
anything hereinbefore contained, to the contrary, 
notwithstanding. And the said Sachems or Chiefs 
do hereby, on behalf of the said Six United Nations, 
declare their consent and agreement to be that every 
person or persons whatsoever, who now is, or shall 
be hereafter, settled or seated in any part of the said 
province, so as to be out of the limits aforesaid, shall 
nevertheless continue in their peaceable possessions 
free and undisturbed, and be esteemed as brethren 
by the Six Nations. In witness whereof, the said 
Sachems or Chiefs, for themselves, and on behalf of 
the people of the Six Nations aforesaid, have hereunto 
set their hands and seals, the thirtieth day of June, 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred 
and forty-four." 

The French Governor of Canada quickly perceived 
the importance of establishing such strongholds as 
would enable him to sustain the position assumed by 
his government in regard to American territory. He 
had already fortifications extending along the lakes. 

1763.] CAPTAIN Trent's mission. 39 

and the English soon received intelligence to the 
eflfect that he was preparing to erect fortifications 
and establish posts on the head waters of the Ohio 
River. In fact, he had determined to construct a 
complete chain of military works from Canada to 
Louisiana, reaching from Lake Ontario to the forks 
of the Monongahela and Youghiogheny, thence along 
the Ohio to its mouth, and from that point to 
Louisiana along the Mississippi. 

This aroused the English to action at once, and as 
their traders had been driven away from the Ohio 
by the French, and some of them taken off as 
prisoners, they conclued that no time was to be lost 
in checking the operations of their enemy. A mes- 
senger, Captain William Trent, was sent over the 
mountains by Governor Dinwiddle's order, in the 
guise of a trader, with presents of fire arms and 
ammunition for the Indians, his mission being to 
ascertain their temper and disposition, as well as to 
learn accurately the movements and intentions of 
the French, lie was directed to extend his visit to 
the important points along the Alleghany River, but, 
either from intimidation or deception, his mission was 
only partly accomplished, and he returned with little 
information of a satisfactory character. 

During Trent's absence Governor Dinwiddle had 
received orders from the British Ministry to build 
two forts near the Ohio River, in order to establish 
possession, and to serve notice upon the French to 
leave that section, as well as to cultivate the friend- 
ship of the Indians, and to intimidate those who 
might prove unfriendly. There had been, however, 



already too much delay, and the Governor of Canada 
had by that time established military posts throughout 
the disputed territory. For months he had been 
sending his troops across the lakes, to the headwaters 
of the Ohio, while others had ascended the Mississippi 
from Louisiana, and taken position near the falls of 
Ohio. They were well supplied with arms, ammu- 
nition and stores; roads had been opened, and 
communication established from the forks to the 

Accompanying the orders of the British Ministry 
to Governor Dinwiddle were thirty light cannon 
and eighty barrels of powder. To carry into eflfect 
the orders received, the Governor called upon Major 
George Washington, believing him to be particularly 
well qualified for the delicate duties to be discharged. 
Washington was as yet barely twenty-one years of 
age, yet he was known to be possessed of mature 
judgment, nice discrimination, undoubted ability, 
great endurance, as well as pretty accurate knowledge 
of Indian manners and customs. He had spent much 
time in the woods, was a good surveyor, and had the 
energy necessary to overcome any obstacles that 
might reasonably be expected to present themselves. 
Washington accepted the charge offered him. He 
was furnished with written instructions, the necessary 
credentials, and a passport bearing the great seal of 
the colony of Virginia. His orders were, to proceed 
at once to Logstown, there to see Tanacharisson, 
Scarooyadi, and other Indian Chiefs, and make known 
to them the object of his visit, and after learning 
the whereabouts of the French to request an escort 


of warriors to the headquarters of the French 
commandant, to whom he was to present his 
credentials, together with a letter from the Governor 
of Virginia, and demand an answer in the name of 
His Britanic Majesty. He was also to inform 
himself accurately as to the strength and position 
of the French, what reinforcements they expected 
from the Canadian borders, the number, character 
and location of their forts, the disposition of the 
Indians, and such other facts as might be of import- 
ance, including the object and intentions of the 

He left Williamsburg, on this perilous undertaking, 
on the 31st of October, 1753, the day after receiv- 
ing his instructions. On arriving at the town of 
Fredericksburg, he secured the services of Jacob 
Vanbraam, his old fencing-master, a Dutchman by 
birth, and John Davidson, an interpreter. He then 
repaired to Winchester, where he procured an outfit 
of tents, blankets, horses, and such other equipments 
as were necessary, after which he proceeded to 
Wills Creek. Here he found Christopher Gist, who 
had a cabin at this place, and who gave him a 
cordial welcome. Gist was an intrepid pioneer, 
versed in woodcraft, and familiar with the forests, 
which he had penetrated time and again, having 
previously rendered valuable services to the Ohio 
Company, as a guide. Washington induced Gist to 
accompany him, and secured, besides, four other 
frontiersmen, with which company he set out to 
cross the mountains. In Gist's Journal, published 

in the Massachusetts Historical Society's collections, 



we find the following entries regarding this matter: 
"Wednesday, 14th Nov., 1753.— Then Major 
George Washington came to my house at Will's 
Creek, and delivered me a letter from the Council 
in Virginia, requesting me to attend him up to the 
commandant of the French fort on the Ohio river. 

"Thursday, 15th. — We set out, and at night 
encamped at George's Creek, about eight miles, 
where a messenger came with letters from my son, 
who was just returned from his people at the 
Cherokees, and lay sick at the mouth of the Cono- 
gocheague. But as I found myself entered again on 
public business, and Major Washington and all the 
company unwilling I should return, I wrote and 
sent medicines to my son, and so continued my 
journey, and encamped at a big hill in the forks of 
the Youghiogany, about 18 miles." 

Several days later they encamped at Gist's new 
house, near the Big Yough, which he had built as 
the nucleus of another settlement. The following 
night they spent at Jacob's Cabins, twenty miles 
further on, and the following day reached John 
Frazier's, twelve miles distant, at the mouth of 
Turtle creek. Frazier had long been engaged in 
trading with the Indians, and spent a considerable 
portion of his time in repairing the guns of the 
trappers and savages. He had recently been located 
in the Indian village of Venango; but the French 
had compelled him to leave, and he returned lo his 
house on Turtle creek. The season was most 
unpropitious, the mountains being covered with 
snow, and the streams swollen to such an extent 


that they could not be forded, so that . the horses 
were forced to swim them. The roads were poor and 
difficult at best, but now were almost impcussable in 
numerous places, and the adventurers could take 
themselves and their baggage across the streams only 
by means of hastily constructed rafUi. After reaching 
Frazier's, Washington was furnished with a canoe, 
in which he placed all his baggage, and putting it 
in charge of two of his men, sent it down the 
Monongahela to its mouth. He went on by land, 
with the remainder of the party, and arrived there 
ahead of the canoe. Washington examined the 
ground very carefully, and declared it to be an 
admirable point for a fort, which opinion was justified 
by the action of the French officers shortly afterwards, 
when they built, on the identical spot. Fort Duquesne. 
On the 24th of November, Washington arrived at 
Logstown, where Tanacharison, the Half-King had 
his headquarters. The Half-King held a private 
conference with Washington on the 25th, and on the 
day following the Chiefs, including Shingi, the King 
of the Delawares, met in the council house, when 
Washington addressed them in a speech, explaining 
the objects of his mission, telling them what 
were the wishes of the Governor, and requesting an 
escort of young Indians to accompany him to the 
French commander's post. The speech concluded, 
he presented the letter he had brought and a belt of 
wampum, both of which were accepted by the Half- 
King, who said the English were the brothers of 
the Indians, that his people would return to the 
French the speech belts that had been left with them, 


and that the requisite escort would be furnished. As 
the young men were absent, Washington was 
oompelled, much against his will, to wait three days, 
at the end of which time he set out with four Indians 
and an additional trapper. The distance to the 
Frenchman's headquarters was only about one hun- 
dred miles, but the inclemency of the weather, and 
the condition of the roads, were such that seven days 
were consumed in the journey, and it was the 4th of 
December when the party arrived at Venango, where 
Captain Joncaire was in command. The headquai^ 
ters, however, was some distance further on, and 
through the worst kind of weather, Washington, 
after two days' delay, pushed on to that point, where 
he presented his letters to the Chevalier de St- 
Pierre, the commandant. He was a dignified, courtly 
gentleman, of mature age, a knight of the military 
order of St. Louis, and affable and kindly in his 
mailners. He had Washington and his attendants 
comfortably provided for, and promised to give his 
immediate attention to the letter brought him from 
the Governor of Virginia. This letter was a protest 
against the encroachments of the French upon what 
Governor Dinwiddle declared to be lands belonging 
to the English crown; it demanded to know by what 
right, and upon whose authority, French soldiers had 
been sent across the lakes, to establish military posts, 
and it concluded by insisting that they should with- 
draw to Canada without delay. The French 
commandant responded, by letter, that he did not 
make the treaties and could not discuss them; he was 
a soldier obeying orders, and that the protests made 


should be addressed to the Governor of Canada, 
Marquis Duquesne, under whose instructions he was 
then acting and should continue to act. He declined 
to retire from his position, and said he would endeavor 
to carry into effect such orders as he might receive 
hereafter from those whom he was serving. 

The preparation of this letter occupied some days, 
and during this time Washington made good use of his 
opportunities, in taking observations of the fort, and 
making a drawing of it, which was complete, showing 
its size, shape and strength, both in men and artillery. 
He had his men also take cognizance of everything 
about the place, count the canoes on hand and those 
being constructed. 

On the 25th of December, Washington and his party 
set out on their return home, from Venango, and 
after twelve days of exposure and hardships, conse- 
quent upon the severity of the weather, he reached 
Will's Creek, on the 6th of January, where he spent 
the night with Mr. Gist, and left the following day 
for Williamsburg, at which town he arrived on the 
IGth of January, and delivered to Governor Dinwiddle 
the letter of M. de St. Pierre. 

Washington's journal, and the letter he bore from 
the French commandant, were submitted to the 
council by the Governor, and after a careful considera- 
tion of the matter it was unanimously concluded that 
immediate steps should be taken to repel the invasion 
of the French, by force of arms. There could no 
longer be a doubt as to the intentions of the French, 
since they had emphatically declared their right to 
the territory in dispute, and their determination to 


retain possession of it, if possible. The council, 
therefore, endorsed the Governor s determination to 
send an armed force at once to the Ohio, and orders 
were issued directing that two companies, each one 
hundred strong, should be raised by voluntary 
enlistment ; in case the requisite number could not 
be secured in that way, resort was to be had to 
drafts from the militia. Major Washington was 
chosen to the chief command of these troops, and his 
journal was published in all the newspapers of the 
Colonies, with the purpose of arousing the people 
to an appreciation of the situation. 

The importance of securing the establishment of a 
military post on the Ohio, before the French would 
be able to begin operations in the spring, led the 
Governor to confer the command of one company 
upon Captain William Trent, who had quite a 
familiar acquaintance with the frontiers, and who it 
was supposed could readily enlist a large force of 
trappers and pioneers. Captain Trent enlisted about 
seventy men, and, as time was important, did not 
wait for more, but started with these for the Ohio. 
The sum of £10,000 had been appropriated by the 
Assembly of Virginia, for the purpose of erecting a 
fort or forts at the junction of the Monongahela and 
Alleghany Rivers, at which point the Ohio Company 
had already partly constructed a fortified trading 
house. Captain Trent's command was supplied with 
ten four-pounder field pieces, and eighty barrels of 
powder, all of which had been sent over from England. 
In addition. Governor Dinwiddle supplied such small 
arms and accoutrements as were necessary, together 

1754.] ENSIGN ward's surrender. 47 

with thirty tents, and flour, pork, beef and rum, to 
last six months. The uniform worn by these troops 
was of the most conspicuous character, consisting of 
a red coat, and breeches of the same color, with white 
cross belts. Trent arrived with his company, at 
Will's Creek, early in February, and after making 
such preparations as were necessary for the march 
through the wilderness, pushed on to .the Forks. On 
arriving there he set his men to work to prepare 
timbers and construct a fort, on the site now occupied 
by Pittsburgh. In March, he left Ensign Ward in 
command of his company, and returned to Will's 
Creek, at which point he seems to have had some 
business. On the 17th of April, during Captain 
Trent's absence, Monsieur de Contrecoeur, with a force 
of about eight hundred men, eighteen pieces of artil- 
lery, sixty batteaux and three hundred canoes, came 
down the river from Venango, and demanded the 
surrender of the fort. Ward was a young ofiicer, 
and had scarcely fifty men with him. Nothing was 
left for him but to yield to the greatly superior force 
in his. froni; and upon receiving permission to march 
out with his men and their tools, he gave up the 
fort to the French, who at once proceeded to 
strengthen it, and add new works, soon making it 
capable of resisting any force that was likely to be 
brought against it. The post was then garrisoned 
by nearly one thousand men, under such officers as 
Jumonville, de Villiers, and La Force, and was named 
Fort Duquesne. 

Meanwhile, the Governor of Virginia had concluded 
to increase the force destined for the Ohio to six 


hundred men^ and the command was tendered 
Washington, but by reason of his youth, he was 
doubtful of his own fitness for so great a responsi- 
bility, and therefore declined it. Colonel Joshua 
Fry, a gentleman of English birth, highly esteemed, 
and in every way capable, was then given the 
command, and Washington accepted the position of 
Lieutenant Colonel, becoming second in authority. 
The ranks were slowly increased, by the acquisition 
of a lot of shiftless fellows, who were destitute of 
everything except very scanty clothing, which was 
rather discouraging to the oflBcers. Dinwiddie, in 
order to encourage enlistments, issued a proclamor- 
tion, offering some two hundred thousand acres of 
land on the Ohio, to be called "garrison lands," 
which were to be divided among the men who 
should serve in the expedition. This offer led 
hundreds of young men from the Virginia farms to 
take up arms, with a view to securing homesteads 
for themselves. North Carolina took steps towards 
aiding Virginia in the contest against the French, 
but Maryland was inclined to do nothing at all, 

Washington left Alexandria for Will's Creek, on 
the 2d of April, with two companies of seventy-five 
men each. Colonel Fry was to follow with the 
remainder of the regiment, and the artillery. After 
being detained a whole week at Winchester, in 
impressing the horses and wagons necessary for the 
transportation of stores, Washington pursued his 
march, building the roads as he went. He arrived 
at Will's Creek on the 20th of April, where it had 
been arranged that Captain Trent should have a 

1754.] A BILL OF EXPENSES. 49 

supply of pack horses ready for the use of the 
command in crossing the mountains. Instead of 
finding the horses, however, he found Trent here, 
totally unprepared for him, and was utterly downcast 
by a rumor brought him to the eflFect that the entire 
command at the Forks had been captured. Trent's 
ineflBciency and incapacity had been demonstrated 
on a former occasion, and Washington was now 
thoroughly dissatisfied with him. The intelligence 
from the Ohio was partially confirmed by the 
arrival of Ensign Ward and his men at Will's 
Creek, on the 25th. Ward was accompanied by two 
Indian Chieftains, whom Tanacharisson, the Half- 
King, had sent as messengers to plight his faith to 
the English, and to ask them to come on to the Ohio. 

The following account was filed with Governor 
Dinwiddie, by Captain Trent, on account of expenses 
incurred in the expedition made under his command, 
showing the method of transporting ammunition, and 
the character of presents given the Indians : 
"The Government of Virginia to William Trent, Dr. 

" For Carriage of Fourteen Horses Loaded with 
Powder, Lead and Flints, from Col. Cresaps' to Ohio 
River, at 2 Pistoles a Load is 28 Pistoles, &c. — 

"To 12 Deer Skins— For 9 Doe Bear Skins— 
3500 Black and White Wampum— For Piece of 
match coat to wrap powder in — 

"1 Gun, 1 Pistol and Match Coat, gave to one of 
the Six Chiefs of the Six Nations, who came down 
f^om the upper Towns, — ^as he came upon Business 
he brought no arms with him, he said it was hard 
for him to go home without armes, as he should run a 


great Risque, as he was obliged to go through the 
French to warn their People from amongst them — 
One Case of neat Pistols ^gave to the Half-King and 
Monecatootha, and 2 fine Ruffled Shirts, and 2 plain 
shirts for themselves and Wives ' — These given as a 
particular Present, sent by the Governor to them — 
&c., &c. ****** * 

"N. B. — There is no carrying out Powder without 
Skin Wrappers, &c — there is no such thing as Carry- 
ing Powder, without damaging without. 

William Trent." 

Washington's situation became one of the most 
serious character, for a young officer. Will's Creek 
was on the very outskirts of civilization. The 
country beyond was an unbroken and almost pathless 
wilderness; it was separated by many miles of 
tortuous mountain roads from the settlements in the 
East; the French were vastly superior in numbers, 
and he was advised that their strength was daily 
increasing, while at least six hundred Chippewas and 
Ottawas were also about to reinforce the enemy. 
Colonel Fry had not yet arrived, and Washington 
keenly appreciated the heavy responsibility resting 
upon his shoulders. To add to his annoyance, 
Captain Trent's men, never having known the 
restraints of wholesome discipline, roved about the 
camp at Will's Creek, in utter disregard of orders, 
and set so bad an example for the other troops that 
Washington feared all would become demoralized, 
and subordination in the ranks of his own men be 
destroyed. After spending hours in deep thought in 
his own tent, over the situation, he concluded to call 


a council of war; and summoned his officers to meet 
him at once. He notified them that he had sent 
expresses to the Governors of Virginia, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, telling them of his condition, and 
asking that reinforcements be sent him at once. 
The resolution of the council of war was promptly 
taken, and preparations were instantly made to push 
on boldly and vigorously into the forests, and to build 
a road as they went. The project was, to proceed to 
the store house of the Ohio Company, at the mouth 
of Redstone Creek,* there to establish fortifications, 
and wait until the arrival of reinforcements. In 
compliance with this determination, orders were issued 
detailing sixty men and a number of subordinate 
officers, who were directed to proceed in advance 
and prepare the roads. The route taken from Will's 
Creek led immediately into a virgin forest, which 
presented innumerable obstacles. Great trees were 
cut away, rocks removed, and bridges built. This 
road was the same that had been blazed by Nemacolin 
at the time he and Colonel Cresap first selected a 
route over the mountains. It was afterwards 
followed by a part of Braddock's army, under the 
advice of Sir John St. Clair. The writer, in company 
with T. Leiper Patterson, Esq., an eminent engineer 
in Cumberland, walked over several miles of this 
road, starting at Cumberland, in the summer of 1877, 
and clearly traced it as far as the Six Mile House, 
on the National Road. The route pursued on leaving 
Will's Creek was along the valley in which Green 
street extended now lies, the same being the exact 

^Brownsville, Pa. 


course of the old National Pike. About a hundred 
yards East of Mr. Steele's house, and just where 
the Cresaptown Road now leads off southward, 
the road which Washington followed bore slightly 
to the North, and ran in almost a perfectly straight 
line to nearly the top of Will's Mountain, involving 
a very heavy grade, and from there descended 
to the level of the Old Pike at Sandy Gap. The 
ascent of the mountain is steep enough to explain 
the slow progress made with heavily laden teams and 
artillery, yet in many respects the road was admira- 
bly chosen ; it avoided the ravines so as to obviate 
the necessity of bridges or culverts, until the valley 
beyond was reached, and much of the distance on the 
higher part of the mountain was smooth and 
comparatively clear of rocks. At Sandy Gap it 
crossed to the valley in which the present National 
Road lies, and by an easy descent led to the base of 
the hills. Near the Five Mile House the old road 
can be traced, where it crosses from the left to the 
right side of the National Road, and runs along 
within a few yards of it, a little higher up, on the 
hill side, until within two hundred yards of the Six 
Mile House. The road is as plain to-day as it was a 
hundred years ago, notwithstanding trees of more 
than a foot in diameter are growing thickly in its 
bed. Having been used for sixty-five years, as the 
only road to the West, until 1818, when the National 
Pike was built, it became well worn. The banks of 
the road and the evidences of its having been much 
used are surprisingly plain. The descent from the 
highest point on the mountain is easy enough for 


safety, and from the point of passage through Sandy 
Gap was quite gentle. This was the first road built 
across the mountains, and must ever possess a peculiar 
historic interest. 

Washington had sent a message to Governor 
Dinwiddie, asking him. to forward at once a sufficient 
quantity of artillery and ammunition, while he 
prepared the road for the heavy wagons and guns, so 
that there might be no delay when they arrived. The 
magnitude of the work, however, was such that not 
more than three or four miles a day was accomplished, 
and even this required great exertion. He left 
Will's Creek on the 29th of April, with all of his 
troops, except a small guard, which was to await the 
arrival of Colonel Fry, and the next day overtook 
the advance, near George's Creek. His whole force 
then numbered about one hundred and fifty men. 
With these he arrived at Little Meadows, on the 
9 th of May, when a number of traders came in 
from the West, on their return to the settlements, 
having been warned oflf by the French. These 
traders informed Washington that the French were 
in great strength at the Forks, where they were 
building a fort, and that they were endeavoring by 
the free distribution of gifts to win the Indians to 
their standard. He recognized the infeasibility of 
assaulting Fort Duquesne with his little force, yet he 
was desirous of getting as near as possible to the 
French post without provoking an attack. Shortly 
after leaving Will's Creek his store of provisions, 
clothing, &c., had been discovered to be well nigh 
exhausted, and now his men were in a suffering 


condition. Notwithstanding this he pushed forward^ 
and with a determination almost unconquerable in 
its nature he overcame every obstacle, and on the 
23d of May took up a position at Great Meadows, 
where he made an entrenchment and cleared the 
ground, so as to be able to defend himself against 
surprise. On the 28th he, in company with 
Scarooyadi, and a few of his warriors, who had 
joined him, attacked a detachment of the French, 
consisting of thirty-five men, under M. de Jumonville, 
who were in camp not far distant, and killed and 
captured almost the entire party. Jumonville, who 
was a gallant and esteemed young officer, fell at the 
first fire. Only one of the party escaped, and he 
proceeded at once to Fort Duquesne, where he gave 
intelligence of the affiedr. The French commander 
declared this act to be no less than murder, 
since no declaration of war had been made; and 
asserted that Jumonville was on a mission as a civil 
messenger, to warn the English not to trespass on the 
lands of the French, and that he had no hostile 
intentions. In France it was the occasion of much 
comment, and the government made the most of it. 
If Jumonville was acting in the capacity of a com- 
missioner, his course of procedure was such as to 
at least subject him to suspicion as an enemy, 
with a hostile object in view. He came in a 
secret way, inspected Washington's camp, and then 
retired several miles, and pitched his tent, afterwards 
sending a courier back to Fort Duquesne, with all 
the information he had gathered. The papers found 
on the person of Jumonville were of such a nature as 

1754.] Washington's journal. 55 

to indicate that the expedition was of an unfriendly 
character. The prisoners were soon afterward sent 
back to Winchester, to Governor Dinwiddie. 

The journal of Major Washington, which was 
evidently kept with great accuracy, will doubtless 
prove interesting reading, and will show the facts of 
this expedition from its beginning to its end. This 
journal was for many years lost to the world, but 
was eventually recovered, and gives a most interesting 
history of the important facts of that campaign. It 
is given below almost entire, only those parts being 
omitted which contain matter of no special interest: 

Washington's journal, 1754. 

"On the 31st of March I received from his honor* 
a Lieutenant Colonel's commission, of the Virginia 
regiment, whereof Joshua Fry, Esq., was Colonel, 
dated the 15th, with orders to take the troops which 
were at that time at Alexandria, under my command, 
and to march with them towards the Ohio, there to 
help Captain Trent to build forts, and to defend the 
possessions of his Majesty against the attempts and 
hostilities of the French. 

"April the 2d. — Everything being ready, we began 
our march, according to our orders, the 2d of April, 
with two companies of foot commanded by Captain 
Peter Hog, and Lieutenant Jacob Vanbraam, five 
subalterns, two sergeants, six corporals, one drununer, 
and one hundred and twenty soldiers, one surgeon, 
one Swedish gentleman, who was a volunteer, two 
wagons, guarded by one Lieutenant, sergeant, corporal 
and twenty-five soldiers. 

*Mr. Dinwiddie, Qovernor of Virginia. 


"We left Alexandria on Tuesday noon, and 
pitched our tents about four miles from Cameron, 
having travelled six miles. 

[From this date to the 19th of the same month, 
the journal contains nothing more than a monotonous 
detail of each day's march, and ' a statement that 
Captain Stephens, with his detachment, had joined 
the command.] 

"The 19th. — Met an express, who had letters 
from Captain Trent, at the Ohio, demanding a 
reinforcement with all speed, as he hourlj- expected 
a body of eight hundred French. I tarried at Job 
Pearsall's for the arrival of the troops, where they 
came the next day. When I received the above 
express, I dispatched a courier to Colonel Fry, to 
give him notice of it. 

"The 20th. — Came down to Colonel Cresap's, to 
order the detachment out, and on my route, had 
notice that the fort was taken by the French. That 
news was confirmed by Mr. Wart,* the ensign of 
Captain Trent, who had been obliged to surrender 
to a body of one thousand French and upwards, 
under the command of Captain Contrecoeur, who 
was come from Venango (in French, the peninsula) 
with sixty battoes and three hundred canoes, and 
who, having planted eighteen pieces of cannon 
against the forts, afterwards had sent him a 
summons to depart. 

" Mr. Wart also informed me that the Indians kept 
steadfastly attached to our interest. He brought 

*WaBhiDgton has evideotly misspelled this name, as the person alluded to 
was, beyond doabt, Ensign Ward. 

1754.] Washington's journal. 57 

two young Indian men with him, who were Mingoes, 
that they might have the satisfaction to see that we 
were marching with our troops to their succor. 

"He also delivered me the following speech, which 
the Half-King* sent to me : 

'''Fort Ohio, April 18th, 1764. 
"*-4 Speech from the Half- King j for the Governors of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania : 

" ' Mj brethren the English, the bearer will let you anderstand in what 
manner the French have treated us. We waited a long time, thinking 
thej would come and attack us; we now see how thej have a mind to 
use us. 

"'We are now ready to fall upon them, waiting only for your succor. 
Have good courage, and come as soon as possible ; you will find us as 
ready to encounter with them as you are yourselves. 

" ' We have sent these two young men to see if you are ready to come, 
and if so, they are to return to us, to let us know where you are, that we 
may come and join you. We should be glad if the troops belonging to 
the two provinces could meet together at the fort which is on the way. 
If you do not come to our assistance now, we are entirely undone, and 
imagine we shall never meet together again. I speak it with a heart full 
of grief.' 

"A belt of wampum. 

^The Half-King directed to me the following speech : 

" 'I am ready, if you think it proper, to go to both the Governors with 
these two young men, for I have now no more dependence on those who 
have been gone so long, without returning or sending any message.' 

"A belt of wampum. 

"April 23d. — A council of war held at Will's 
Creek, in order to consult upon what must be done 
on account of the news brought by Mr. Wart. 

" The news brought by Ensign Wart, having been 
examined into, as also the summons sent by Captain 
Contrecoeur, commander of the French troops, and 
the speeches of the Half-King, and of the other chiefs 

«TRii«eb«rlaMn wm the HalMctng of th« Six NatiooB. to wtateb poeltlon be had been chosen by 
the Toloe of his people* He was a Arm friend of the Bnslisb, and a diplomatist as welt as a 
warrior. At the time the French made the demand upon Snsign Ward to surrender, the Half- 
Klog advised him to reply that his ranic was not of that importance which would permit him to 
napood, and to aak a delay until the arrlTal of the Commander*in-Chief. 



of the Six Nations; it appears that Mr. Wart was 
forced to surrender the said fort, the 17th of this 
instant, to the French, who were above one thousand 
strong, and had eighteen artillery pieces, some of 
which were nine-pounders,* and also that the detach- 
ment of the Virginia regiment, amounting to one 
hundred and fifty men, commanded by Colonel 
Washington, had orders to reinforce the company of 
Captain Trent, and that the aforesaid garrison 
consisted only of thirty-three effective men. 

" It was thought a thing impracticable to march 
towards the fort without sufficient strength ; however, 
being strongly invited by the Indians, and particularly 
by the speeches of the Half-King, the President gave 
his opinion that it would be proper to advance as far 
as Redstone Creek, on Monongahela, about thirty- 
seven miles on this side of the fort, and there to raise 
a fortification, clearing a road broad enough to pass 
with all our artillery and our baggage, and there to 
wait for fresh orders. 

"The opinion aforesaid was resolved upon for the 
following reasons: 

"1st. That the mouth of Red Stone is the first 
convenient place on the river Monongahela. 

"2d. That stores are already built at that place 
for the provisions of the company, wherein our 
ammunition may be laid up; our great guns may be 
also sent by water whenever we should think it 
convenient to attack the fort. 

"3d. We may easily (having all these conve- 
niences) preserve our people from the ill consequences 

*£nsign Ward had doubtless exaggerated the strength of the Frenish. 

1754.] Washington's journal. 59 


of inaction, and encourage our Indian allies to remain 
in our interests. 

Whereupon I sent Mr. Wart to the Governor 
with one of the young Indians and an interpreter : 
I thought it proper to acquaint the Governors 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania of the news; and 
I sent away the other Indian to the Half-King, with 
the speech which will be found in the following 
letter I wrote to the Governor of Maryland : 

"*Camp at Will's Gbebk, April 25, 1764. 
<' < 7b His Excellency^ Horatio Sharp, Governor of Maryland: 

^ ' Sib : — I am here arrived with a detachment of one hundred and 
6fty men : We daily expect Colonel Fry with the remaining part of the 
regiment and the artillery ; however, we shall march gently along the 
mountains, clearing the roads as we go, that oar cannon may with the 
greater ease be sent after us ; we propose to go as far as the Red Stone 
River, which falls into Monongahela, about thirty-seven miles this side of 
the fort which the French have taken, from thence all our heavy luggage 
may be carried as far as the Ohio. A store is built there by the Ohio 
Company, wherein may be placed our ammunition and provisions. 

** * Besides the French forces above mentioned, we have reason to 
believe, according to the accounts we have heard, that another party is 
coming to the Ohio; we have also learnt that six hundred of the 
Chippewais and Ottoways Indians, are coming down the river Scioda, in 
order to join them.' 

"The following is my answer to the speech of the 

'^ 'To the Half-King, and to the chiefs and warriors of the Shawanese 
and Loups, our friends and brethren. I received your speech by brother 
Bucks, who came to us with the two young men six days after their 
departure from you. We return you our greatest thanks, and our hearts 
are 6red with love and affection towards you, in gratitude for your 
constant attachment to us, as also your gracious speech, and your wise 

** This young man will inform you where he found a small part of our 
army, making towards you, clearing the roads for a great number of our 
warriors, who are ready to follow us, with our great guns, our ammunition 
and provisions. As I delight in letting you know with speed the thoughts 
of our heartS; I send you back this young man, with this speech, to 


acquaint jon therewith, and the other young man I have sent to the 
Governor of Virginia, to deliver him your speech and your wampum, and 
to be an eye-witness to those preparations we are making, to come in all 
haste to the assistance of those whose interest is as dear to as as our 
lives. We know the character of the treacherous French, and our 
conduct shall plainly show you, how much we have it at heart. I shall 
not be satisfied if I do not see you before all our forces are met together 
at the fort which is in the way ; wherefore, I desire, with the greatest 
earnestness, that you, or at l^ast one of you, would come as soon as 
possible, to meet us on the road, and to assist us in council. I present 
yon with these bunches of wampum, to assure you of the sincerity of my 
speech, and that you may remember how much I am your friend and 
brother. (Signed.) " Washington 


"April 28th. — Came to us some pieces of cannon^ 
which were taken up to the mouth of Patterson's 

[From the 29th of April, the date of leaving Will's 
Creek, to the 11th of May, the journal contains 
nothing of interest.] 

"May the 11th. J — Detached a party of twenty-five 
men, commanded by Captain Stephens and Ensign 
Peronie, with orders to go to Mr. Gist's, to enquire 
where La Force || and his party were; and in case 
they were in the neighborhood, to cease pursuing 
and take care of themselves. I also ordered them 
to examine closely all the woods round about, and, 
if they should find any Frenchman apart from the 
rest, to seize him and bring him to us, that we might 
learn what we could from him. We were exceed- 
ingly desirous to know if there was any possibility 
of sending down anything by water, as also to find 

*Tbls se«in8 to hare beea *n Indian D«me adopted bjr WMhington with n Tiew to ploMiag th« 

fThis !■ evidently the artillery which waa brought up the Potomac fh>m the mouth of 
Patteraon's creek on boats, or rafta. 

XAt thia time he waa in camp not far beyond Little Headowa. 

JjLa Force waa a French officer, whom Waahington had been told by the Indiana waa out 
looking up deaertera. 

1754.] Washington's journal. 61 

out some convenient place about the mouth of Red 
Stone Creek where he could build a fort, it being 
my design to salute the Half-King, and to send him 
back under a small guard; we were also desirous to 
enquire what were the views of the French, what 
they had done, and what they intended to do, and 
to collect everything which could give us the least 

"The 12th. — Marched away, and went on a rising 
ground, where we halted to dry ourselves, for we 
had been obliged to ford a deep river, where our 
shortest men had water up to their arm pits. 

"There came an express to us with letters, 
acquainting us, that Colonel Fry, with a detachment 
of one hundred men and upwards, was at Winchester, 
and was to set out in a few days to join us; also that 
Colonel Innes was marching with three hundred 
and fifty men, raised in Carolina; that it was 
expected Maryland would raise two hundred men, 
and that Pennsylvania had raised ten thousand 
pounds (equal to about fifty-two thousand five 
hundred livres) to pay the soldiers raised in other 
colonies, as that province fumisheth no recruits, as 
also that Governor Shirley had sent six hundred 
men to harrass the French in Canada; I hope that 
will give them some work to do, and will slacken 
their sending so many men to the Ohio as they have 

"The 16th. — Met two traders, who told us they 
had fled for fear of the French, as parties of them 
were often seen towards Mr. Gist's. These traders 
are of opinion, as well as many others, that it is not 


possible to clear a road for any carriage to go from 
hence to Red Stone Creek. 

"The 17th.— This night Mr. Wart arrived with 
the young Indian from Williamsburg, and delivered 
me a letter, wherein the Governor is so good as to 
approve of my proceedings, but is much displeased 
with Captain Trent, and has ordered him to be tried, 
for leaving his men at the Ohio. The Governor 
also informs me that Captain Mackey, with an 
independent company of one hundred men, excluding 
the officers, was arrived, and that we might expect 
them daily, and that the men from New York would 
join us within ten days. 

" This night came two Indians from the Ohio, who 
left the French fort five days ago. They relate that 
the French forces are all employed in building their 
fort, that it is already breast high, and the thickness 
of twelve feet, and filled up with earth and stone, 
&c. They have cut down and burnt up all the trees 
which were about it, and sown grain instead thereof. 
The Indians believe they were only six hundred in 
number, though they say themselves they are eight 
hundred. They expect a greater number in a few 
days; which may amount to one thousand six 
hundred, then they say they can defy the English. 

"The 18th.* — The waters being yet very high, 
hindered me from advancing on account of my 
baggage, wherefore I determined to set myself in a 
posture of defense against any immediate attack 
from the enemy, and went down to observe the river. 

*At this date the command was encamped on the Youghiogheny, near 
where th« present town of Smithfield, Fayette county, Pa., stands. 

1754.] Washington's journal. 63 

[The 19th. — No mention of anything beyond the 
despatch of a speech to the Half-King on this date.] 

"The 20th. — Embarked in a canoe with Lieutenant 
West, three soldiers, and one Indian; and haying 
followed the river along about half a mile, were 
obliged to come ashore, where I met Peter Suver, a 
trader, who seemed to discourage me from seeking a 
passage by water; that made me alter my mind of 
causing canoes to be made; I ordered my people to 
wade, as the waters were shallow enough; and 
continued myself going down the river in the canoe; 
now finding that our canoe was too small for 6 men, 
we stopped to make some sort of a bark, with which, 
together with our canoe, we gained Turkey Foot by 
the beginning of the night; we underwent several 
difficulties about eight or ten miles from thence, 
though of no great consequence, finding the waters 
sometimes deep enough for canoes to pass, and at 
other times more shallow. 

[The 21st to the 23d contains only a general 
description of the topography of the country.] 

"The 24th.— This morning arrived an Indian in 
company with him I sent to the Half-King, and 
brought me the following letter from him : 

" *To any of His JHc^esty officers whom this may concern : 

" * As tis reported that the French army is set out to meet Mr. George 
Washingtoiii I exhort joq, my brethren, to guard against them ; for they 
intend to fall on the first English they meet ; they haye been on their 
march these two days ; the Half-King and the other chiefs will join you 
within five days, to hold a council, though we know not the number we 
shall be. I shall say no more ; but remember me to my brethren, the 
English. The Half-Eiko.' 

^^I examined these two young Indians in the best 


manner I could, concerning every circumstance, but 
was not much better satisfied. 

" They say there are parties of them often out, but 
they do not know of any considerable number of 
them coming this way. The French continue raising 
their fort, that part next to the land is very well 
enclosed, but next to the water is very much 
neglected, nine pieces of cannon, and some of them 
very small, and not one mounted. There are two on 
the point, and the other at some distance from the 
fort next to the land. 

"They relate that there are many sick among 
them, that they cannot find any Indians to guide 
their small parties towards our camp, these Indians 
having refused them. 

"The same day, at two o'clock we arrived at the 
Meadows,* where we saw a trader, who told us that 
he came this morning from Mr. Gist's, where he had 
seen two, Frenchmen the night before ; that he knew 
there was a strong detachment out, which confirmed 
the account we had received from the Half-King; 
wherefore, I placed troops behind two matured 
intrenchments, where our wagons also entered. 

"The 25th. — Detached a party to go along the 
roads, and other small parties to the woods, to see if 
they could make any discovery. I gave the horsemen 
orders to examine the country well, and endeavor to 
get some news of the French, of their forces atid of 
their motions, &c. 

"At night all these parties returned without 
having discovered anything, though they had been a 

*Qreat Meadows. 

1754.] Washington's journal. 65 

great way towards the place from whence it was said 
the party was coming. 

"The 26th. — Arrived William • Jenkins; Colonel 
Fry had sent him with a letter from Colonel Fairfax, 
which informed me that the Governor himself, as 
also Colonels Corbin and Ludwell, were arrived at 
Winchester, and were desirous to see the Half-King 
there, whereupon I sent him an account thereof. 

" The 27th. — Arrived Mr. Gist early in the morn- 
ing, who told us that M. La Force with fifty men, 
whose tracks he had seen five miles oflf, had been at 
his plantation the day before, towards noon; and 
would have killed a cow, and broken everything in 
the house, if two Indians whom he had left in the 
house, had not persuaded them from their design; 
I immediately detached sixty-five men, under com- 
mand of Captain Hog, Lieutenant Mercer, Ensign 
Peronie, three sergeants, and three corporals, with 

"The French inquired at Mr, Gist's, what was 
become of the Half-King? I did not fail to let the 
young Indians who were in our camp know that the 
French wanted to kill the Half-King; and that had 
its desired efiect. They thereupon offered to accom- 
pany our people to go after the French, and if they 
found it true that he had been killed, or even insulted 
by them, one of them would presently carry the 
news thereof to the Mingoes, in order to incite their 
warriors to fall upon them. One of these young men 
was detached towards Mr. Gist's; that if he should 
not find the Half-King there, he was to send a 

message by a Delaware. 


"About eight at night received a message from the 
Half-King, which informed me that as he was coming 
to join us, he had seen along the road, the tracts of 
two men which he had followed till he was brought 
thereby to a low obscure place; that he was of 
opinion the whole party of French was hidden there; 
that very moment I sent out forty men, and ordered 
my ammunition to be put in a place of safety, under 
a strong guard to defend it; fearing it to be a 
stratagem of the French to attack our camp, and 
with the rest of my men, set out in a heavy rain, 
and in a night as dark as pitch, along a path scarce 
broad enough for one man; we were some fifteen or 
twenty minutes out of the path before we could come 
to it again; and so dark that we would often strike 
one against another. All night long we continued 
our route, and the 28th, about sunrise, we arrived at 
the Indian camp, where, after having held a council 
with the Half-King, it was concluded we should fall 
on them together; so we sent out two men to 
discover where they were, as also their posture, and 
what sort of ground was thereabout; after which we 
formed ourselves for an engagement, marching one 
after the other in the Indian manner. We were 
advanced pretty near to them, as we thought, when 
they discovered us; whereupon I ordered my company 
to fire ; mine was supported by that of Mr. Wagner s,* 
and my company and his received the whole fire of the 
French, during the greatest part of the action, which 
only lasted a quarter of an hour, before the enemy was 

•Thomas Waggener, at thia time a LienteDant, bat afterwards Captain of 
Virginia troops. 

1754.] WASfflNGTON's JOURNAL. 67 

routed. We killed M. de Jumonville, the commander 
of that party, as also nine others; we wounded one, 
and made twenty-one prisoners, among whom were M, 
La Force, M. Drouillon, and two cadets. The Indians 
scalped the dead, and took away the most part of their 
aims, after which we marched on with the prisoners 
and the guard, to the Indian camp, where again I 
held a council with the Half-King; and there informed 
him that the Governor was desirous to see him, and 
was waiting for him at Winchester; he answered that 
he could not go just then, as his people were in too 
imminent a danger from the French, whom they had 
fallen upon; that he must send messengers to all the 
allied nations, in order to invite them to take up the 
hatchet. He sent a young Delaware Indian to the 
Delaware nation, and gave him also a French scalp 
to carry to them. This young man desired to have 
a part of the presents which were allotted for them, 
but that the remaining part might be kept for 
another opportunity. He said he would go to his 
own family and to several others, and would wait on 
them at Mr. Gist's, where he desired men and horses 
should be sent ready to bring them up to our camp. 
After this I marched on with the prisoners; they 
informed me that they had been sent with a summons 
to order me to depart. A plausible pretence to 
discover our camp, and to obtain the knowledge of 
our forces and our situation ! It was so clear that 
they were come to reconnoitre what we were, that I 
admired at their assurance, when they told me they 
were come as an embassy; for their instructions 
mentioned that they should get what knowledge 


they could of the roads, rivers, and of all the country 
as far as Potomac;* and instead of coming as an 
Embassador, publicly, and in an open manner, they 
came secretly, and sought after the most hidden 
retreats, more like deserters than embassadors; in 
such retreats, they encamped, and remained hid for 
whole days together, and that no more than five 
miles from us; from whence they sent spies to 
reconnoitre our camp; after this was done they went 
back two miles, from whence they sent the two 
messengers spoken of in the instruction, to acquaint 
M. de Contrecoeur of the place we were at, and of our 
disposition, that he might send his detachments to 
enforce the summons as soon as it should be given. 

"Besides, an ambassador has princely attendants; 
whereas this was only a simple petty French oflScer; 
an embassador has no need of spies, his character 
being always sacred ; and seeing their intention was 
so good, why did they tarry two days at five miles 
distance from us, without acquainting me with the 
summons, or, at least, with something that related to 
the embassy? That alone would be sufficient to 
raise the greatest suspicions, and we ought to do them 
the justice to say, that, as they wanted to hide 
themselves, they could not pick out better places 
than they had done. 

"The summons was so insolent, and favored the 
gasconade so much, that if it had been brought openly 
by two men, it would have been an immediate 
indulgence to have suffered them to return. 

*On the body of M. de Jumonville were found written Instraotions to tliis 

1754.] Washington's journal. 69 

"It was the opinion of the Half-King in this case 
that their intentions were evil, and that it was a 
pure pretence; that they never intended to come to 
us but as enemies; and if we had been such fools as 
to let them go, they would never help us any more 
to take other Frenchmen. 

"They say they called to us as soon as they had 
discovered us, which is an absolute falsehood, for I 
was then marching at the head of the company going 
towards them, and can positively affirm, that, when 
they first saw us, they ran to their arms, without 
calling; as I must have heard them had they done 

"The 29th, — Dispatched Ensign Latour to the 
Half-King, with about twenty-five men, and almost 
as many horses; and as I expected some French 
parties would continually follow that which we had 
defeated, I sent an express to Colonel Fry, for a 

" After this the French prisoners desired to speak 
with me, and asked me in what manner I looked 
upon them, whether as the attendants of an Embas- 
sador, or as prisoners of war; I answered them that 
it was in quality of the latter, and gave them my 
reasons for it, as above. 

*From the pains which Washington has taken to jastify this attack, on the 
pages of his journal, it must be concluded that he anticipated asevere criticism of 
dIs action when the facts should become known in England and France. He 
doubtless felt that there was at least a possibility that de Jumonville was on 
an errand which did not anticipate bloodshed, and that the French would do 
all in their power to convince tne world that his death was an "assassination,'' 
and had been effected through the positive orders of the British ministry to 
the effect that Washington's command should attack the French wherever 
they were found, notwithstanding there had been no declaration of war. The 
candid reader of the history of this affair can hardly resist the conclusion 
that the^ French have the best of the argument, and that the death of de 
Jamonville and nine of his followers, was an unfortunate blunder. 


"The 30th. — ^Detached Lieutenant West, and Mr, 
Spindorph, to take the prisoners to Winchester, with 
a guard of twenty men. Began to raise a fort with 
small pallisadoes, fearing that when the French 
should hear the news of that defeat, we might be 
attacked by considerable forces. 

"June the 1st. — ^Arrived here an Indian trader 
with the Half-King; they said that when M. de 
Jumonville was sent here, another party had been 
detached towards the lower part of the river, in order 
to take and kill all the English they should meet.**" 

"We are finishing our fort. 

"Towards night arrived Ensign Towers, with the 
Half-King, Queen Alquipaf and about twenty-five or 
thirty families, making in all about eighty or one 
hundred persons, mcluding women and children. 
The old King being invited to come into our tents, 
told me that he had sent Monakatoocha to Log's town, 
with wampum and four French scalps, which were 
to be sent to the Six Nations, Wiandots, &c., to 
inform them that they had fallen upon the French 
and to demand their assistance. He also told me 
that he had something to say to the council, but 
would stay till the arrival of the Shawanese, whom 
we expected next morning. 

"The 2d. — Arrived two or three of the families of 
the Shawanese; we had prayers in the fort. 

"The 3d.— The Half-King assembled the council, and 
informed me that he had received a speech fromGrand- 
Chaudiere, in answer to the one he had sent him. 

*This waB undoubtedly a falsehood on the part of the traders. 

fAn Indian sqoaw, whom the English had given the title of " Qneen." 

1754.] Washington's journal. 71 

"The 5th. — Arrived an Indian from the Ohio, who 
had lately been at the French fort; this Indian 
confirms the news of two traders being taken by the 
French, and sent to Canada; he saith they have set 
up their pallisadoes, and enclosed their fort with 
exceeding large trees. 

"There are eight Indian traders on this side the 
river, coming to join us. He met a French man who 
had made his escape in the time of M. de Jumonville's 
action; he was without either shoes or stockings, and 
scarce able to walk; however, he let him pass, not 
knowing we had fallen upon them. 

"The 6th. — Mr. Gist is returned, and acquaints 
me of the safe arrival of the prisoners at Winchester, 
and of the death of poor Colonel Fry.* 

"It gave the Governor great satisfaction to see the 
French prisoners safely arrived at Winchester. 

«I am also informed that M. Montourf is coming 
with a commission to command two hundred Indians. 

"Mr. Gist met a French deserter, who assured 
him that they were only five hundred men when 
they took Mr. Wart's fort, that they were now less, 
having sent fifteen men to Canada, to acquaint the 

^Colonel Joshua Fry was the officer in oommand of the entire expedition, and 
was on his waj to ioin Washin^n with a force of about one hundred and fifty 
men. While on the road to Will's Creek his horse stumbled and threw him 
to the ground with great force, whereby he sustained fatal injuries. The 
wounded officer was conveyed as tenderly as possible to Will's Creek, where he 
was made as comfortable as his condition would permit. Dr. James Craik, the 
surgeon of the regiment, a Scotchman by birth, was with him, and attended 
him fiftithfully, but all to no purpose, and on the 31st of May, only a few days 
after the accident, Colonel Fry aied, and his remains were ouried on the side 
of the hill. In the dispute as to the boundary line between Maryland and 
Virginia, in 1745, he was appointed one of the'commiraioners on the part of 
the crown to fix the lines, his associates being Colonel Lunsford Lomax and 
Major Peter Hedgeman. The death of Colonel Fir left Washington in full 
oommand, and the force at Will's Creek marched forward to Great Meadows 
at once. 

fMontour was a Frenchman who had deserted and joined the English. 


Governor of their success; that there were yet two 
hundred soldiers who only waited for a favorable 
opportunity to come and join us. 

"The 9th. — ^Arrived the last body of the Virginia 
Regiment, under the command of Colonel Must,* 
and we learnt that the independent company of 
Carolina was arrived at Will's Creek. 

"The 10th. — I received the regiment, and at night 
had notice that some French were advancing towards 
us; whereupon I sent a party of Indians upon the 
scout towards Gist's, in order to discover them, and 
to know their number. Just before night we had an 
alarm, but it proved false." 

The journal recites that on the 12th nine deserters 
came in and stated that one hundred more were 
desirous of coming; that Fort Duquesne was completed 
and supplied with eight small cannon; also that the 
Delawares and Shawanese had taken up the hatchet 
against the English. Washington then sent messen- 
gers and wampum to these two Nations asking them 
to come to a council at Mr. Gist's, hoping to win 
them over. From the 13th to the 18th nothing of 
interest is recorded. On the latter date a party of 
eight Mingoes came into camp, and said they had a 
commission, and wanted a council at once. The 
Half-King was sent for, and a council was held, there 
being present some forty Indians of the Six Nations, 
Loups and Shawanese. This council lasted several 
days, and the Indians after great professions of 
friendship took their departure. Washington then 

^his shoald be Muse, that officer having taken charge of the troops at 
Will's Creek, on the death of Colonel Fry, on the 3Ut of May, and broagbt 
them to Washington. 

1754.] FOBT NECESSITY. 73 

pursued his way to the mouth of Bedstone, where he 
expected to be joined by Monacatootha, and a 
number of other Indian warriors. 

Washington had already made the fort at Great 
Meadows as strong as circumstances would allow, and 
because of the exigencies of his fortunes and the 
scantiness of his supplies, he called it "Fort Necessity ." 
His force had now been increased to about four 
hundred men, by the arrival of Captain Mackaye's 
company of independent South Carolinians; but 
Captain Mackaye held a King s commission, and he 
seemed likely to do about as much harm as good, 
since he claimed that his royal commission gave him 
rank above that of any and every provincial oflScer, 
and would not acknowledge Washington's authority. 
While this position was maintained by the Captain 
he was courteously friendly with Washington, who 
had referred the matter to Governor Dinwiddie, after 
which he had marched for Redstone Creek, leaving 
Captain Mackaye, with his company, in command of 
Fort Necessity. Before reaching Bedstone, however, 
and while near Gist's, it was learned that the French 
had received reinforcements at Fort Duquesne, and 
that they purposed to send out a heavy force at once 
to attack the English. 

On receiving this intelligence, Washington sent 

back for Captain Mackaye, who at once joined him. 

A council of war was held, and a retreat was 

determined upon. The weather was sultry and 

oppressive, the roads were rugged and .broken, the 

men were worn and hungry, the horses broken down 

and jaded; yet, despite all, the march to the rear 


was begun, and, while the Carolinians refused to 
perform any labor, Washington's forces dragged the 
artillery and wagons, and bore heavy loads of baggage 
on their shoulders, toiling on laboriously day after 
day, until on the 1st of July they arrived at Fort 
Necessity. It had not been contemplated that a 
halt should be made here, but, the Vii^inians 
declared they would drag the artillery and carry the 
baggage no further. Washington was compelled to 
do the best he could, therefore, and he at once set 
about making the fort still more capable of defense. 
He found but few provisions there, and fully believing 
that more troops were at Will's Creek, he sent several 
expresses back to that point, with instructions that 
all soldiers there should at once join him, and that a 
full supply of provisions should be hurried forward 
to him at once. 

The retreat from Gist's was not made any too soon, 
for a short time after Captain de Villiers, a brother- 
in-law of de Jumonville, burning to revenge the death 
of that officer, had come up, with at least five 
hundred French from Fort Duquesne, and made an 
attack upon Gist's place. Finding it was deserted, 
he concluded that his enemies had fled to the settle- 
ments, and was about to return to the fort, when a 
deserter arrived, who told him that Washington was 
in camp at Fort Necessity, and could get no farther, 
as his men were in a starving condition. Hearing 
this, de Villiers determined to push on to the Great 
Meadows at once. 

From Sparks' "Writings of Washington," is taken 
the following: 

1754.] FORT NECESSITY. 75 

" Fort Necessity was situate in a level meadow, 
about two hundred and fifty yards broad and covered 
with long grass and low bushes. The foot of the 
nearest hills came within one hundred yards of the 
fort, and at one place within sixty yards. The 
8pa<;e between the fort and the hills was open and 
smootii, the bushes having been cleared away. The . 
fort itself was an irregular square, each side 
measuring thirty-five yards, with a trench partly 
finished on two sides. The entrances were guarded 
by three bastions. 

"On the 3d of July, early in the morning, an 
alarm was received from a sentinel, who had been 
wounded by the enemy, and at nine o'clock intelli- 
gence came, that the whole body of the enemy, 
amounting, as was reported, to nine hundred men, 
was only four miles ofil At eleven o'clock they 
approached the fort, and began to fire, at the distance 
of six hundred yards, but without efiect. Colonel 
Washington had drawn up his men on the open and 
level ground outside the trenches, waiting for the 
attack, which he presumed would be made as soon 
as the enemy's forces emerged from the woods; and 
he ordered his men to reserve their fire, till they 
should be near enough to do execution. The distant 
firing was supposed to be a stratagem to draw 
Washington's men into the woods, and thus to take 
them at a disadvantage. He suspected the design, 
and maintained his post till he found the French did 
not incline to leave the woods, and attack the fort 
by an assault, as he supposed they would, considering 
their superiority of numbers. He then drew his 


men back within the trenches, and gave them orders 
to fire according to their discretion, as suitable 
opportunities might present themselves. The French 
and Indians remained on the sicje of the rising 
ground, which was nearest to the fort, and, sheltered 
by the trees, kept up a brisk fire of musketry, but 
. never appeared in the open plain below. The rain fell 
heavily through the day, the trenches were filled with 
water, and many of the arms of Colonel Washington's 
men were out of order and used with difficulty: 

"In this way the battle continued from eleven 
o'clock in the morning until eight at night, when the 
French called and requested a parley. Suspecting 
this to be a feint to procure the admission of an 
officer into the fort, that he might discover their 
condition, Colonel Washington at first declined 
listening to the proposal, but when the call was 
repeated, with the additional request that an officer 
might be sent to them, engaging at the same time 
their parole for his safety, he sent out Captain 
Vanbraam, the only person under his command that 
could speak French, except the Chevalier de 
Peyrouney, an ensign in the Virginia regiment, who 
was dangerously wounded, and disabled from render- 
ing any service on this occasion. Vanbraam returned 
and brought with him from M. de Villiers, the 
French commander, proposed articles of capitulation. 
These he read and pretended to interpret, and, some 
changes having been made by mutual agreement, 
both parties signed them about midnight." 

The articles subscribed to were written in French, 
and were as follows : 

XAe»A.J»r.JtJ wJJknk9$ s3.e.S JP'^jr.l^J CjL S.90 w. 4Itnk€B.Zm€luA£i^g ihe 
JE«>M/JP.^. f' ^- €4m$»Mf^ N» mil miim^40jf€rehe* ^fSmmd. . 

Iuus3X. T.C at emel MwA t» mimit Vuit^ VU0 Uu Fm*, 

M0mr f§0X0da dvlam^0 

t« ^ '^^.'^fiit^^ 

0fmiuleuU»l9iU«Ams»-medd0m Jt wme smt^tka4^tks emittmk-mumt'AB.C. 

From D. Bbriver Stewart. 




Capitulation granted by M. de Villiers, Captain and 
commander of His Majesty's troops, to those 
English troops actually in Fort Necessity : 

July the 3d, 1754^ cU 8 o^ clock at night. 
As our intentions have never been to trouble the 
peace and good harmony subsisting between the two 
Princes in amity, but only to revenge the assassina- 
tion committed on one of our oflBcers, bearer of a 
summon, as also on his escort, and to hinder any 
establishment on the lands of the dominions of the 
KLing, my master; upon these considerations, we are 
willing to show favor to all the English who are in 
the said fort, on the following conditions. 

Article I. 
We grant leave to the English commander to retire 
with all his garrison, and to return peaceably into 
his own country; and promise to hinder his receiving 
any insult from us French; and to restrain, as much 
as shall be in our power, the Indians that are with us. 

Art. II. 
It shall be permitted him to go out, and carry with 
him all that belongs to them, except the artillery, 
which we reserve. 

Art. III. 

That we will allow them the honors of war, that 
they march out with drums beating, and one swivel 
gun, being willing thereby to convince them, that we 
treat them as friends. 

Art. IV. 

That as soon as the articles are signed by both 
parties, the English colors shall be struck. 


Art. V. 

That to-morrow, at break of day, a detachment of 
French shall go and make the garrison file off, and 
take possession of the fort. 

Art, VI. 

As the English have but few oxen or horses left, 
they are at liberty to hide their effects, and to come 
again and search for them, when they have a number 
of horses sufficient to carry them off, and that for 
this end they may have what guards they please; on 
condition that they give their word of honor, to work 
no more on any buildings in this place, or any part 
on this side of the mountains. 

Art. VII. 

And as the English have in their power, one 
officer, two cadets, and most of the prisoners made at 
their assassination of M. de Jumonville, and promise 
to send them back, with a safeguard to Port 
Duquesne, situate on the Ohio; for surety of their 
performing this article as well as this treaty, M. 
Jacob Vanbraam and Robert Stobo, both Captains, 
shall be delivered to us as hostages, till the arrival of 
our French and Canadians above mentioned. We 
oblige ourselves on our side, to give an escorte to 
return these two officers in safety; and expect to 
have our French in two months and a half at furthest. 

A duplicate of this being fixed upon one of the 
posts of our blockade, the day and year above 

^ James Mackaye, 
Signed, Messrs. i G. Washington, 



These articles were written in French, and the 
purport of them read to Colonel Washington by 
Vanbraam, who was a Dutchman, and at best knew 
but little of English, and was a very poor French 
scholar. Besides, the falling rain rendered it impos- 
sible, on that miserable night, that a strictly accurate 
interpretation of the language used should be made, 
in consequence of which the word ^^assassination" 
was given by Vanbraam as "the killing of," and 
thus Washington was led to sign a document which 
made him acknowledge that his command had 
"assassinated" de Jumonville, and this fact was 
afterwards made use of by the French in their con- 
demnation of that act and the author of it. Several 
authors have assumed that Vanbraam purposely 
deceived his commander and misinterpreted the word 
wilfully; but that is doubtless untrue, the greater 
probability being that the error was occasioned by 
carelessness or ignorance. In September, somewhat 
more than two months after the capitulation. Captain 
Mackaye wrote to Washington from Will's Creek, 
stating that he had recently returned from Phila- 
delphia, and adding, "I had several disputes about 
our capitulation, but I satisfied every person that 
mentioned the subject as to the articles in question, 
that they were owing to a bad interpreter, and 
contrary to the translation as made to us when we 
signed them." M. de Villiers' assumption that his 
brother-in-law's death was an "assassination," was 
based upon an honest belief, on his part, of the story 
told him concerning the matter, by the Canadian 
who had effected his escape. 


Early on the morning of the fourth of July, the 
day following the signing of the articles, Washington 
marched out of the fort, with his command, his 
regimental colors borne in front, and the men 
carrying upon their backs their wounded comrades, 
and such of their baggage as they were able to 
convey in this way. Scarcely had they commenced 
their march, when a fresh body of Indians came up 
as reinforcements to the French, and these at once 
commenced to plunder the baggage and stores that 
were left, and they could scarcely be restrained by 
the French. Seeing this, Washington had his men 
destroy all that could not be taken away, including 
his ammunition, military stores, and the one swivel 
that was left him. By ten o'clock he was clear of 
the neighborhood of the fort, but finding th^t three 
wounded men had been left behind, he sent back for 
them and had them brought up. When night came 
on he was barely three miles from Fort Necessity, 
and there the command encamped. 

The French demolished Fort Necessity, broke the 
cannon that were left, carried oflf a few tents, and 
then marched back to Fort Duquesne( They lost in 
the engagement two soldiers and one Indian killed, 
and fifteen soldiers and two Indians wounded, besides 
several who had wounds so slight as not to unfit 
them for duty. This is according to a statement 
made by M. de Villiers, though Washington 
computed their losses to be much 'heavier. The 
English lost twelve killed and forty-three svounded 
in the Virginia regiment; the casualties in Captain 
Mackaye's company have never been stated. 

1754.] RETURN TO WILL's GREEK. 81 

After several days of painful and laborious march- 
ing, encumbered by the wounded men, who suffered 
greatly, the passage over the mountains was effected, 
and with feelings of great relief the little army made 
its entry into the camp at Will's Creek. Here they 
found an ample store of provisions in the magazines, 
from which their wants were quickly suppUed. The 
men were clothed and fed, and the wounded put 
into buildings set apart as hospitals, where they 
received medical attention, and compassionate care. 

Washington tarried at Will's Creek but a short 
time. When he saw that his men had been provided 
for, he set out with Captain Mackaye, for Williams- 
burg, where he made a full and complete repori of 
his campaign to Governor Dinwiddie. This report 
was submitted to the House of Burgesses, and that 
body passed a vote of thanks to Washington and his 
,oflBcer8;for their "bravery and gallant defense of 
their country." The names of Captains Stobo and 
Yanbraam were omitted from this vote of thanks, 
the House asserting that the former was guilty of 
cowardice, and the latter of treachery, both of wl^ch 
charges were unjust.* « 

The Governor refused to carry into effect that part 
of the capitulation referring to the French prisoners, 
although Washington urged it as an imperative 
necessity, and felt that his honor was involved. 
Dinwiddie said in a letter to the Board of Trade, in 
explanation of his conduct: "The French, after the 

•stobo. while b«Id as a bosUge at Fort Duquesne, made a perfect mtp of that defense, 
•scplaiolnc all ite poiDta. fttated the strength of the garriMii, how it should be aUaoked, *o., 
and urged that It should be taken as early a« poulble. no matter If his life was lost therebr. 
He nr|^ that onlv the good of the expedition should be conbldered, without regard to himself. 
Itaeams Impoasibie from the fearlessness so often diapiayed bj him, that he could have been 
guJltj at an J time of oowardlee. 



capitulation entered into with Colonel Washington, 
took eight of our people and exposed them to sale, 
and, missing thereof, sent them prisoners to Canada. 
On hearing of this I detained the seventeen prisoners, 
the officers and two cadets, as I am of opinion, after 
they were in my custody, Washington could not 
engage for their being returned. I have ordered a 
flag of truce to be sent to the French, offering tJie 
return of their officer and the two cadets, for the two 
hostages they have of ours." The hostages were 
not returned, but were sent to Canada, and thence to 
England. The French prisoners were also sent to 
England, except La Force, who escaped, but was 
afterwards retaken and closely confined. 

Mr. Gist, who was with Washington, at Great 
Meadows, presented an account to the Governor of 
Virginia, claiming pay for a supply of powder, lead, 
bear skins, &c., and for "1 horse killed, helping in, 
the Indians by Col: Washington's order, £5. 0. 0," 
which was ordered to be paid. 

After Washington's return to Williamsburg Colonel 
James Innes marched to Will's Creek, and on the 1st 
of September took command of that post, which was 
principally garrisoned by Rutherford's and Clai'k's 
independent companies from New York, which had 
been sent forward to join Washington, but got no 
further than Winchester. Colonel Innes was a 
Scotchman by birth, and at the time he was com- 
missioned was a resident of North Carolina. His 
appointment was not at all popular, and was said to 
have been made because he was an old friend and 
* countryman of the Governor, who was himself a 


Scotchman. On his arrival at Will's Creek, he set 
about building a fortification, and chose for that 
purpose the hill lying between the Potomac River 
and the creek, near the mouth of the latter* When 
Washington returned from Great Meadows, he left 
Mackaye's independent company of South Carolinians, 
about ninety men, and the remnant of tiie North 
C arolina companies, at Will's Creek, to assist in building 
the fortifications, which were commenced on the 12th 
of September, and completed about the- middle of 
October. Colonel Innes named this fort, which was 
built of stoccadoes, "Fort Mount Pleasant." Upon 
finishing that work he set his men about building 
barracks for themselves, which were greatly needed, 
as the weather was already quite cold, and a severe 
winter followed, with much snow and icy winds. 
By Christmas they had succeeded in erecting a 
sufficient number of log houses to accommodate the 
entire force, and that day was celebrated by such 
festivities as were possible under the circumstances. 

Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, had been commis- 
sioned, in July, a Lieutenant Colonel in the Eoyal 
Army, and urged enlistments by every means in his 
power, but with little success. About the 1st of 
December he visited Will's Creek, and inspected the 
forces here. On his return to Annapolis, he wrote 
to Governor Dinwiddie as follows:* 

Annapous, December 10, 1754. 

"Sir: I returned last Thursday from Will's 
Creek, where I found the Independents preparing for 
themselves barracks, having already completed the 

*OoT«rnor Bhairpe'i MfiS. l«ttan, Maryland HiatorioJ Library. 


small stoccade fort, about which you were advised 
they had been employed, but as the fort they have 
finished is exceedingly small, its exterior side not 
exceeding 120 feet, I conceived it requisite or rather 
absolutely necessary to have another much larger 
raised on an adjacent and more elevated piece of 
ground, which I have ordered the Md. Co., to 
proceed on, and I hope they will be able to finish it 
this winter. The eminence on which it will be 
situated gives it an entire command of that already 
compleated, and will ^ defend a Face of that small 
Fort to which an enemy might at present approach 
without being much annoyed, or hardly seen from 
within. However, that on which the troops have 
been employed may be useful at present, and will 
serve to enclose Store Houses or a Magazine after the 
other is completed, whichy I think, by an advanced 
outwork or two will be easily defended against a 
considerable number of troops that may presume to 
attack it with only a light train. At my arrival at 
the camp I was much surprised and concerned to 
find there was no more provision in the Fort than 
would suffice the troops for one Day, which I earnestly 
hope will not be the case again, lest the enemy should 
get intelligence thereof, and by posting themselves in 
different parties on the adjacent Hills, prevent the 
arrival of supplies, whereby the Garrison and all the 
Troops, notwithstanding their advantageous situation 
must be reduced to the necessity of retiring and 
destroying or relinquishing the Fort, their other work, 
and perhaps the baggage to the enemy. That nothing 
will be wanting on your part to avert such an 


accident, I am well persuaded, but conceive the 
troops will never be well supplied with Provision 
unless a very different scheme from that hitherto 
followed be pursued. ***** 

I have enclosed you a calculation of the Expence of 
Supplying 3000 Men, with Provisions for 8 months, 
which quantity I apprehend it will be necessary to 
lay into the Magazine at Will's Creek, immediately, 
by reason I conceive it will be very di£5cult if not 
impossible to procure Beaves or Hogs fit for the 
slaughter after this month and next, till July or the 
August following. My estimate is made in Maryland 
currency, which is at this time with sterling at 
about 65 p. Ct. Discount." 

The Governor was surprised to find the camp 
entirelv destitute of salt, and immediately sent a 
courier back, with orders to bring up a supply on 
horseback without the least delay. He also ordered 
a number of barrels in which to pack meat as fast as 
it should be cured for future consumption. Being 
destitute of salt, the cattle on hand could not be 
killed, and were therefore pastured in the valleys 
and on the hill sides in the neighborhood, wherever 
grass could be found, until an ample supply of salt 
was received, after which the cattle were killed and 
packed. Amongst the men at Fort Mount Pleasant, 
was Andrew Montour, an Indian interpreter, who had 
rendered very considerable service to Colonel Innes 
a short time before, at a treaty which had been held 
at the Fort with some of the Chiefs of the Six 
Nations. Governor Sharpe conceived a great friend- 
ship for Montour, and strongly recommended him to 


Governor Dinwiddle as a very useful person ; and his 
good opinion was amply justified. 

Governor Sharpe exerted himself to make 
everything at the Fort satisfactory; he secured a 
number of teams for transporting supplies from the 
east, and for service in hauling logs for the new fort 
and buildings to be constructed. These teams were 
paid for at the rate of £35 for a wagon, harness, and 
four horses. The farmers who furnished them were 
evidently determined to make all they could out of 
the necessities of the government, as they at first 
demanded £70 each for their teams; this sum having 
been refused them, they finally agreed to accept 
one-half the amount originally asked. Mr. Gist was 
the purchasing agent for the Virginia soldiers, and 
Colonel Cresap for the Maryland company. Cresap 
had purchased 29,130 pounds pork, and 13,197 
pounds beef already cured, enough to supply the 
Marj'land company for twelve months. The former 
gentleman was severely criticised by Governor Sharpe, 
who charged him with having withheld money and 
supplies, with a view to private speculation. Flour 
was sold at the fort at 12s. per cwt., and vegetables 
were scarcely to be had at any price. 

Governor Dinwiddle was asked to send a few ship 
carpenters to the Fort, as their services were needed 
in the work of building; also some cartridge paper, 
moulds for musket and swan shot, wire for screws, 
and prickers, flints and some wampum, the supply of 
the latter having been almost entirely exhausted. 

The New York companies having been supplied 
with blankets and mateh coats, and the South 


Carolina company having neither of these articles, 
there was some confusion in camp for awhile, as the 
latter company demanded that it should be supplied 
with these articles; but the matter was finally 
arranged, and Governor Sharpe ordered Colonel 
Innes to divide £12 between the private soldiers of 
the three independent companies, as extraordinary 
pay for the laW they had undergone in buildmg 
S,eir barracks. 

There were at this time at Fort Mount Pleasant 
three Captains, eight Lieutenants, one Ensign, 
twelve sergeants, thirteen corporals, seven drummers 
and two hundred and ninety-five private soldiers, all 
under command of Colonel Innes. The supply of 
artillery was limited to a few small guns of Sjo inches 

After the afiair at the Great Meadows, the Half- 
King took his family and went to Aughquick, in 
Pennsylvania, where he was maintained at the 
expense of the government. He was thoroughly 
disgusted with the conduct of the campaign, and 
declared that the white men knew nothing about 
war. He said that the French were cowards, 
and the English fools, and that while Washington 
was a very good man, he was totally lackpg in 
experience, and too fond of his own notions to accept 
the advice ofiered him by the Indians. A short time 
after his removal to Aughquick, the Half-King was 
taken sick, and in October, 1754, he died. Upon 
news of his death being received at Will's Creek, 
Colonel Innes called together all the Indians in front 
of the Fort. He announced the death of the warrior. 


and George Croghan, who was an intimate friend of 
Tanacharisson^ aiiid a trader at Aughquick^ made 
a condolence speech, and gave them a present of 
goods to cover the grave of the Red man whom they 
had so highly esteemed. There was great lamenta- 
tion amongst the Indians, who attributed the death 
of the Half-King to the French, whom their medicine 
man declared had bewitched him, and they threatened 
to be revenged upon their white enemies for this 

Shortly after the completion of the barracks at 
Fort Moimt Pleasant, Governor Dinwiddie received 
from the King instructions to proceed at once to the 
erection of a fort at Will's Creek, which should be of 
such dimensions and character of construction as the 
importance of the position seemed to require, in view 
of more extensive military operations in the direction 
of Fort Duquesne, Governor Dinwiddie at once 
transmitted these instructions to Colonel Innes, who 
was directed to . comply with the orders without 
delay. General Braddock, who had been designated 
by the Duke of Cumberland as the Commander-in- 
Chief of the new expedition, and who had been 
privately instructed by the Duke as to his wishes, 
also requested Governor Dinwiddie to have the Fort 
put in condition to accommodate two hundred men, 
and announced that it should be named ^^Fort 
Cumberland," in honor of the Captain-General of 
the British army, who had honored him with so 
important a mission. 



The orders of the King were obeyed with alacrity 
by Colonel Innes, and under his supervision Fort 
Cumberland was erected and garrisoned, during the 
winter of 1754—55. The citizens of our city have for 
generations past pointed out the spot upon which this 
Fort was located, but they had no information or 
conception of the size, shape, and character of the 
work, or its surroundings. Fortunately, a sketch of the 
Fort was found by the author amongst the King's 
Manuscripts, in the Library of the British Museum, 
in London. A photographic copy of this sketch was 
secured, and an engraving of the same is here given. 
It was drawn by one of the officers in the Fort, at the 
time of General Braddock's arrival. The fortifications 
were drawn to a scale, but the proportions were not 
preserved in mapping out the river, creek, and sur- 
rounding grounds. This fact made it somewhat 
difficult to establish the exact lines of the work, and 
' compelled a resort to the memory of our oldest inhab- 
itants. Mr. Jesse Koms has a distinct recollection of 

climbing over the remaining earthworks when a boy, 


and he fixes the Easterly line of the Fort, that portion 
of it which runs to a point nearest Will's Creek, 
uome forty feet east of Emmanuel Church. The 
conformation of the ground at that spot is strongly 
confirmatory of his opinion, as well as other circum- 
stances, which fix the Western line near the boundary 
of Prospect street. The greater portion of Fort 
Cumberland was a pallisado work — all of it, in fact, 
except the small bastioned work on the Western end. 
The pallisades were logs cut to a length of eighteen feet, 
and planted in the earth to a depth of six feet, forming 
a close wooden wall twelve feet in height. These 
logs were spiked together, with strips and pins on the 
inner side, and the wall was pierced with openings 
for musketry along its entire face. Two water gates 
are shown in the plat, and from each of these a 
trench was excavated leading to the creek, so that the 
men might secure therefrom a supply of water, 
without being exposed to the fire of the enemy. In 
1756, after Braddock's defeat, the Indians became so 
numerous and so bold as to approach near enough to 
shoot those who ventured to the water's edge, and in 
consequence thereof a well was sunk inside of the 
pallisade near the main gate on the South side. This 
well was in use not many years since, and is still in 
existence on the property of Hon. Hopewell Hebb. 
It was about eighty feet in depth, and within the 
memory of the writer was furnished with an immense 
wheel and two buckets by which excellent cold water 
was drawn from it. About the year 1799, this well 
was first cleaned out, after the abandonment of the 
Fort, and the father of Mr. John B. Widener was 

1755.] FORT CUMBfiKLANl). 91 

present when part of a gun carriage, a wheel, and a 
large quantity of cannon balls, musket balls, &;c., were 
taken therefrom. 

Inside the stockade, were built barracks su£5cient 
to furnish quarters for two hundred men, and the 
company officers. Besides, there was a parade or 
drill ground for the companies. 

At the west end of the stockade was built a fort, 
with bastions, parapets and ditches, where sixteen 
guns were mounted, which commanded all the 
ground north, west and south, as well as the north 
and south lines of the stockade. These guns were of 
diflferent calibre, four of them being 12.pounders, and 
twelve 4-pounders. Besides these, there were several 
swivels. A part of this armament was ships' guns, 
brought from Admiral Keppel's fleet. On the west 
face was a sally port, and inside the fort were the 
houses used as quarters for the commanding officer, 
for storing provisions, and for the guard details while 
on duty. 

The entire work was 400 feet in length, and 160 
in width, extending from the point indicated below 
Emmanuel Church to within a short distance of 
Prospect street, the northern line extending along 
nearly the centre of Washington street. The 
Fort proper occupied almost the identical spot on 
which now stands the residence of Mr. James A. 
MillhoUand, known as the "Hoye House." 

This fortification was of considerable strength, 
and commanded the approaches from the North, 
East and South. The ground to the North-west 
was somewhat higher, but a small earthwork of a 


temporary character was constructed on the crest, 
on the site of the residence of the late James W. 
Jones, Esq. The ground on the South side of the 
river, opposite the Fort, was high enough to overlook 
the work, and somewhat interfered with its eflSciency. 
The company parade and drill ground was inside the 
pallisades, but the dress parades were held on the 
ground now occupied by the Court House and 
Academy. Quite a number of log houses for barracks 
were built near the crest, and as far back as 
Smallwood street, but these were made use of only 
when there was present a greater force than could be 
accommodated in the Fort, and the barracks inmie- 
diately adjoining. 

At the present day the site of old Fort Cumberland 
is one of the most attractive spots in the State of 
Maryland. On the bluflf rising from the creek stands 
in bold outline Emmanuel Episcopal Church, a 
handsome Gothic structure of native brown stone, 
embowered in masses of ivy, and relieved by grassy 
slopes, attracting and arresting the attention at once. 
The remainder of the ground is occupied by the 
handsome residences of R. Chew Jones, Esq., Hon. 
Hopewell Hebb, and James A. Millholland, Esq. 
Scores of relics of the days of Washington and 
Braddock were gathered from the soil while these 
improvements were being made. Cannon balls, 
musket balls, bayonets, flints, musket barrels, &c., 
were amongst the trophies recovered. 

In the caihpaign of 1755, generally known as 
"Braddock's Expedition," Fort Cumberland was the 
most prominent point occupied on the line of march, 

^, Plan o/llu>Tariand-baATttckiatliount:?UtLJaniln,M(uy/^ 
!!' -/'^^ vKr/^ez/^/* rrovi/uanJ is feci (h^ 2h tacA^ 

C (intb^cJU Guard ^oom •» t ^^/ ^i 
y,Jlata.unc. p ' '' 

Jl Offucra r^U4rUr-y. 

H T9rt %rtuU ^Z^i/tf 

-y nt Ckaie 

R sraaie 

JT WcitcrGatAf 




5ERLAND, 1755. 

I 7 ^h MUSEUM, 


and was the scene of important military preparations. 
It had been chosen as the rallying point for all the 
troops in the operations against the French on the 
Ohio River, its location being naturally advantageous 
for this purpose, although as a post of defense for the 
frontier settlers further East it was practically of 
little value. Situated, as it was, upoii the very 
outskirts of civilization; surrounded by only a few 
hardy pioneers, and trappers, it was a favorite place 
of resort for those friendly Indians who had peltries 
to barter for the baubks, cloths, ammunition, &c., 
which they found at the Ohio Company's new store- 
house, and was at the same time well adapted as a 
place of rendezvous for such forces as might be 
designed for operations further west. It was located 
in the very heart of the wilderness, with virgin 
forests all about it, and roads of the most inferior 
character reaching back to the settlements, nearly 
eighty miles away, while the single road leading to 
the West was scarcely worthy being called such. In 
the organization of Braddock's forces, the supplying 
of his men and animals, and the events that followed 
until the close of the contest with the French, the 
scenes and incidents that transpired here rendered 
historic every foot of ground about the place, and 
invested it with an interest which should lead to 
their careful preservation for the information and 
pleasure of future generations. Here the Father of 
our Country, the great Washington, obtained his 
earliest lessons in the art of war, and for the first 
time beheld a body of regular troops systematically 
encamped; here he spent many weeks in the 


education of the camp and the drill, and familiarized 
himself with those duties which were to become so 
prominent a part of his future life, in the struggle 
his country was destined to embark in to preserve 
its freedom and integrity. The minutias of the 
preparations, and contests which arose, as shown by 
the letters and documents to be found in future pages 
of this work, are exceedingly interesting, and worthy 
of preservation in every library in the country. 
Throughout the pages of history frequent reference 
is made to Fort Cumberland, in connection with the 
progress of the plans and operations to which so 
much importance was at that time attached, but in 
no single work has there been recorded any con- 
tinuous and intelligent narrative which could satisfy 
the desires of those who feel an interest in our 
beautiful city, or gratify their thirst for accurate 
knowledge as to the discovery, settlement, fortification, 
improvement, cultivation, growth and progress of a 
section of country so richly endowed by nature with 
wealth and picturesque loveliness. This history has 
been gathered from rare volumes and precious manu- 
scripts, both in this country and England, as well as 
from oral traditions and family records, and while 
much has been thus fortunately preserved, many 
facts of great interest have doubtless been lost in 
oblivion, never to be recovered. 

The campaign which had terminated so unfortu- 
nately at Fort Necessity, served to bring Fort 
Cumberland into great prominence, and the English 
authorities regarded it thenceforth as their base of 
operations. Intelligence of the disaster above men- 


tioned was received in London in August, 1754, 
and caused much excitement in the cabinet. The 
ministry could not ignore the importance of immediate 
action, and as the colonies seemed to be fatally slow 
in providing the necessary means of defense, it became 
apparent that the Crown must furnish both troops 
and supplies. The Duke of Cumberland was sum- 
moned to the councils of the King, and his keen 
perceptions, and energetic nature, speedily led to 
preparations for a decisive stroke, the nature of 
which, however, was kept secret from the public. 

In September the Ministry determined to send to 
America two regiments of infantry, the Forty-fourth, 
Colonel Sir Peter Halkett, and the Forty-eighth, 
Colonel Thomas Dunbar, each 500 strong. These 
were to be recruited to 700 after their arrival in 
Virginia, Two other regiments, of 1,000 men each, 
were also to be raised at the King's cost in America, 
one to be commanded by Governor William Shirley, 
of the province of Massachusetts, and the other by Sir 
William Pepperell. Sir John St. Clair, Lieutenant- 
Colonel of OflfarraU's regiment, had been appointed 
Deputy Quartermaster-General for all the troops in 
the colonies, with the rank of Colonel, and before the 
close of the year he sailed for Virginia, with a view 
to informing himself as to the country and the 
necessities of the campaign. In November large 
supplies of clothing, tents, marquees, arms, accoutre- 
ments, ammunition, wagons, &c., were made ready 
for use, and £10,000 in cash were sent to Virginia, 
together with authority to draw for as much more 
should it become necessary to do so. Every prepa- 


ration was made with a view to rendering certain the 
success of a simultaneous movement upon Forts 
Duquesne, Crown Point and Niagara; and it was 
thought that at least twelve thousand men could be 
secured for service, counting the Royal troops, the 
Militia, and the Indians whom the colonial Governors 
had been instructed to secure. 

The Duke of Cumberland took the deepest interest 
in the preparations for this campaign, and his orders 
were closely followed throughout. He chose for 
commander of the troops to be sent to Virginia, and 
as Generalissimo of all His Majesty's forces on the 
North American Continent, Major-General Edward 
Braddock. Shortly afterward Parliament voted the 
following sums to pay the expenses of the expedition : 

For two regiments of foot to be raised for North Americat £40,350 lbs 
For defraying the charges of the officers appointed to go 

with the forces commanded by General Braddock • - £7,338 2s 6d 
For defraying the charges of the officers appointed to 
attend the hospital for the expedition commenced by 
General Braddock £1,779 7* 6d 

£49,468 5s 

General Edward Braddock was the son of Edward 
Braddock, a Major General in the British army, who 
served for thirty years as an oflScer in the Coldstream 
Guards, .and who was esteemed as an " honest, brave 
old gentleman," The date of the birth of the last 
General Edward Braddock is not known, but is 
supposed to have been about 1695, as it is recorded 
that he entered the army on the 11th of October, 1710, 
with the rank of Ensign in the ColdSitream Guards, 
in which corps his father had served so long. He 
was promoted on the 1st of August, 1716, to a 



Lieutenancy; on the 30th of October, 1734, to a 
Captain-Lieutenancy; on the 10th of February, 1736, 
to a Captaincy in the Second Regiment of Foot 
Guards; on the 2d of April, 1743, to Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the line, and also to be second Major of 
the Colds treams ; on the 27th of May, 1745, to be 
first Major, and on the 21st of November following 
to be Lieutenant-Colonel. Braddock won several of 
these promotions by his bravery and gallantry in 
hard fought and bloody battles, in several of which 
the Duke of Cumberland was in command. The 
Coldstreams was a regiment of model soldiers; in * 
courage and discipline they were unsurpassed by any 
troops in the world; its recruiting standard was 
extraordinarily high; and no Papist, no Scot, no 
Irishman, no "vagabond" was under any consideration 
permitted to become even a private in the ranks of 
this body whose every member seemed to feel that 
the honor and pride of the regiment wa^ in his 
keeping. They looked upon all other troops as mere 
apprentices in the art of war, and carried their 
contempt for them to such an extent that it became 
necessary to issue an order forbidding them to laugh 
at or make game of other troops while they were on 
parade. The regiment was originally formed of the 
elite of Fenwick's and Hesilrige's Parliamentary 
regiments, and was universally regarded as the 
embodiment of all that was valiant, heroic and 
soldierly. Commissions were held in highest esteem 
in this body, and in 1720 the King fixed the price of a 
LieutenantpColonelcy in the Coldstreams at £5,000; a 

Major s commission at £3,600; a Captain's at £2,400; a 


Captain-Lieutenant's at £1,500; Lieutenant's £900; 
an Ensign's £450; and in 1766 these rates were 
doubled. The payment of these sums, however, 

was not alone sufficient; the purchaser was required 


to be of irreproachable character, and to pass an 
examination to prove his competency. 

For nearly fifty years had Braddock served in 
such a regiment, when he was chosen by the Duke 
of Cumberland as the commander of the expedition^ 
which was intended to put an end to all French 
pretensions in North America. 

A closely disciplined military education, of a 
life-time's duration, necessarily made Braddock a 
martinet; and with discipline and courage he was, 
of course, a soldier, no matter what may have been 
his other characteristics. That he was dissipated to 
a certain extent is undeniable; and it cannot be 
maintained that he wa« possessed of such high 
personal qualifications as to make his character one 
to be admired. He was fond of high living, convivial, 
and prone to the laxity of morals that usually follows 
excess in those particulars. The gaming table had 
its fascinations for him, and he was arrogant, unfor- 
giving, and intemperate. He was haughty, severe, 
reserved, and full of self-importance, which qualities 
served on many occasions to make him greatly 
disliked. There was little of refinement in his 
nature, and he was brutal in his treatment of those 
who invoked his resentment or dislike. When he 
had heard something of the nature of the business 
upon which he was to embark in America, and of 
the enemy he was to meet, he evinced a fatal lack 


of appreciation of their strength and disposition, and 
boasted that he would sweep them before him, like 
chaff before the wind. His reputation was somewhat 
damaged by one or two affairs which indicated really 
low instincts — made still lower by strong drink, 
disreputable associates, and licentiousness. For these 
he was lampooned by satirists, and sneeringly 
discussed in the coffee-houses. His brother officers, 
however, evidently knew all the good and the bad 
in him, and weighed his vices and virtues; the result 
was that he was accepted as "one of them," and 
associated with upon termp of equality. His faults 
were condoned, because of his good qualities, and for 
his valor and soldierly acquirements, at least, he was 
esteemed. He had fought two duels, one with 
Colonel Gumley, and another with Colonel Waller, 
in the former of which he was disarmed, but had too 
much pride to ask his life. Braddock was in 
possession of moderate means upon the death of his 
father, but his manner of life would soon have 
dissipated a fortune less slender, and his straightened 
finances frequently made him uncomfortable and 

The most reckless display of heartlessness that 
was at any time developed in his speech, was on 
the occasion of the death of his sister, Fanny 
Braddock. This young lady was beautiful, talented, 
witty, and lavishly generous. In the fullness of her 
friendship she sacrificed her fortune to pay the debts 
of a gentleman of whom she was very fond, and he 
repaid the imprudent act with such ingratitude as 
must have well nigh broken her heart. She was 


greatly addicted to gambling, the only vice ever 
attributed to her. Her loss of fortune, and the 
falling away of friends, so preyed upon her mind^ 
that in a fit of desperation she hanged herself, with 
a silken scarf, on the night of the 8th of September^ 
1731, at Bath. When Braddock was informed of 
this he said: "Poor Fanny, I always thought she 
would play until she would be forced to tuck herself 

General Braddock had been chosen by the Duke 
of Cumberland because his "courage and military 
discipline had recommended him as of ability for so 
great a trust." The Duke had been an eye-witness 
to his courage on more than one occasion, and was 
undoubtedly convinced of the wisdom of giving him 
this command. 

Early in November both the Duke and Braddock 
arrived in London, where they had frequent inter- 
views and conversations relating to the conduct of 
the expedition about to be undertaken. The Captain- 
General gave Braddock minute instructions as to the 
course he was to pursue; the organization of his 
forces; the supplies to be provided; posts to be 
established, &c. Amongst other verbal instructions, 
he directed Braddock to see that Fort Cumberland 
was strengthened, and made to accommodate a gar- 
rison of two hundred men. He advised the greatest 
care in dealing with the Indians, who would be found 
a foe different in every way from the regular troops 
of civilized nations, and practiced in woodcraft. To 
the latter suggestions Braddock gave little heed, 
expecting to make short work of the savages with his 



splendid regular troops. After two weeks spent in 
liondon^ Braddock went to Cork, to hasten prepara- 
tions for the sailing of the transports, but many weeks 
elapsed before everything was in readiness, and it was 
not until the 14th of January, 1755, that the fleet 
was under sail. The delay was so irksome to the 
General that he embarked on board the Norwich, 
Captain the Honorable Samuel Barrington, and sailed 
on the 21st of December, accompanied by the 
Centurion, the flag ship of Commodore Keppel, and 
the Syren, Captain Proby. The fleet, which sailed on 
the 14th of January^ consisted of the following vessels: 


Aona, Captain r<[eviD ; Terrible, Captain Wright ; 

Halifax, Captain Terry ; Fame, Captain Jadd ; 

Osgood, Captain Crookshanks ; Concord, Captain Boynton ; 

London, Captain Brown ; Prince Frederick, Captain Barton ; 

Industry, Captain Niller ; Fishbam, Captain Wm. Tipple ; 

Isabel and Mary, Captain Hall ; Molly, Captain John Curling ; 

Severn, Captain Jehosa Rawlings. 
Whiting, Captain Johnson ; Newall, Captain Montgomery. 


These were under convoy of two men-of-war, the 
Seahorse and Nightingale, and in addition to the stores 
there were on board £14,000 in specie. 

Meantime Governor Dinwiddie, in Virginia, was 
exerting himself to make the provincial troops 
eflfective, and the House of Burgesses had voted 
£20,000 for the public service. He enlarged the 
army to ten companies of one hundred men each, and 
put all upon the establishment of independent com- 
panies, whereby the regimental organization was 
wholly destroyed, and the highest office possible 
was that of Captain, and all officers holding King's 


commissians were superior to officers of similar grade 
in the Virginia regiments. The result of this 
destruction of regimental organization^ was to reduce 
Colonel Washington to the rank of Captain, and to 
put over him officers whom he had commanded. 
Naturally, and justly, he regarded this as a degrada- 
tion, and immediately he resigned his commission, 
and retired to his farm at Mount Vernon. Governor 
Sharpe, of Maryland, was familiar with Washington's 
career, and knew his value, and importuned him 
to take up the sword again, assuring him of a 
commission equal to that he before held. He declined^ 
however, to accept the invitation, and expressed his 
surprise that such a proposition should be made him. 
He replied, "if you think me capable of holding a 
commission that has neither rank nor emolument 
annexed to it, you must entertain a very contemptible 
opinion of my weakness, and believe me to be more 
empty than the commission itself." He concluded by 
saying, " I shall have the consolation of knowing that 
I have opened the way, when the smallness of our 
numbers exposed us to the attacks of a superior 
enemy, and that I have had the thanks of my country 
for the services I have rendered." Notwithstanding 
he declined to enter the army upon the terms offered 
him, he had a desire to engage again in the profession 
of arms, and thought much upon the subject during the 
winter, which he passed in almost perfect retirement.* 

•There had. as heretofore stAted, been a conflict an to rank between WaHhinstoii and Captaia 
Maekaye at Furt Necet-sity. WaHhlnctou exprenHed hia belief that the action which rmulted in 
throwing out the higher offlcem, holding Colonial cominisKioud. wa« "f^eoerated and hatched 
at Will's Creek," and was chargeable to Governor I>inwiddie. He aarnred Oorernor Sharpe that 
while hu self-respect forbade hiu to nerve under such ctrcunwtanoeN. his feelings were "strongly 
bent to arms." These orders, were, however, reiterated during the winter bjr the Kovernment. 
and officers of the royal troops were given rank over those of the same grade holding Colonial 
oommiMioniof older date, while proviocial field oiBcers were allowed no rank whatever when 
serving with general and fleld oflloors commutsioned by the Ccuwn. 


Affairs at Fort Cumberland were very quiet at this 
time, so far as the enemy was concerned. About the 
1st of January, 1755, a party of Indians, numbering 
fifteen, arrived at the Fort, and said they had been 
with the French. They asked a great many questions 
as to the intentions of the British, and asserted that 
the Indians had resolved to remain in the position of 
neutrals, and not to take any part in the war. The 
conduct of these visitors was so singular as to excite 
distrust, and they were permitted to leave the camp, 
without obtaining any information other than such 
as they could acquire by close observation. 

On the 20th of January, Governor Sharpe again 
visited Fort Cumberland, and on the 26th Sir John 
St. Clair arrived. They made an examination of the 
works, the supplies, and the arms ; and two days were 
spent in inspection and consultation as to the additions 
that were necessary to the stores, and the best method 
of getting them to the camp. About the 28th these 
gentlemen stepped into a small boat, at Fort 
Cumberland, and descended the Potomac to Alex- 
andria. They inspected the river the entire distance 
traversed, with a view to determining the feasibility 
of sending supplies to Fort Cumberland by water, and 
Sir John St. Clair was of opinion that such a project 
was entirely practicable, could the rocks in the 
channel at Great Falls be removed. This he thought 
could be accomplished by means of gunpowder, to an 
extent sufficient to permit the passage of flat bottomed 
boats. The experiment, however, was never tried, 
and the bulk of supplies was afterwards sent over the 
rough mountain roads in wagons. 


While at Fort Cumberland, Governor Sharpe found 
military affairs in a very unsatisfactory condition ; the 
Virginia companies were unruly, discontented and 
mutinous, while the Maryland company was of little 
value, because of its limited numbers and lack of 
discipline. The officers of the Colonial companies 
and those holding King's commissions, were at daggers' 
points, because of the dispute as to rank ; and this of 
itself, was extremely demoralizing in its effects. Sir 
John St. Clair inspected the soldiers at the Fort, and 
discharged no less than twenty from Captain 
Rutherford's company, because of their unfitness for 

On the 20th of February, the Norwich, having on 
board General Braddock, Captain Orme, one of his 
aides-de-camp, and Mr. William Shirley, his Secretary, 
entered Hampton Roads. This arrival had been 
looked forward to with the utmost interest by the 
people of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, who 
were very solicitous for the defeat and punishment 
of the French, but felt both unable and unwilling to 
bear the expense of the necessary troops and supplies. 
Two of the transports, the Osgood and Fishbum, 
arrived on the 2d of March, and a fortnight later the 
entire fleet had arrived and proceeded to Alexandria, 
where the troops were temporarily quartered. 

General Braddock had not awaited the arrival of 
the fleet, but had gone to Williamsburg, where he 
consulted with GovernoT Dinwiddle, and at once 
invited the Governors of the various colonies to meet 
him at Annapolis. On the 14th of April Governors 
Shirley, of Massachusetts; Dinwiddle, of Virginia; 


Delancy, of New York; Sharpe, of Maryland; Morris, 

of Pennsylvania; and Dobbs, of North Carolina, 

assembled with him, in convention, at Alexandria, 

and after a lengthy discussion made articles covering 

arrangements for the prosecution of a comprehensive 

campaign. In addition to these gentlemen, Admiral 

Keppel, commander of the fleet, was present. The 

plan adopted embraced three different movements, 

viz: One against Fort Duquesne, by Braddock; one 

against Niagara and Frontenac, (Kingston,) under 

command of Governor Shirley, and one against Crown 

Point, on Lake Champlain, by General William 

Johnson, who was then a resident, and an influential 

man, amongst the Indians of the Mohawk nation. 

The time fixed upon for the inauguration of active 

operations was the end of June, and it was thought 

that an easy victory would be accomplished in every 


General Braddock evidently had very crude ideas 

regarding the colonies and the inhabitants thereof, 

and expected all the orders of the Ministry to be 

carried into effect as concisely as was the custom at 

home. He therefore anticipated the prompt supply 

of the four hundred men who were to recruit the 

ranks of the 44th and 48th regiments, and which 

were to come from Pennsylvania. These were not 

forthcoming, and he wrote frequent letters to Governor 

Morris, entreating him to use every effort to secure 

the men, and offered a bounty of £3 for each recruit. 

His persistent appeals, however, were fruitless, from 

which cause he gave expression to his disgust and 

anger in most violent language. It may readily be 


imagined that the General's temper was not afterwards 
improved, when he found that his movements were 
to be seriously retarded by a lack of means of trans- 
portation, as well as by scarcity of supplies. Sir 
John St. Clair had bargained with two Dutch settlers 
at the foot of the Blue Ridge, for two hundred 
wagons and fifteen hundred pack-horses, to be 
furnished early in May, at Fort Cumberland; and 
Governor Sharpe had agreed to furnish a hundred 
wagons to be used in transporting stores, on the 
Maryland side of the Potomac, towards Fort Cumber- 
land. Neither of these contracts was fully carried 
into effect. The Dutch settlers neglected the matter 
entirely, and Governor Sharpe experienced the 
greatest diflSculty in getting together even a few 

In considering the difficulties of this campaign, 
some of which began to be apparent to him, Braddock 
remembered Washington, with whose course he was 
well acquainted, and he deemed it for the good of the 
country's service to call him ag<ain to the field. He 
appreciated fully the dignity of the young Virginian's 
action in resigning his commission, and was pleased 
with the spirit he had shown. Washington was 
already under the influence of a fever of military 
zeal, which was fanned to a greater heat day after 
day by the preparations he saw being made for war, 
and he was a frequent visitor to the camp at 
Alexandria. A number of prominent personages 
represented to General Braddock the value of 
Washington's services, he having experience and a 
thorough knowledge of the country, and the result 


was that Captain Orme wrote, by Braddock s orders, 
the following cordial letter, addressed to Major 
Washington : 

'* Williamsburg, 2 March, 1755. 

** Sir : — The General having been informed that yoa expressed some 
desire to make the campaign, bat that you declined it upon some 
disagreeableness that, jou thought might arise from the regulations of 
command, has ordered me to acquaint jou that he will be very glad of 
your company in his family, by which all inconveniences of that kind will 
be obviated. 

" I shall think myself very happy to form an acquaintance with a 
person so universally esteemed, and shall use every opportunity of 
assuring you how much I am. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

"ROBERT ORME, Aiddecampr 

Washington was highly gratified by the compliment 
80 gracefully tendered, and hastened to accept a 
position so agreeable to his tastes and inclinations. 
His position as aid-de-camp on Braddock's stafi* gave 
him no emoluments, and in fact could not be other- 
wise than expensive, yet he was freed thereby from 
the annoyance of questions as to rank, and was 
satisfied to accept as compensation the glory he 
might win, and the experience he might gain. 
His private affairs prevented him from at once 
entering upon his duties, and Captain Orme wrote 
him: "The General orders me to give you his 
compliments, and to assure you his wishes are to 
make it agreeable to yourself and consistent with 
your affairs ; and, therefore, he desires you will so 
settle your business at home as to join him at Will's 
Creek, if more convenient to you; and whenever you 
find it necessary to return, he begs you will look 
upon yourself as entirely master, and judge what is 
necessary to be done." 


While Braddock was getting ready for his march 
from Alexandria, Sir John St. Clair had returned to 
Fort Cumberland, where he , set everybody by the 
ears, and startled the commissioners who had been 
sent by Pennsylvania to attend the construction of 
the road required by the government. Nothing 
whatever had been done towards building this road, 
and Sir John was in a furious passion, hurling his 
strong language at Croghan and the other commis- 
sioners, and declaring that the want of the road would 
retard the expedition, and might cost them a 
disgraceful defeat, from the large number of additional 
troops the French would send into the country. He 
threatened to march an army into Cumberland 
county, to cut the roads, press horses, wagons, and 
forage, and that he would not permit his soldiers to 
handle an ax, but by fire and sword oblige the 
inhabitants to do the work, and that he would wreak 
general destruction. In case the French should 
defeat them he threatened to march through the 
province with drawn sword, and treat all inhabitants 
as a parcel of traitors, and much more to the same 
efiect. These harsh threats, while they called forth 
a reprimand from Braddock, as being ^^officiously 
violent," had the effect of stimulating the Penn- 
sylvanians to activity. Governor Morris exerted 
himself to the utmost, and manifested an earnest 
desire to do all in his power to forward the 
construction of the road, and in the latter part of 
April sent Mr. Thomas Walker to Fort Cumberland, 
with instructions to see such persons as were 
necessary, and to endeavor to have them give their 

1755.] GOVERNOR morris's EFFORTS. 109 

aid to the work. Mr. Walker wrote to Governor 
Morris as follows : 

**FoRT GuMBERLAKD, March ye 7th, 1755. 
" Honoured Sir : 

'^ I waited on Mr. James Wright and John Smith, on my way here. 
They both expressed the greatest desire of Complying with the InstractionR 
sent them by the Honourable Isaac Norris and the other commissioners 
in Philadelphia. I could not wait on Mr. Armstrong, without great loss 
of time, which occationed me to write to him only. 

"I don't doubt but your Honour has had the agreeable news of the 
arrival of the English Forces, which will make the greatest despatch 
necessary in the Gentlemen who are to purchase the Wheat. Just now a 
party men commanded by Mr. Lowmain Brought Joseph Nelson to the 
camp with two other men, and one Woman, who the Men had by force 
taken from her Father's House ; one man of Gapt. Rutherford's was shot 
through the arm. I am 

'' Your Honours Most Humble Servant in Hast 

" To the Hon'ble Robert Hunter Morris 

*' Governor of Pensilvania.'* 

Governor Morris undertook also to organize a band 
of Indians for the expedition, and he wrote to George 
Croghan, at his place at Aughquick, to get together 
as many warriors as possible who were friendly, and 
to distribute among them a number of wampum belts, 
engaging them to meet General Braddock at Fort 
Cumberland, and to take up the hatehet against the 
French. Croghan undertook this service, and agreed 
furthermore to furnish a company of hardy, resolute 
woodsmen, who knew every trail in the forests, and 
who were under command of Captain Jack, one of 
the most daring characters that could be found in 
the wilderness, and a terror to the Indians. 

The following letter was received by Governor 
Morris from Governor Dinwiddle, under date of 
March 10th: 


^'Williamsburg, March 10, 1755. 

" Your favor of the 26th nit. I recieved Yesterday — I am very glad you 
prevailed with Your Committee for the Flour of 14,000 bushels of wheat, 
to be delivered at Conogacheek : this is a very Seasonable Supply, as 
that quantity with what I have purchased, I hope will answer the 
Breadkind, & I hope I have Salt Provisions sufficient, but must entreat 
You to direct the delivery of the Flour with all imaginable Expedition : 
as the Transports are mostly arrived, I hope the General will take the 
Field soon & I would gladly hope that no Delay should be on account of 

'* I hope you will see it necessary to call ye Assembly immediately 
now the Forces from Britain have arrived, to endeavor with them to raise 
a considerable Sum of Money : for if it please God to give the General 
success in taking the Fort on the Ohio, it will be necessary that a Garrison 
of 250 men be left in it (at the charge of different Colonies) not to prevent 
his further Designs & this charge I think should be bore by the Colonies, 
otherway his taking the Fort & leaving it without a Garrison, will 
encourage the Frt^nch next Year to retake it & in course, keep the 
Colonies in continual war : whereas strengthening ourselves on the Ohio 
as above, I am in hopes may prevent any further attempts from the 
French and protect our Frontiers — and as a great deal of money will be 
wanted fur that Service, I have called on our Assembly to meet the first 
of May, in hopes to prevail with them for a further supply, for 100,000 
now will be of more Service than a million some Years hence. 

" The General goes for Alexandria the Beginning of next Week, and 

expects Gov : Shirley to meet him at Annapolis, & I propose to wait upon 

him at that place. 

" I remain with very great respect, 

''Sir Your most obdt h'ble Servt, 


Captain John Rutherford, who was at Fort 
Cumberland during the inspection by Sir John St. 
Clair, wrote to Governor Morris as follows: 

"Fort Cumberland, March 22, 1755. 

"I write your honor a few lines, tho' I shan^t think I have anything 
material to say until the two Regiments from Cork arrive. Our review 
by Sir John St. Clair is over, & after what he has discharged, I think 
what remains here will be fit for any service : I shall want twenty recruits 
to com pleat my company, in room of those he has discharged ft those I 
had discharged before, which I have a promise of getting from Maryland 


*' Col. Innes remains here to take care of stores and Indian affairs, & 

Sir John, by Genl Braddock^s orders, has led under my command my own 

Company, Capt. Demere's & two companies of Virginia Rangers, fifly 

men each, under Capt. Waggoner and Capt. Perronee ; Capt. Clark's, as 

unfit for service, is sent off to recruit, and Capt. Dagworthy's to be drafted 

for compleating the British Regimts. The greatest plague I find in my 

command proceeds from Whiskey, which had always prevailed, in spite of 

many expedients since the arrival of troops here. I must get the better 

of it if possible, & have punished several soldiers k staved some whiskey, 

but great complaints are made by the owners for want of proper warning, 

so I must beg your Honor would please order the enclosed Advertisement 

to be published in your newspapers for three weeks. 


** Sir, your Honor's 

" most obedient ft most humble serv't 


General Braddock, although disappointed in the 
matter of recruits, as well as of transportation, left 
Alexandria on his march to Fort Duquesne on the 
20th of April. 

On the 26th of April the command arrived at 
Fredericktown, in Maryland, where Washington 
then joined it. It became apparent to Braddock, 
here, that the selection of Virginia as the landing 
place for the troops was a great mistake, since neither 
provisions, forage nor transportation were there to be 
had, and that had they landed in Pennsylvania the 
march would have been shortened several weeks, and 
a saving of at least £40,000 sterling effected. He 
had relied upon the promises made that three 
hundred horses and two hundred wagons and teams 
would be supplied him; besides an abundance of 
ft)rage and provisions. Instead, however, he found 
at Fredericktown barely fifteen wagons, and less than 
one hundred horses, which number was totally 
inadequate to his necessities. In addition to this, it 


was found upon unloading the wagons that the 
provisions were spoiled, and stunk so intolerably that 
they were taken out of camp and buried. These 
facts aroused all of the General's bad temper, and he 
cursed the army contractors roundly, as well as 
Americans generally, denouncing the whole people as 
irresponsible and totally untrustworthy. Most of the 
officers shared in the harsh opinions entertained by 
their leader, which both Washington and Benjamin 
Franklin, the Postmaster-General, undertook to 
combat, the latter stating that Pennsylvania had 
voted £5,000 to the support of the King's troops, and 
was even then engaged in the construction of a road, 
qj^ great expense. He furthermore expressed his 
regret that the expedition had not landed in Pennsyl- 
vania, as there every farmer had his wagon, and 
there would have been no difficulty in securing all 
the transportation that might be required. Braddock 
took hope from this statement, and asked Franklin 
if he could not yet secure such wagons as were 
required for the success of his army. Franklin 
thought he could, and at once undertook the task of 
satisfying the General's wants in this respect. He 
had observed that the dress of Sir John St. Clair was 
that of a Hussar, or nearly approached it in some 
respects, and taking advantage of this, he published 
a letter, as follows : 

''to the inhabitants of the counties of LANCASTER, TORE AND 

"Friends and Countrymen : 

"Being occasionally at the camp at Frederick a few dajs since, I 
found the General and officers of the Army extremely exasperated oa 
account of their not being supplied with Horses and Carriages, which had 
been expected from this Province, as most able to furnish them ; but 

1755.] franklin's letter to the pennsylvanians. 113 

thro* the Dissensions between our Governor and Assembly, money had 
not been provided nor any stpps taken for that Parpose. 

" It was proposed to send an armed force immediately into these 
Connties, to seize as many of the best Carria/2;es and Horses as should be 
wanted, and compel as many Persons into the Service as should be 
necessary to drive and take care of them. 

" I apprehended that the Progress of a Body of Soldiers through these 
counties on such an Occasionj especially considering the Temper they 
are in, and their Resentment against us, would be attended with many 
and great Inconveniences to the Inhabitants ; and therefore more will* 
iDgly undertook the Trouble of trying first what might be done by fair and 
equitable Means. 

" The People of these back Counties have lately complained to the 
Assembly that a sufficient Currency was wanting ; you have now an 
Opportunity of receiving and dividing among you a very considerable 
Sum, for if the Service of this Expedition should continue (as it's more 
than probable it will) for 120 Days, the hire of these Wagons and Horses 
will amount to upwards of Thirty Thousand Pounds, which will be paid 
jou in Silver and Gold of the King*s Money. 

^ The Service will be light and easy, for the Army will scarce march 
above 12 miles per Day, and the Wagons and Baggage Horses, as they 
carry those things that are absolutely necessary to the Welfare of the 
Army, must march with the Army and no faster, and are, for the 
Army's sake, always placed where they can be most secure, whether on 
the March or in Camp. 

^ If you really are, as I believe you are, good and loyal Subjects of His 
Majesty, you may now do a most acceptable Service, and make it easy for 
yourselves ; for three or four such as cannot separately spare from the 
business of three Plantations a Wagon and fopr Horses and a Driver, 
may do it together, one furnishing the Wai^on, another one or two 
Horses, and another the Driver, and divide the Pay proportionally 
between you. But if you do not this service to your King and Country 
▼olnntarily, when such good pay and reasonable Terms are offered you, 
your Loyalty will be strongly suspected. The King's Business must be 
done : so many brave Troops, come so far for your defense, must not stand 
idle thro' your Backwardness to do what may reasonably be expected 
from you; Wagons and Horses must be had; violent measures will 
probably be used ; and you will be to seek for a Recompense where 
JOB can find it, and your case, perhaps be little pitied or regarded, 

'*! have no particular Interest in this Affair, as (except the satisfac- 
tion of endeavoring to do Good and prevent mischief,) I shall* have 
only my Labor for my Pains. If this method of obtaining the Wagons 
and Horses is not like to succeed, I am obliged to send word to the 
General in fourteen Days, and I suppose Sir John St. daivj the Hussar, 

114 raSTORY OF CUMBERLAND. [1755. 

with a body of Soldiers, will immediately enter the Proyince, of which I 
shall be sorry to hear, because 

*' I am very sincerely and traly 

" your Friend & Well Wisher, 


The promulgation of this document was speedily 
effective. The Dutch farmers of the back counties of 
Pennsylvania had formerly lived under despotic 
power, and they dreaded the Hussars as a scourge^ 
so that, believing St. Clair to have been a Hussar, 
and having heard of his violence and temper, they lost 
no time in sending forward two hundred wagons and 
two hundred and fifty pack horses, all of which 
reported at Fort Cumberland, for service, about the 
latter part of June. 

On the 30th of April Braddock left Frederick- 
town, with his staff and a body-guard of light 
horse. Before leaving Alexandria he had purchased 
of Governor Sharpe a chariot, one of the cumbersome 
carriages of that day, and was making his journey 
with a degree of style which would have been 
better suited to the cultivated districts of England. 
He quickly discovered that the road was ill-adapted 
to a conveyance of that character, and did not hesitate 
to express his opinion by " damning it heartily." 
The route pursued was that by way of Winchester, 
the other, and shorter road, not having then been 
built. He arrived at Fort Cumberland on the 10th 
of May. He passed Dunbar's division of troops on 
the Oldtown road, a few miles below Will's Creek, 
the entire line making room for him to pass on the 
narrow road, and the drums beating the Grenadier's 
March, as he drove past, surrounded by his staff, in 

1755.] braddock's arrival at fort Cumberland. 115 

their bright uniforms. When he arrived at Will's 
Creek he was received with a salute of seventeen 
guns, fired from the Fort, and the garrison drawn up 
in line, and ready for inspection. It was a little after 
noon when the (Jeneral arrived, and as the road had 
been, for several miles back, smooth and easy, lying 
along the beautiful river, and as the weather was 
mild and pleasant, he and his officers were in fine 
spirits, when they dismounted to take possession of 
their quarters and join Colonel Innes at dinner, at his 
table. At 2 o'clock Colonel Dunbar, with his com- 
mand, arrived, and they encamped on the hill to the 
west of the Fort, about where the residences of Hon. 
George A. Pearre and Mrs. J. Philip Roman now 
stand. The number of Indians here at that time was 
about one hundred, and their lodges were clustered 
in the woods, a quarter of a mile distant. They were 
all of the Six Nations, and amongst them were 
Scarooyadi, or Monicatoocha, successor to the Half- 
King; White Thunder, the keeper of wampum; 
Silver Heels, and Great Tree. Besides these. Bright 
Lightning, the daughter of White Thunder, and 
several other Indian women, were quite prominent in 
their curiosity, and every day they came to the drill 
ground to witness the marching of the soldiers, 
seeming greatly surprised by their numbers and the 
uniformity of their movements. Of these natives the 
Seamen's Journal says: "I would willingly say 
something of the manners and customs of the Indians 
but they are hardly to be described. The men are 
tall, well made and active, but not strong, but very 
dexterous with a rifle barrelled gun, and their 


tomahawk, which they will throw with great certainty 
at any mark and at a great distance. The women 
are not so tall as the men, but well made and have 
many children, but had many more before spirits 
were introduced to them. They paint themselves in 
an odd manner, red, yellow and black intermixed. 
And the men have the outer rim of their ears cut, 
which only hangs by a bit top and bottom, and have 
a tuft of hair left at the top of their heads, which is 
dressed with feathers. Their watch coat is their 
chief clothing, which is a thick blanket thrown all 
round them, and wear mocasins instead of shoes, 
which are Deer skin thrown round the ankle and foot. 
Their manner of carrying their infants is odd. 
They are laid on a board, and tied on with broad 
bandage, with a place to rest their feet on, and a board 
over their head to keep the sun off, and are slung to 
the women's backs. These people have no notion of 
religion, or any sort of Superior being, as I take them 
to be the most ignorant people as to the knowledge of 
the world and other things. In the day were in our 
camp, and in the night they go into their own, where 
they dance and make a most horrible noise." 

These Indians were from Aughquick, in Pennsyl- 
vania, and were brought to Will's Creek by George 
Croghan, who was commissioned by Braddock as a 
Captain to command the savages during the campaign. 
He was thoroughly acquainted with the Indian 
customs, spoke the language of several nations, and 
had great influence with them, having been a trader 
amongst them for many years. 

On the day of Greneral Braddock's arrival at the 


Fort he announced the appointment of Major 
Washington as aid-de-camp. By the 19th of May 
the forces were all encamped at this point, and con- 
sisted of the 44th and 48th regiments, each 700 
strong, the Independent companies of New York 100; 
carpenters 100; rangers 400, and the South Carolina 
detachment 100, a total of 2,100 men. These troops 
were encamped according to the plan approved of by 
the council of war, and Washington had ample 
opportunity to study the methods of the camp. 
Braddock was a martinet, whose education permitted 
him to overlook no detail which might prove of the 
least importance. He enforced implicit obedience, 
and punished in the most severe manner every 
infraction of law or regulation; his soldiers were 
drilled with persistence and precision, and the camp 
was made a model of order and regularity. The 
recruits were subjected to the most rigid discipline, 
and especial pains taken to make them attain to some 
degree of perfection in the drill. Drunkenness and 
theft were punished with a severity unknown in the 
army to-day, the ordinary penalty being a thousand 
lashes and ignominious expulsion from the regiments. 
Braddock maintained to some extent his old habits 
of extravagance and conviviality. He was by incli- 
nation and education a bon vivant, devoted to high 
living, and good wine, when it was possible to obtain 
those articles which were pleasing to his palate. The 
supply of choice things to cheer the inner man was 
lamentably short, however, upon his arrival at the 
Fort. But a few days later, through Franklin's 
efforts, there was received by the General a present 


of fifty fat oxen and one hundred sheep^ for the use 
of the army, and the following articles for his own 

Twelve Hamsi Four kegs of Sturgeon, 

Eight Cheeses, One keg of Herrings, 

Twenty-four Flasks of Oil, Two chests of Lemons, 

Ten loaves of Sugar, Two kegs of Spirits, 

One cask of Raisins, A cask of Vinegar, 

A box of Spice and Currants, A barrel of Potatoes, 

A box of Pickles and Mustard, Three tubs of Butter, 

Eight Kegs of Biscuit. 

In addition to these very acceptable supplies, each 
of the twenty subalterns of the 48th regiment received 
a parcel made up of the following : 

6 lbs. Loaf Sugar, 1 Gloucester Cheese, 

6 " Muscorado Sugar, 1 Keg, 20 lbs., good Butter, 

1 '^ Green Tea, 2 doz. old Madura Wine, 

1 ** Bohea Tea, 2 gallons Jamaica Spirits, 

6 " Ground Coffee, 1 bottle flour of Mustard, 

6 '* Chocolate, 2 well cured Hams, 

i chest best white Biscuit, i doz. Dried Tongues, 

i lb. Pepper, 6 lbs of Rice, 

1 quart White Vinegar, 6 " Raisins. 

Colonel Dunbar caused these latter articles to be 
divided between the subalterns of the two royal 
regiments. The Greneral again spread a bounteous 
table^ and his cooks devoted themselves to the 
preparation of dishes that might tempt his appetite. 
The "two kegs of spirits" were not neglected, and 
"punches" were with liberality passed around the 
board, on many and oft recurring occasions. A 
levee, or reception was held every day at head- 
quarters, from 10 to 11 o'clock a. m., at which time 
every officer was expected to pay his respects to the 

On the 12th, the Seamen's Journal states that a 


congress was held at the General's tent, at 11 o'clock, 
at which time all the officers attended the General, 
and the Indians were brought. The guard received 
them with their firelocks rested, and the interpreter 
was ordered to tell them that their brothers, the 
English, who were their old friends, were come to 
assure them that every misunderstanding that had 
been in former times should now be buried under that 
great mountain (pointing to )¥iirs Mountain). Then 
a string of wampum was given them, after which a 
belt of wampum was held forth, with the following 
speech, viz : that this wampum was to assure them of 
our friendship; that everybody who were their 
enemies were ours; and that it was not the small 
force only that we had here, but numbers to the 
northward, under our great war Captains, Shirley, 
Pepperell, Johnston, and others, that were going to 
war, and that we would settle them happily in their 
country, and make the French both ashamed and 
hungry. But that whatever Indians after this 
declaration did not come in, would be deemed by us 
as our enemies, and treated as such. The General 
told them he should have presents for them in a few 
days, when he should have another speech to make 
to them, and then, after having the ceremony of 
taking a drink of the spirits all round, the Indians 
filed out one after another in silence, and returned 
to their camp. On the same day one of those sudden 
gusts of wind, which sometimes visit this locality, 
with thunder and lightning, came down upon the 
camp, sweeping away a number of tents and eveiy- 
thing moveable, much to the consternation of the 


soldiers. The following day the weather was so 
excessively hot, that it was not deemed prudent to 
require of the men any exercise until after the sun 
had nearly set. At night the Indians had a grand 
war-dance in their camp, having declared their 
determination to take up the hatchet against the 
French. At dark they had a fire built, and formed 
a ring about it, dancing, gesticulating and shouting 
in the wildest manner, tjieir faces and bodies being 
covered with war-paint. Several Indians sat on the 
ground, beating a drum, made of a skin stretched 
over a tub, the name of which in their tongue is the 
toj/-wa-egun. ' They also contributed to the aggre- 
gation of unearthly sounds by the rattling of the 
sheshegwonj a bladder dried and filled with pease. 
It was a custom with these Indians, once or twice a 
year, for the women to dance, and all the men to sit 
by, and each woman selected the man she preferred, 
danced with him, and then lived with him for a 
week, at the end of which time she returned to her 
husband, and they lived as they did before.* The 
wild dance of the savages on this night drew many 
of the officers of the Fort to the scene, who looked 
on with much interest and some degree of awe, 
while these children of nature roused the echoes of 
the wilderness with their demoniacal shouts, and 
went through a thousand grotesque contortions. 

A court-martial which had been convened on the 
13th had tried several soldiers upon charges made, 
and Luke Woodward, a private in the ranks of the 
48th regiment, was convicted of desertion, and 
sentenced to death. General Braddock, however, 

!*• Jonnuklr wrItUn hj a naTal oSoar, niMUr Oom. K«|ip«I, whil* al Fort Oombwtoad. 


pardoned him, and was rewarded for his leniency by 
a repetition of the crime, by the ungrateful fellow, 
shortly afterwards. Three other soldiers of the 48th 
regiment, James Fitzgerald, James Hughes and 
Thomas Connelly, were convicted of having stolen 
a jug of beer. Connelly was sentenced to receive 
nine hundred lashes, and the others eight hundred 
each, and this punishment was inflicted just outside 
the Fort, in presence of the command, three hundred 
lashes being given each day until the punishment 
was complete. 

Washington was a close student of everything that 
took place in and about the camp. Especially did he 
treasure up all that he witnessed of the government 
and disposition of troops. He apprehended much 
delay and trouble because of the long train of artillery 
and wagons which was to be taken over the roads, 
of which he knew the worst. On the 14th he 
wrote the following letter to his brother, John A. 
Washington : 

" Fort Combbrland, 14 Maj, 1755. 
'' Dear Brotbrr : 

** As wearing boots is quite the mode, I must beg the favor of joa to 

procure me a pair that are good and neat, and send them to Major 

Carljle, who I hope will contrive to forward them as quickly as my 

necessity requires. i 

'* I see no prospect of moving from this place soon, as we have neither 

horses nor wagons enough, and no forage except what is expected from 
Philadelphia : therefore, I am well convinced, that the troubles and diffi- 
calties we must encounter in passing the mountains, for the want of 
proper conveniences, will equal all the difficulties of the campaign ; for I 
conceive the march of such a train of artillery, in these roads, to be a 
tremendous undertaking. As to any danger from the ememy, I look upon 
it as trifling, for I believe the French will be obliged to exert their utmost 
force to repel the attacks to the northward, where Governor Shirley and 
others, with a body of eight thousand men, will annoy their settlements, 
and attempt their forts. 


*'The General has appointed me one of his aides-de-camp, in- which 
^character I shall serve this campaign agreeably enoogh, as I am thereby 
freed from all commands but his, and give his orders, which must be 
implicitly obeyed. 

" I have now a good opportunity, and shall not neglect it, of forming 
an acquaintance, which may be serviceable hereafter, if I find it worth 
while to push my fortunes in a military line. 

*' I have written to my two female correspondents by this opportunity, 
one of whose letters I have enclosed to you, and beg your deliverance of 
it. I shall expect a particular account of all that has happened since my 
departure. " I am, dear Jack, 

" your most affectionate brother, 



Not only were horses and wagons still scarce, but 
the supply of food for the men was wholly insufficient, 
and of that on hand twenty-two casks of beef were 
inspected and condemned, on the 15th, as unfit for 
use. On the following day the last division of the 
train reached the Fort, under guard of two companies 
of Sir Peter Halket's regiment. This consisted of 
three field pieces, four ships' howitzers, several 
cohorns,* and forty-two wagons loaded with supplies. 
The first death at the Fort also occurred on that 
day. Captain Bromley, of Sir Peter Halket's 
regiment, who had been ill for several weeks, died on 
the 16th, and was buried with military honors on the 
18th. The weather was excessively hot, and the 
men suffered greatly therefrom. The funeral took 
place at 10 o'clock in the morning, at which time all 
the troops in the camp and the Fort were assembled. 
A Captain's guard marched before the corpse, with 
the Captain of the guard in the rear. The men 
carried their arms reversed, and the drums beat the 

•A flohorn la a nn*!! bronn mortor, moant«d on » wooden oarriftgo. and baTing bandlw, by 
whloh li may be oarriod a abort dtalanoa by two man. It was iavaatMl by Baron Ooebora. 


dead march. When the cortege approached the 
grave, the guard formed two lines, open order, facing 
each other, and rested on their arms, with the 
muzzle down, and their faces leaning on the huts of 
the guns. The corpse was carried between the lines, 
the deceased officer's sword and sash lying on the 
coffin, and the officers following, two abreast. The 
Chaplain read the burial service of the English Church, 
and after the coffin had been deposited in the grave, 
the guard fired three volleys over it, and were then 
marched to their quarters. 

The warriors who had come to Fort Cumberland, 
with Croghan, had, as before stated, brought their 
families with them, as they had no means of pro- 
viding for their women and children during their 
absence. The squaws seem to have been quite 
attractive in person, being well formed and having 
small hands and feet, languishing eyes and soft voices. 
To both officers and soldiers they possessed a charm 
which led to a great degree of annoyance. The 
brilliant uniforms and dashing style of the British 
officers had so captivated these untutored beauties 
that they spent most of their time in and about the 
camp, and willingly accepted the very marked 
attentions shown them. Presents of money and 
other articles were lavishly bestowed upon the young 
squaws, and Secretary Peters, of Pennsylvania, in 
a letter to Governor Morris, said, "the officers are 
scandalously fond of them." To such an extent were 
the amours of these parties carried that the warriors 
were roused to a fury of jealousy, and angrily 
denounced the officers. Bright Lightning the prin- 


cess, abandoned herself to the dissipation which was 
so novel to her, and her example was followed by 
most of her sisters. In order to prevent a serious 
outbreak, orders were issued, on the 11th, forbidding 
the women to come into the camp, and imposing a 
penalty upon officers and men who should give the 
Indians "rum, other liquor, or money, upon any 
pretense whatever." These stringent orders, however, 
did not remedy the evil, and the dusky maidens met 
their lovers in other places, a favorite resort being 
the shady grove just opposite the Fort, across the 
river, in Virginia. Finally, Braddock determined 
to get rid of the women entirely, and on the 18th a 
convention was held at his tent, which was 
attended by all the warriors. When they had 
assembled, the General made them a si)eech. He 
told them he had invited them to join him for the 
purpose of taking up the hatchet against the French; 
that it became necessary now, in preparing for the 
movement to the West that they should send their 
families — the women and children — back to Pennsyl- 
vania, where they might remain until the enemy had 
been punished. He said their Father, the King, had 
sent them presents for their families, and that he 
felt great interest in them, and was in much sorrow 
because of the death of the Half-King, and that he 
had ordered guns and ammunition to be given the 
warriors, so that they might be more successful in the 
chase; he wanted them to be good friends to the 
English, who were their brothers. The General 
presented them, then, with three belts and a string 
of wampum, ad^ well as beads, knives, rings, paint, 


cloth, &c., all of which they received with signs of 
great pleasure, and they promised to come on the 
next day and give their answer. They then returned 
to their own camp, and built a fire, around which 
they danced and sang all night long. 

On the following day they came to Braddock's 
tent, and notified him that they had called to give 
him their answer. Scarooyadi said the Indians had 
heard what the great Captain had said to them, and 
that the words of their white Brother were good; 
that they were thankful to their Father, the great 
King, for the presents he had sent, and for his kind 
words about the loss of the Half-King. The Indians 
would be the friends of their English brothers, and 
would take up the hatchet against the French; they 
would do all they could, and would furnish scouts to 
go into the country and see what their enemies were 
doing, and speedily bring them news. The warriors 
then sung their war song, dancing wildly, and 
chanting the deeds by which they promised to 
distinguish themselves, when led against the French. 
The General afterwards took them to that part of the 
Fort where the artillery was in position, which they 
examined with a great deal of curiosity, never before 
having seen any of these engines of war. He then 
ordered the gunners to fire three •12-pounders, three 
howitzers and three cohorns, the drums and fifes 
playing and "beating the point of war." The 
explosion caused by the discharge of nine big guns 
startled the Indians greatly, and excited their 
liveliest admiration. They afterwards approached 
the cannon with great caution, peered into their 


muzzles^ and walked all about them^ meantime 
gesticulating and making comments to each other 
upon these wonderful engines. After this display 
the warriors returned to their own camp. The 
General sent them a bullock, which they roasted, 
and they had a great feast, upon the conclusion of 
which they gathered about the fire, and danced their 
war dance, the warriors being decked in their 
feathers and hideous in their war paint. The officers 
from the Fort attended this afiair, and were quite as 
much impressed by the wild antics of the Red Men, 
as they went through the vaunting exhibition of 
their deeds in war, fighting and scalping their 
enemies, as were the savages by the thunder of the 
big guns of the Fort. } Throughout almost half the 
night was this wild riot kept up, the forests 
resounding with the terrible din of the rude drums 
and the yells and howls of the seemingly tireless 
dancers. Braddock had never before witnessed a 
scene like this, and he seemed to regard the painted 
sons of the forest as so many demons let loose from 
the infernal regions, and looked upon the weird 
ceremonies with mingled awe and amusement. 
While he beheld in them untutored children of the 
wilderness, evidently strangers to fear, and filled 
with a desire for heroic deeds, he regarded them with 
a degree of contempt, because of their total ignorance 
of discipline, and those rules of obedience and 
unanimity, which he knew were necessary to render 
efiective the soldiers of civilized nations. He had 
now established the most friendly relations with 
them, and hoped to make them useful as scouts 


and messengers, to ascertain the condition and 
movements of the enemy. 

' The women and children were a few days later 
sent back to Aughquick, and White Thunder 
and all but eight of the' warriors went along 
for the purpose of protecting them, promising to 
return in a few days. At the same time, the three 
Delaware chiefs from the Ohio returned to their 
village, for the purpose, as they alleged, of gathering 
together their warriors, and promised to join the 
command further west. None of them ever returned. 
Those who remained were Scarooyadi, and his son; 
Cashuwayon, Frason, Kahuktodon, AUscheeokatha, 
Dyoquario, and Kash-wugh-daniunto. The bad faith 
of the Indians who thus deserted caused the writer of 
the Seamen's Journal to declare that they were 
"villains, and always side with the strongest." 
Previous to their departure they had become so 
addicted to the excessive use of rum that it became 
necessary to issue stringent orders forbidding any 
person to furnish them with spirits, under the 
severest penalty a court-martial could inflict. 

Braddock had expected to spend only a few days 
at Fort Cumberland, in preparing for his march to 
the West, but he was unavoidably delayed, by the 
non-arrival of the wagons and stores promised, which 
were anxiously looked for day after day. 

He was by this time out of all patience, in conse- 
quence of the delay he was subjected to, on account 
of the failure to secure the transportation and stores 
he deemed necessary. He made iio allowance for 
the difficulties in the way, and expected to obtain 


everything in this new country with the same 
facility as at home. He denounced the contractors 
as swindlers and frauds, and in his anger applied the 
harshest epithets to all the officials of the Colonies, 
and the inhabitants generally. Washington had a 
clearer conception of the difficulties to be overcome, 
and he defended his countrymen against the attacks 
of the General, often becoming quite vehement in 
his defense. Notwithstanding these affiairs of the 
moment, the warm friendship between them remained 
unbroken, and Washington felt himself warranted in 
urging Braddock to abandon the idea of taking 
with him a long train of wagons, which he said 
would render their march slow and tedious, and 
involve the loss of much precious time. He advised 
the transfer of stores from wagons to the backs of 
horses, which he thought could be more readily 
obtained, and would relieve them of much incon- 
venience in traveling over the rugged mountains, 
and roughly-built roads, which lay between Fort 
Cumberland and Fort Duquesne. Braddock, however, 
could not be brought to accept the suggestions thus 
made, and persisted in his scheme of transporting 
the stores in wagons. He had the utmost confidence 
in his own judgment, and in the invincibility of his 
officers and men. 

This fact, together with his refusal to consult the 
chiefs who had come to the Fort, in all matters 
pertaining to the campaign, was doubtless the cause 
of the departure of most of the warriors. They felt 
hurt, and indignant that they should be regarded of 
so little importance in the councils, and to Croghan 


they had protested loudly. Washington and Croghan 
had both solicited more consideration for them at the 
hands of the General, but he could never be brought 
to yield to their entreaties. Both were discouraged, 
and knowing their cause of grievance, were not 
surprised when the chiefs found a convenient excuse 
for taking their departure. Braddock's Secretary, 
William Shirley, was impressed by his conduct to 
to such an extent that he wrote to Governor Morris, 
of Pennsylvania, in very uncomplimentaiy terms, 
saying : " We have a General most j udiciously chosen 
for being disqualified for the service he is employed 
in, in almost every respect. * * * j ^j^ ^^^ 
greatly acquainted myself with Indian Afiairs, tho' 
enough to see that better measures with regard to 'em 
might and ought to have been taken, at least to the 
Southwd. * * « Upon our arrival at this Port, 
we found Indian Affairs so ignorantly conducted by 
Colonel Innes, to whom they were committed, that, 
Novices as we were, we have taken 'em into our 
management." Alluding to Braddock's officers he 
said: "As to them I don't think we have much to 
boast. Some are insolent and ignorant; others 
capable, but rather aiming at showing their own 
abilities than making a proper use of them." 

The impatience of the General over the delay in 
furnishing supplies led him, on the 10th of May, to 
send Captain Leslie, Sir John St. Clair's assistant, 
into Pennsylvania to purchase forage. On the 20th 
eighty wagons arrived at the Fort, to be used in the 
expedition, and eleven wagons loaded with supplies 

for the officers. He had now about two hundred 


wa^ns and six hundred pack-horses, and made 
preparations for an early start. 

In the Seaman's Journal it is stated that 
"there were one hundred carpenters employed, under 
the carpenter of the ^Sea-Horse/ in building a 
Magazine, completing a Flatt, and squaring timber to 
build a bridge over Will's Creek; the Smiths in 
making tools; the Bakers baking biscuits; and Com- 
missaries getting the provisions ready for marching." 
This magazine was built in the North-west comer of 
the Fort, but the bridge over Will's Creek was never 
erected, or, if it was, no record or trace of it has been 
left. There was a ford just under the Fort and 
directly East of it, which was passable at all times 
except during high water. 

Two companies of Sir Peter Halket's regiment, 
under command of Major Chapman, and a troop of 
light horse, arrived from Winchester on the 21st, 
and went into camp. 

In addition to the wagons and horses received, the 
supply of provisions on hand and on their way to 
camp was sufficient for the entire campaign, and this 
once more restored Braddock's good humor. On the 
22d he wrote to Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, the 
following letter, which is aipongst the MSS. in the 
Maryland Historical Society: 

'^FoRT Cumberland, May 22d, 1755. 
" Sir : 

" As I propose soon to begin my march for Fort Duquesne, I am 
desirous of adjusting every future contingency in such a manner to avoid 
any mistake or misunderstanding. If I take ye Fort in its present 
condition I shall make additions to it as I shall judge necessary, and 
shall leave the Guns, Ammunition k stores belonging to ye Fort with a 
Garrison of Virginia and Maryland forces. But should they, as I have 


reason to apprehend they should, abandon & destroy ye Fortification with 
its Qnns, kcj I will repair or construct some place of defence k leave a 
Garrison as before. But as to the Artillery, ammunition, stores, 
provisions, kc^ they must be immediately supply^d by ye Governments of 
Virginia, Maryland k Pennsylvania, separately or jointly according to ye 
agreement made at Alexandria. And that I may not by delays in yours 
or the other Governments be detained so long as to frustrate any other 
designs for this year I must beg that you will have all these things in 
readiness to be forwarded to ye Fort, escorted by your militia. A proper 
quantity of Flower k Meal should be preparing as these in every situation 
must be regarded k if care is not taken to send these convoys the men 
must starve k his Majesty^s arms be dishonored (should they prove success- 
ful) k the ezpences k Trouble which his regard for the colonies have 
engaged him in rendered useless. Some Indians lately arrived here from 
the French fort, mention a bravado of the French and their Indians that 
they propose when the troops are far advanced to fall upon this back 
conntry and destroy the inhabitants. Make what use or give credit to 
this intelligence as you please. However, it may not be amiss to take all 
possible precautions. 

** As I find impracticable to take my chariot with me, if yon will send 
for it and ye Harness for the six Horses I shall be much obliged to yon 
k you will make use of it till I want it. I shall be still more as I am sure 
it will be less damaged by good usage than by lying still ; it will also 
save you the trouble of sending for another to England, as it shall be at 
your service at your own price when I leave this part of ye world; let your 
serv'ts take care of ye harness, and have it oiled if you don't use it. I 
shall leave directions to Col. Innes to deliver chariot, Harness, spare 
axle-trees and pole to your order. 

** I am Sir, your most obedient and 

" Most Humble Servant 


On the 27th the commissaries, one of whom was 
Colonel Cresap, engaged in loading one hundred 
wagons with provisions, in readiness for the march, 
and a guard, under command of a Captain, was sent 
back to Winchester to escort the rations then on their 
way to the Fort. A number of Delaware Indians 
came to the camp on this day, and wanted an 
interview with the General, but they were put oflF 
until the morrow, as the Indians of that tribe were 


looked upon by the oflScers with suspicion. Next day 
they went to the General's tent, and told him they 
had come to join him and to make war against the 
French, and asked him what he intended to do. He 
told them he would march in a few days to attack 
Fort Duquesne, and thanked them for coming to join 
him. These warriors got out of camp at the first 
opportunity, and doubtless returned to the French. 

On the 29th Major Chapman marched towards 
Fort Duquesne, with 500 men, two pieces of artillery, 
and a provision train of fifty wagons. Sir John St. 
Clair, with Mr. Spendelow, two engineers, six soldiers 
and two Indians, accompanied them, the men to be 
employed in repairing the road. 

On the 30th Captain Dobbs, with a company from 
North Carolina, arrived. Washington also returned 
to camp from Winchester, having in charge £4,000 
in money for use of the army, which Braddock had 
sent him for. In speaking of this matter, Washington 
wrote, a week later, to Mr. William . Fairfax, as 
follows : 

"Gamp at Will's Creek, 7 June, 1755. 
"Sir: I arrived with my charge safe in camp on the 30th of last 
month, after wasting a day and part of another in Winchester, expecting 
the cavalry to escort me up ; in which being disappointed I was obliged 
to make use of a small gaard of the militia of Frederick county. The 
General, from frequent breaches of contract, has lost all patience; 
and for want of that temper and moderation which should be used by a 
man of sense upon these occasions, will, I fear, represent us in a light we 
little deserve ; for, instead of blaming th^ individual, as he ought, he 
charges all his disappointments to public supineness, and looks upon the 
country, I believe, as void of honor and honesty. We have frequent 
disputes on this head, which are maintained with warmth on both udesy 
especially on his, as he is incapable of arguing without it, or giving up 
any point he asserts, be it ever so incompatible with reason or oommoa 


*^ A line of commnnication is to be opened from Pennsylvania to the 
French fort Daqaesne, along which, after a little time we are to receive 
all our convoys of people, who ought rather to be chastised for their 
insensibility to danger, and disregard of their sovereign's expecta- 
tions. They, it seems, are to be the favored people, because they have 
furnished what their absolute interest alone induced them to do, that is 
one hundred and fifty wagons and an equivalent number of horses. 

^ Major Chapman, with a detachment of five hundred men, and the 
quarter master General, marched two or three days before I arrived here, 
to open the road, and lay in a deposite of provision at a small fort which 
they are to erect at the Little Meadows. 

^* To morrow Sir Peter Halket, with the first brigade, is to begin his 
inarch, and on Monday, the General, with the second, is to follow. One 
hospital is filled with sick, and the numbers increase daily with the bloody 
flux, which has not yet proved mortal to many* 

♦ ♦«»♦♦»»* 

*' I am sir 

^'Your most obdt servt 


The discipline of the camp was made more stringent 
every day, and the punishment of soldiers for violating 
orders was both frequent and severe. Strict orders 
were issued against gaming, and drunkenness, each 
of these offences being punishable with two hundred 
lashes, without so much as a trial. Several soldiers 
were severely dealt with for theft and desertion, and 
the terror of an unyielding military law was relied 
upon to keep up the morale of the army. The 
Sabbath day was also observed, and religious services 
held regularly on Sunday mornings by the Chaplains 
of the regiments. Braddock's adherence to his ideas 
of thorough discipline, and his contempt for the Indians 
as warriors, not only resulted in the loss* of the 
services of those who had been brought him by 
Croghan, but also of a valuable ally in the person of 
Captain Jack, who was a well known scout, and who 


followed the Indian mode of warfare. Captain Jack 
commanded a company of daring men like himself, 
who were familiar with the woods, and with all the 
stratagems of the savages, to whom they had long 
been deadly foes. His family had been murdered 
and his cabin burned by a party of Indians, some 
time before, and he had devoted himself to avenging 
his murdered wife and children. His deeds of 
prowess had rendered him the terror of the Indians. 
He was clad in their garb, slept in the open air, was 
always alert, swift and certain in his fatal visits to 
their haunts, constantly paying the debt which he 
owed them, and which he had vowed should only be 
cancelled when his life should end. His home was 
on the Juniata, and he was known as the "Black 
Hunter." The alliance of this powerful trapper-chief, 
and his men, would have been of incalculable 
importance to Braddock, and their services were 
freely offered, but they were not willing to submit to 
the regular discipline of the army. For this reason 
their offer was rejected, and they took their departure. 

When everything had been made ready for 
the march from Fort Cumberland, the General seemed 
to regret somewhat the rough speeches he had made, 
regarding the country and the people generally, under 
the influence of his disappointments, though he 
persisted still in being much dissatisfied with the 
contractors, whom he declared had no patriotic 
impulses, and no thought other than to put money in 
their purses. 

Towards t'ranklin he entertained the most com- 
plimentary opinions, and before leaving he wrote to 


the Secretary of State the following flattering letter 
regarding that eminent man : 

*' WiLi/s Grbbk, June 5, 1755. 
" Sir : 

'* Before I lefl Williamsburg the Quarter Master General told me that 
I might depend upon twenty five hundred horses and two hundred wagons 
from Virginia and Maryland ; but I had great reason to doubt it, having 
experienced the false dealings of all \fi this country with whom I had been 
concerned. Hence, before my departure from Frederick, I agreed with 
Mr. Benjamin Franklin, Postmaster in Pennsylvania, who has great credit 
in that Province, to send here one hundred and filly wagons and the 
necessary number of horses. This he accomplished with promptitude 
and fidelity, and it is almost the only instance of address and integrity 
which I have seen in all these provinces.'' 

Everything being ready for the advance, the army 
was divided into three divisions. On the 7th of June 
the first division, imder Sir Peter Halket, left the 
camp at Fort Cumberland; on the 8th the second 
division, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Gage, of the 44th Regiment, marched. There was 
left in camp then only a small number of troops 
besides the garrison of the Fort. An order had been 
issued by the General, on the 2d, appointing Colonel 
Innes Governor of the Fort, and he was to remain 
with enough of the colonial volunteers to hold the 
Fort and protect the country about it from the enemy. 
The large number of women in camp, wives of soldiers, 
who could be of no service on the march, and would 
tend to impede the advance as well as to consiune the 
Htores, he determined to get rid of, and therefore sent 
twenty-four of them back to Philadelphia, with the 
following letter and pass : 

" Fort Cumberland, June 9th, 1755. 
" Sir : 

'* I have found it necessary to discharge a number of women who are 
wives to soldiers belonging to the forces under my command, and must 


beg of yoQ to give orders that they be subsisted in your goTemment ; 
their names are contained in the Passes I hare given 'em for their 
Protection, and I have taken care to order stoppages to be made of 
one-third Part of their Husbands' Pay to defray the expense of their 

*' I am, sir, your most obe'dient and most humble servant, 


''By his Excellency EcNrard Braddock, Esq, General and 
[L. S.] commander in chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North 

^ I do hereby certify that the Bearers, Mary Welch, Elizabeth Webster, 
Mary Walker, Mary Crab, Dorkey Moreton, Margaret Wray, Margaret 
Gates, Catharine McFarland, Jane Campbell, Catharine Watson, Annie 
Manning, Susanna Duncan, Annie McDonald, Mary Ryo, Margaret 
Doggett, Elizabeth Rickerby, Annie Anderson, Jean Anderson, Mary 
Scott, Annie Totle, Christiana Fergason, Mary Dimond, Eleanor Lemmon 
A Sara Lord are wives to soldiers belonging to forces under my 
command ; And all persons whatsoever are hereby required to suffer 'em 
to pass without hindrance or molestation. 

** Given at the Camp at Fort Cumberland, the 9th day of June, 1755. 

** By His Excellency's Command, 
"W. Shirley." 

Major Chapman had marched with his command, 
by the route marked out by Colonel Cresap and the 
Indian guide, Nemacolin. This route crossed Will's 
Mountain, as heretofore described, by way of Sandy 
Gap. Lieutenant Spendelow, of the Seamen, who 
accompanied Major Chapman on his first day's march, 
to aid in clearing the road, returned to the camp, 
impressed with the importance of discovering a less 
difficult route, and taking one of his officers and a 
squad of men, spent several days in examining the 
country. He finally concluded that a much more 
desirable road could be constructed along the East 
bank of Will's Creek, through the "Narrows," 
whereby he would be enabled to strike the old road. 

1755.] braddock's route. 137 

a few miles beyond, the distance being increased less 
than two miles. His advice as to this matter was 
accepted, and a road was built at once, the labor not 
being severe, whereby the heavy grades were entirely 
avoided, to the great relief of the transportation 
department. The troops that left the Fort after 
Major Chapman's departure took the new route, 
which was used altogether in the movements of the 
army afterwards. This route is shown on the map 
here given, as well as the original road, which 
was located by Mr. T. C. Atkinson, an engineer 
of great ability and the nicest accuracy, who 
was employed in the survey of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railway, and who spent considerable time in 
the examination of Braddock's route, and the traces 
still left in 1850 in the forests. The map as pre- 
pared by Mr. Middleton showed only the route over 
the mountain west of Will's Creek. The author has 
added thereto a line showing the new road opened by 
Lieutenant Spendelow through the "Narrows," and 
joining the other, five miles north of Fort Cumberland. 
The map as now given may be confidently accepted 
as perfectly accurate, in every respect. The route 
through the "Narrows" was eventually adopted by 
United States engineers in locating the great National 
Boad, which, however, was made to cross Will's Creek 
at the entrance to the "Narrows," and to skirt the 
mountain on the west side of the gorge instead of 
the east. Lieutenant Spendelow's road skirted the 
margin of Will's Creek, along the eastern base of the 
cliffs of the "Narrows" until this wonderful gorge 

was passed ; it then crossed the creek just above the 


mouth of Braddock's Run, and followed the course 
of the Run, crossing it at times, and in some 
instances taking the bed of the stream. It joined 
the other road near the Everstine place, five miles 
west of the Fort. Braddock's Run received its name 
fix)m this circumstance, and still retains it. 

The task of building Lieutenant Spendelow's new 
road was begun on the 3d of Jime, when an engineer 
and 120 men went to work on it, and completed 
about one mile a day, until the 7th, at which time 
Sir Peter Halket's division marched; on the 8th 
Gage's division followed, and on the 10th Dunbars 
division left the Fort, bringing up the rear. Braddock 
accompanied Dunbar's command, and Fort Cumber- 
land was left with a small detachment of able men, 
under Colonel Innes. Quite a number of men were 
left in the hospitals here, besides several officers, 
amongst them Commodore Keppel, the commander of 
the British fleet. Most of them were suffering from 
the bloody flux, which disease proved fatal to several 
soldiers, after only a short illness. 

The difficulties of the march soon brought 
the Greneral to appreciate the apprehensions of 
Washington; the steep mountains, rocky roads, and 
ugly ravines, incident to this new country were all 
beyond his anticipations. It became necessary to 
double up the teams in order to pull the wagons up 
the rough grades ; in some instances even this was 
impracticable, the seamen being obliged to draw 
them up by means of ropes and pulleys. Not more 
than three or four miles a day could be made, and in 
order to avoid a further delay, where already weeks 

1755.] braddock's route. 139 

of precious time had been lost, Braddock eventually 
yielded to Washington's advice, and sent back many 
of his wagons, taking the animals for pack horses, and 
transporting his stores in the only practicable 
manner. The artillery was a source of great trouble; 
although the guns were of small calibre, yet they 
could not be left, and the army struggled on, day 
after day, making only short marches. 

Braddock's route has been discussed and speculated 
upon to an extraordinary extent, and was for many 
years not very clearly defined. In "The Olden 
Time," an interesting collection of papers relative to 
the history of the settlement and improvement of the 
country about the headwaters of the Ohio, is a very 
satisfactory description of this route, written from 
Cumberland, by Mr. T. C. Atkinson, in 1847, which 
is undoubtedly more correct than any other ever 
published, and this document is given here in full : 
braddock's route to the battle of the monongahela. 

"The interest with which the routes of celebrated 
expeditions are regarded, and the confusion which 
attends them after the lapse of years, is well 
exemplified in the case of Hannibal, whose march 
towards Rome, in order to divert their army from 
the siege of Capua, was totally lost in the course of a 
few centuries. The constant blunders of Livy in 
copying first from one writer, and then from another 
who made him take a different path, justify a recent 
English historian who went to Italy to see the ground 
for himself, in saying that the Punic war was almost 
as hard in the writing as the fighting. 

"As the time is coming when the road by which 


the unfortunate Braddock marched to his disastrous 
field, will be invested with antiquarian interest, 
akin to that attending Hannibal's route, or rather the 
Tna scelerata, by which the Fabian family marched 
out of Rome, I have thought it time not idly spent to 
attempt to pursue its scattered traces as far as it is 
in my power, among more pressing occupations. In 
this sketch I do not design to pursue it to its extent, 
but only to identify it in those parts where it has 
been convenient for me to visit it, and in others to 
shadow out its general direction. Where it is 
obscure I hope to have opportunities to examine it 
at a future day. 

" Of the well conducted expedition of Col. Boquet, 
and its precise path, the publications of Mr. Hutchins, 
the geographer, who was one of the engineers, leaves 
us very well informed. It is presumable that similar 
details would be found of the march of 1755, if it had 
had a successful termination. The three engineers 
who were in the field were wounded; and it is 
probable their papers fell into the hands of the enemy, 
or were lost in the fight. 

^^ General Braddock landed at Alexandria on the 
20th of February, 1755. The selection of this port 
for the debarcation of the troops was censured at the 
time, though it is probable it had the approval of 
Washington. The two Regiments he brought with 
him were very defective in numbers, having but 
about 500 men each, and it was expected their 
ranks would be recruited in America. It is shown 
by the repeated requests on this point made by the 
General at Cumberland, that this expectation was 

1755.] braddock's route. 141 

vain. After numerous delays, and a conference with 
the Royal Governors, we find General Braddock en 
rouUe on the 24th of April, when he had reached 
Fredericktown in Maryland. Passing thence through 
Winchester, Va., he reached Fort Cumberland about 
the 9th of May. Sir John St. Clair, Deputy Quarter- 
master General, had preceded him to this point about 
two weeks. 

"The army struck the Little Cacapehon (though 
pronounced Cacapon, I have used for the occasion 
the spelling of Washington, and various old docu- 
mentB,) about six miles above its mouth, and 
following the stream, encamped on the Virginia side 
of the Potomac, preparatory to crossing into Maryland. 
The water is supposed to have been high at the time, 
as the spot is known as the Ferry Fields, from the 
army having been ferried over. This was about the 
4th or 5th of May. 

"The army thence pursued the banks of the river, 
with a slight deviation of route at the mouth of the 
South Branch, to the village of Old Town, known at 
that time as the Shawnee Old Town, modem use 
having dropped the most characteristic part of the 
name. This place, distant about eight miles from 
the Ferry Fields, was known at that early day as 
the residence of Col. Thomas Cresap, an English 
settler, and the father of the hero of Logan's speech. 
The road proceeded thence parallel with the river 
and at the foot of the hills, till it passes the Narrows 
of Will's Mountain,* when it struck out on a shorter 

*Thi8 is an error, aa Will's Mountain la b«7ond the lite of Fort CamborUnd. and the moantaln 
raferred to most hare been Bvitt's Mountain, which la Bouth East of Cumberland, and had 
to be pawed by Braddock before reaching Will's Creek. 


line coincident with the present county road, and 
lying between the railroad and the mountain, to 
Fort Cumberland. 

"From the Little Cacapehon to this point the 
ground was comparatively easy, and the road had 
been generally judiciously chosen. Thenceforward 
the character of the ground was altered, not so much 
in the general aspect of the country, as that the 
march was about to abandon the valleys, and now 
the real difficulties of the expedition may be said to 

"The Fort had been commenced the previous 
year, after the surrender at the Great Meadows, by 
Colonel Lines, who had with him two independent 
companies of New York and South Carolina. It 
mounted ten four pounders, besides swivels, and was 
favorably situated to keep the hostile Indians in 

"The army now consisted of 1000 regulars, 30 
sailors, and 1200 provincials, besides a train of 
artillery. The provincials were from New York 
and Virginia; one company from the former colony 
was commanded by Captain Gates, afterwards the 
hero of Saratoga. On the 8th of June, Braddock 
having, through the interest and exertions of Dr. 
Franklin, principally, got 150 wagons and 2000 
horses from Pennsylvania, was ready to march. 

"Scarooyadi, successor to the Half. King of the 
Senecas, and Monacatootha, whose acquaintance 
Washington had made on the Ohio, on his mission to 
Le Boeuf, with about 150 Indians, Senecas and 
Delawares, accompanied him. George Croghan, the 

1755.] braddock's route. 143 

Indian Agent of Pennsylvania, and a friendly Indian 
of great value, called Susquehanna Jack, were also 
with him.* 

"The first brigade under Sir Peter Halket led the 
way on the 8th, and on the 9 th the main body 
foUowed.f Some idea of the diflBculties they 
encountered, may be had when we perceive they 
spent the third night only five miles from the fiirst. 
The place of encampment, which is about one third 
of a mile from the toll-gate on the National Road, is 
marked by a copious spring bearing Braddock's name. 

" For reasons not easy to divine, the route across 
Will's Mountain, first adopted for the National Road 
was selected, instead of the more favorable one 
through the narrows of Will's Creek, to which the 
road has been changed within a few years, for the 
purpose of avoiding that formidable ascent. The 
traces are very distinct on the East and West slopes, 
the modem road crossing it frequently. From the- 
Western foot, the route continued up Braddock's 
Run to the forks of the stream, where Clary's Tavern 
now stands, 9 miles from Cumberland, when it 
turned to the left, in order to reach a point on the 
ridge favorable to an easy descent into the valley of 
George's Creek. It is surprising that having reached 
this high ground, the favorable spur by which the 
National Road accomplishes the ascent of the Great 
Savage Mountain, did not strike the attention of the 

•Mr. Atkinaon u In error in thla. The Indians, m before sUted in this work, bad nearly all 
left Braddeek. and "Saaqnebanna Jack" is doubtless the celebrated "Captain Jack" or the 
"Black Hunter," who was not an Indian at all, bnt a white man with probably some baser blood 
in his veins, and who commanded a party of wild trappers like himself, whose senrices were 
r^eeted by Braddock because they wanted too much liberty to suit bis views. 

fTbese dates are incorrect, as will be seen by comparing them with those given in previous 
pagae of this book. 


engineers, as the labor requisite to surmount the 
barrier from the deep valley of George's Creek, must 
have contributed greatly to those bitter complaints 
which Braddock made against the Colonial Govern- 
ments for their failure to assist him more eflFectively 
in the transportation department. 

"Passing then a mile to the South of Frostburg, 
the road approaches the East foot of Savage Mountain, 
which it crosses about one mile South of the National 
Road, and thence by very favorable ground through 
the dense forests of white pine peculiar to this region, 
it got to the North of the National Eoad, near the 
gloomy tract called the ^Shades of Death.' This was 
the 15th of June, when the dense gloom of the 
summer woods, and the favorable shelter which these 
enormous pines would give an Indian enemy, must 
have made a most sensible impression on all minds, 
of the insecurity of their mode of advance. 

"This doubtless had a share in causing the 
council of war held at the Little Meadows next day. 
To this place, distant only about twenty miles from 
Cumberland, Sir John St. Clair and Major Chapman 
had been dispatched on the 27th* of May, to build a 
fort; the army having been 7 days in reaching it, 
it follows as the line of march was upwards of three 
miles long, the rear was just getting under way 
when the advance were lighting their evening fires. 

"Here it may be well enough to clear up an 
obscurity which enters into many narratives of these 
early events, from confusing the names of the * Little 
Meadows' and 'Great Meadows,' * Little Crossings' 

•Tbia should re»d, iheSOth of May. 

1755.] braddock's route. 145 

and ^ Great Crossings/ which are all distinct localities. 

"The ^Little Meadows' have been described as at 
the foot of Meadow Mountain ; it is well to note that 
the ^ Great Meadows' are about 31 miles further 
west, and near the east foot of Laurel Hill. 

"By the * Little Crossings' is meant the Ford of 
Casselman's River, a tributary of the Youghiogheny ; 
and by the ^ Great Crossings' the passage of the 
Youghiogheny itself. The Little Crossing is two 
miles west of the Little Meadows, and the Great 
Crossing 17 miles further west. 

"The conclusion of the council was to push on 

with a picked force of 1200 men, and 12 pieces of 

cannon, and the line of march, now more compact, 

was resumed on the 19th. Passing over ground to 

the South of the Little Crossings, and of the village 

of Grantsville, which it skirted, the army spent the 

night of the 21st at the Bear Camp, a locality I have 

not been able to identify, but suppose it to be about 

midway to the Great Crossings, which it reached on 

the 23d. The route thence to the Great Meadows, 

or Fort Necessity, was well chosen, though over a 

mountainous tract, conforming very nearly to the 

ground now occupied by the National Road, and 

keeping on the dividing ridge between the waters 

flowing into the Youghiogheny on the one hand, and 

the Cheat River on the other. Having crossed the 

Youghiogheny, we are now on the classic ground of 

Washington's early career, where the skirmish with 

Jumonville and Fort Necessity, indicate the country 

laid open for them in the previous year. About one 

mile west of the Great Meadows, and near the spot 


now marked as Braddock's Grave^ the road struck 
oflf more to the North-west, in order to reach a pass 
through Laurel Hill, that would enable them to 
strike the Youghiogheny, at a point afterwards known 
as Stewart's Crossing, and about half a mile below 
the present town of Connellsville. This part of the 
route is marked by the farm known as Mount 
Braddock. The second crossing of the Youghiogheny 
was effected on the 30th of June. The high grounds 
intervening between the river and its next tributary, 
Jacob's Creek, though trivial in comparison with 
what they had already passed, it may be supposed, 
presented serious obstacles to the troops, worn out 
with previous exertions. On the 3d of July a 
council of war was held at Jacob's Creek to consider 
the propriety of bringing forward Colonel Dunbar, 
with the reserve, and although urged by Sir John 
St. Clair with, as one may suppose, his characteristic 
vehemence, the measure was rejected on sufficient 
grounds. From the crossing of Jacob's Creek, which 
was at the point where Welclihanse's mill now stands, 
about one and half miles below Mount Pleasant, the 
route stretched off to the north, crossing the Mount 
Pleasant turnpike near the village of the same name, 
and thence by a more westerly course, passing the 
Great Sewickley near Painter s Salt Works, thence 
South and West of the Post^ffice of Madison and 
Jacksonville, it reached the Brush Fork of Turtle 
Creek. It must strike those who examine tlie map, 
that the route for some distance, in the rear and 
ahead of Mount Pleasant, is out of the proper 
direction for Fort Duquesne, and accordingly we find 

1755.] braddock's route. 147 

on the 7th of July, General Braddock in doubt as to 
his proper way of proceeding. The crossing of Brush 
Creek, which he had now reached, appeared to be 
attended with so much hazard, that parties were 
sent to reconnoitre, some of whom advanced so far as 
to kill a French officer within half a mile of Fort 

"Their examinations induced a great divergence 
to the left, and availing himself of the valley of 
Long Run, which he turned into, as is supposed, at 
Stewartsville, passing by the place now known as 
Sampson's Mill, the army made one of the best 
marches of the campaign, and halted for the night 
at a favorable depression between that stream and 
Crooked Run, and about two miles from the 
Monongahela. At this spot, about four miles from 
the battle ground, which is yet well known as 
Braddock's Spring, he was rejoined by Washington 
on the morning of the 9 th of July. 

"The approach to the river was now down the 
valley of Crooked Run to its mouth, where the point 
of fording is still manifest, from a deep notch in the 
west bank, though rendered somewhat obscure by 
the improved navigation of the river. The advance, 
under Colonel Gage, crossed about 8 o'clock, and 
continued by the foot of the hill bordering the broad 
river bottom to the second fording, which he had 
effected nearly as soon as the rear had got through 
the first. 

"The second and last fording, at the mouth of 
Turtle Creek, was in full view of the enemy's 
position, and about one mile distant. By 1 o'clock 


the whole army had gained the right bank, and was 
drawn up on the bottom land, near Frazier's house, 
(spoken of by Washington, as his stopping place, on 
his mission to Le Boeuf) and about three fourths of 
a mile distant from the ambuscade. 

"The advance was now about to march, and while 
a part of the army was yet standing on the plain, 
the firing was heard. Not an enemy had yet been 

The delays to which the army was subjected on 
this march were largely attributable to the officers 
themselves, including the General. They had been 
accustomed to a rather luxurious mode of life, in 
comfortable quarters, and on this occasion seemed 
unable to divest themselves of the baggage and 
appurtenances which such soldiers as Washington 
looked upon with contempt, and which would have 
caused the dismissal of an officer who would have 
presumed to thus overburden the quartermaster* 
department in our late war, when the Colonel of a 
regiment was frequently required to be satisfied with 
a blanket and a single change of linen. The march 
to Little Meadows occupied seven days, and the 
distance was barely twenty miles. The General 
determined to get rid of further incumbrances if 
possible, whereupon Washington advised him to send 
back more wagons and reduce the officers' baggage; 
then to push on with all possible speed with 1200 of 
the best troops, who should travel as light as possible, 
the remainder to follow with the wagons. Braddock 
endeavored to follow this very good advice, and sent 
forward 1200 men, with some artillery, the pro- 

1755.] braddock's route. 149 

visions being put upon pack horses. The oflScers, 
however, reduced their baggage very little, and 
Washington was the only one of the number who 
dispensed with everything else than necessities. 

On the 19 th the command left Little Meadows, 
and the Indians were sent forward as scouts. 
Scarooyadi and his son, who were on the flank, were 
taken prisoners by a party of French and Indians who 
were in the woods, but the latter ejffected his escape 
and brought intelligence of the matter to the other 
warriors, who instantly started in hot pursuit. In a 
short time they found the sachem bound to a tree 
and unharmed. The French were desirous of killing 
him when he was taken, but to this the Indians 
would not consent. They knew Scarooyadi and held 
him in considerable esteem, otherwise they would not 
have intervened to save him. 

Washington had been for some time feeling unwell, 
and every day he grew worse, notwithstanding the 
attentions of the surgeon. He was burning with 
fever, which was accompanied with severe pains in 
the head, and he had to abandon his horse for the 
almost intolerable discomforts of a wagon without 
springs. Finally the jolting he was subjected to 
rendered it impossible for him to go further, and he 
was reluctantly compelled to allow the army to 
proceed without him; not until the Greneral had 
faithfully promised, however, that he should be kept 
well informed of their movements, and brought up in 
time to participate in the expected engagement. He 
stopped at the Youghiogheny, remaining there 
several days, until Dunbar came up, by which time 


he was able to resume the saddle, and soon after- 
wards joined the General a few miles distant from 
the scene of the battle which followed. 

From the time of leaving Little Meadows hostile 
bands of Indians hung about the flanks of the army, 
on one occasion killing and scalping three men. 
They stole the horses at night, carved upon the bark 
of the trees insulting messages, and watched their 
every movement. The inscriptions were in French, 
showing that the Indians were accompanied by 
whites. The difficulties of the march seemed to 
multiply, as the men were worn down with fatigue, 
and harrassed by an unseen enemy, against whom 
they had constantly to be on guard. 

Bands of savages made their way back towards the 
settlements, where they created great consternation 
by their acts of inhumanity, in consequence of which 
the aid of the Maryland Assembly was invoked. On 
the 1st of July Governor Sharpe sent the following 
address to that body : 

** Gentlemen of the Luwer House of Assembly : 

" I have just received Letters froro Colonel Innes at Fort Camber- 
land, and from the Back Inhabitants of Frederick County, advising me, 
that a Party of French Indians, last Monday Morning, fell on the 
Inhabitants of this Province, and killed two Men and one Woman (who 
have been since found dead); eight other Persons they have taken 
Prisoners, and carried off. The] Names of the Persons who were 
murdered and left, are John Williams, his Wife, and Grandson; and 
with their Bodies was also found that of a French Indian. The Persona 
carried off, are Richard Williams (a Son of John who was murdered), 
with two Children, one Dawson's Wife, and four Children. Richard 
Williams's Wife, and two Brothers of the young Man that is killed, have 
made their Escape. This Accident, I find, has so terrified the distant 
Inhabitants, that many of them are retiring, and forsaking their Planta- 

" Another Letter from Winchester in Virginia informj me, that a 

1755.] braddock's route. 151 

Party of Indians have also attacked the Back Inhabitants of that 
Province, of whom they have killed eleven, and carried away many 

'^Apprehending the French would proceed in this Manner, as soon as 
General Braddock, and the Troops under his Command, should have 
passed the Mountains, and being confirmed in my Opinion by an 
Intimation in the General's Letter, I issued a Proclamation near a Month 
since, cautioning the distant and other Inhabitants of this Province, to 
be on their Guard, and unite for their common Defence and Safety ; at 
the same Time, I sent peremptory orders and instructions to the officers 
of the Militia of Frederick County, frequently to Muster and discipline 
their several Troops and Companies once a Fortnight at least ; and in 
case of an Alarm that the Enemy was approaching, or had fallen on the 
Inhabitants, to march out and act either offensively or defensively, and 
use all Means to protect and defend the Inhabitants from the Devasta- 
tions of the French, or their Indians : However, I find neither the Proc- 
lamation or Instructions will be effectual unless the Militia can be 
assured that they shall receive Satisfaction and Pay for the Time that 
they shall be out on Duty. I should think it highly proper for us to have 
about a Hundred, or at least a Company of Sixty Men, posted, or 
constantly ranging, for some Time on the Frontiers, for our Protection: 
In this I desire your Advice, and that you will enable me to support such 
a number. 

"Gentlemen, At the Generars Request, and that I might receive early 
Intelligence at this Time from the Camp and the Back Inhabitants, I 
have engaged several Persons between this Place and WilFs Creek, to 
receive, and speedily convey any Letters that shall come to them 
directed for the General or myself; I doubt not you will be convinced of 
the Necessity of such a Measure, and provide for the Expence thereof. 


The Assembly, recognizing the importance of 
prompt action, at once considered the address, and 
adopted the suggestions therein contained, as is 
shown by the reply made to the Governor on the 
same date: 

'' To his Excellency, Horatio Sharpe, Esq ; Governor and Commander in 
Chief in and over the Province of Maryland. The humble Address of 
the House of Delegates. 
"May it please your Excellency, This House having taken into 

Consideration your Excellency's Message of this Day, have thereupon 

come to the following Resolves : 

152 fflSTORT OF CUMBERLAND. [1755. 

" Resolved, That this House will make suitable Provision for the 
paying and maintaining Eighty Men, including Officers, for four months 
(if Occasion) for ranging on the Frontiers of this Province, to protect 
the same against the Incursions and Depredations that may be 
attempted or made by the French, or their Indian allies. 

" Resolved further. That this House will defray the reasonable Ezpence 
of conveyincT Intelligence from Wills's Creek to Annapolis and back 
thither, for four Months.^' 

" H. HOOPER, Speaker." 

On the 2d of July the sum of £2,000 was 
appropriated to carry into eflfect an "Act for securing 
the Western frontier of this Province against the 
depredations of the French and their Indian allies, 
and also for paying and maintaining couriers from 
WilFs Creek to Annapolis and back to Will's Creek." 
A company of militia was quickly formed and sent to 
Fort Cumberland, fix)m which point it made frequent 
descents upon the enemy, and ranged the forests along 
the borders, and materially aided the settlers. 

Meantime Braddock was still advancing, and on 
the 4th of July two Indians went on towards 
Fort Duquesjie to ascertain the condition of the Fort, 
and the number of men there. Gist set out the same 
day for the same purpose, and they returned on the 
6th, with intelligence to the eflfect that the works 
had not been increased; there were very few boats 
near the Fort; the number of soldiers to be seen was 
inconsiderable; the passes were all clear, and the 
enemy seemed to have very few reconnoitering 
parties out. Gist narrowly escaped capture by two 
Indians who had discovered and pursued him. 
Irving says in liis life of Washington that "on the 
same day, during the march, three or four men 
loitering in the rear of the grenadiers were killed and 

1755.] braddock's route. 153 

scalped. Several of the grenadiers set oflF to take 
revenge. They came upon a party of Indians, who 
held up boughs and grounded their arms, the 
concerted sign of amity. Not perceiving or under- 
standing it, the grenadiers fired upon them, and one 
fell. It proved to be the son of Scarooyadi. Aware 
too late of their error, the grenadiers brought the 
body to the camp. The conduct of Braddock was 
admirable on this occasion. He sent for the father 
and the other Indians, and condoled with them on 
the lamentable occurrence; making them the custom- 
ary presents of expiation. But what was more to 
the point, he caused the youth to be buried with the 
honors of war; at his request the oflScers attended 
the funeral, and a volley was fired over the grave. 
The honors thus shown the deceased warrior gratified 
the pride of the old chief, and proved a balm to him 
in his affliction. It excited a feeling of deeper friend- 
ship toward his white allies, who had thus shown 
the most genuine sorrow for him in the calamity 
which had so unfortunately befallen him. 

For two days Braddock halted at Thicketty Run, 
and on the 7th marched with a view to crossing 
Turtle Creek, but, dreading the labor of making his 
way over the ridges about that stream, and the delay of 
bridging it, he changed his route, on the 8th, marching 
almost due west towards the Monongahela, along the 
valley of Long Run, and encamped that night some 
two miles from the river. The " Narrows," a gorge 
through which the river passed, near the point of 
encampment, was not passable for artillery, and 

besides presented many advantages to the French, 


should ' they resort to ambush ; for this reason 
Braddock determined to cross the Monongahela at a 
ford near by and to recross it by a second ford a 
short distance below, near the mouth of Turtle 
Creek, thus avoiding the "Narrows," and securing 
easy marches. 

The condition of the army was not of the most 
flattering character, at this time, and the remark 
made some time earlier, to the ejQfect that its com- 
mander was most "judiciously chosen for being 
disqualified for the service he is employed in, in 
almost every respect," was felt to be painfully true 
by at least several of the prudent and thinking men 
who served under his orders. Braddock was irritable, 
arrogant, and intemperate in his hot-headed denun- 
ciation of every officer and man who incurred his 
displeasure; he would not so much as speak to the 
two principal officers under his command, or notice 
them in anyway, except when required to do so by 
the necessity of sending them directions; Shirley, the 
General's Secretary, was disgusted and indignant 
because of the delays as well as the blunders of the 
march; Washington, while he retained his self- 
command, inwardly chafed over the bigotry which 
closed the General's eyes to the most commonplace 
necessities in dealing with a foe he would not 
understand; Sir Peter Halket was low spirited and 
depressed; he comprehended the importance of 
meeting the wily red skins with their own tactics, 
and while he urged the General to beat the bushes 
over every foot of ground from the camp to the Fort, 
he had little hope of seeing his advice put into 


eflfect; when he wrapped his mantle about him that 
night as he lay upon his soldier's bed his soul was 
filled with the darkest forebodings for the morrow, 
which he felt would close his own career as well as 
that of many another gallant soldier, a presentiment 
which was sadly realized. Not only was there 
dissatisfaction, want of confidence, and unfriendliness 
amongst the officers, but the men were spiritless, 
broken down by the fatigues of the march, poorly 
fed, and harrassed by the great time consumed in 
travelling so short a distance. On this night, 
preceding the day of battle, the men were early 
encamped and sleeping about their fires, to gather 
strength for the march, and whatever else the morrow 
might bring forth. With Braddock, however, there 
were no doubts or fears; he had unbounded con- 
fidence in himself, and firm reliance in his veterans; 
as well as thorough contempt for the French and 
Indians. To him the morrow was gilded with the 
glory of victory, and where others feared disaster and 
disgrace he anticipated a success which should bring 
him new honors and coveted favors at the hands of 
his Sovereign. Braddock did not anticipate the 
slightest difficulty in putting to flight the enemy he 
was to encounter; and could he have met that enemy 
upon an open field his anticipations would doubtless 
have been verified. He only feared that he might 
have some difficulty in crossing the river at the fords. 
But in any event he had determined to reach the 
Fort and attack it before the day should close. At 
3 o'clock on the morning of the 9th he sent a picked 
body of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Gage to take 


possession of the fords and secure the further shore 
of the second ford, so that no delay might ensue 
when the main body and the train should arrive. 
An hour later the Quatermaster-Greneral took a party 
of men forward to make the necessary roads, while 
some four hundred of the troops were stationed on 
the hills near by, to protect the flanks. At 6 o'clock 
the main body moved, under the direct command of 
Braddock, who remained at the first ford until the 
crossing had been made. The General intended to 
take Fort Duquesne on this day, and in the taking 
of it he was disposed to make the victory both 
brilliant and imposing, with 

'^ The spirit stirring drum, the ear piercing fife, 
The royal banner ; and all quality, 
Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war.'^ 

When the columns were put in motion on this event- 
ful day the men were clad in their scarlet uniforms, 
and brilliantly equipped as if for dress parade; every 
article of apparel was in perfect condition; their 
burnished arms glistened in the sunlight, while the 
royal colors floated in the breeze ; and as the perfectly 
formed ranks moved forward to the inspiring strains 
of the drum and fife, every soldier seemed to have 
lost the remembrance of his toil and privation; the 
bracing atmosphere of the early morning in the 
mountains; the shadowy groves along the banks of 
the tranquil river, in all their beauty; and the 
prospect of meeting the enemy, raised the spirits of 
the entire command. The eyes of the veterans 
sparkled, and they marched with buoyant step, over 
a soil that was soon, alas, to be consecrated with 

1755.] ON THE BATTLE FIELD. 157 

their blood, and to be rendered forever memorable 
by an almost unparallelled sacrifice of brave spirits 
to bigoted incompetency. 

The advance guard drove a number of Indians 
from cover early in the day, and others could be seen 
at intervals, on the hills near by, watching the army's 
movements. With a view to impress them with his 
great strength, Braddock, after crossing the first ford, 
and getting on a piece of bottom land almost clear of 
timber, put the troops through the various regimental 
manoeuvres, in all of which they moved with the 
utmost coolness and precision, presenting such a 
sight as to command the highest degree of admiration 
and enthusiasm on the part of Washington, who gave 
expression to his delight in extravagant terms. 

About noon the men were allowed to take their 
dinners, before crossing the second ford; and after 
crossing they were halted near the old site of Frazier's 
House, close by Turtle Creek, where the order of 
march was arranged. In the advance were placed 
the guides, with the engineers and six light horse- * 
men, Lieutenant-Colonel Gage with his command 
immediately following; then came Sir John St. Clair, 
with two 6-pounder guns and the wagons and men 
of the working party. The main body of the army, 
under command of Braddock, followed; the artillery 
and baggage in his rear, protected by infantry and 
cavalry on the flanks. The provincial troops formed 
the rear guard, and aided also in protecting the 

The river at the point of crossing was quite 
shallow, and was easily fordable at any point for 


more than half a mile below Turtle Creek; the banks 
were gently sloping, but required some cutting to 
enable the artillery and trains to descend and ascend 
without difficulty. The elevation of the banks was 
about twenty feet, and when the troops halted after 
crossing they were in the shade of a grove of walnut 
trees, which covered the rich bottom land stretching 
back from the river a distance of a quarter of a mile, 
the ground being free of undergrowth. Farther 
back the surface was gradually elevated, until it 
reached the base of a line of hills, with steep sides 
and heavily wooded. To avoid the soft and spongy 
ground along the river the British marched towards 
the hills, gaining the higher plateau at their base, 
and then turned to skirt them on their course down 
the river. The undergrowth of thickets and brambles 
was quite thick, and concealed entirely several 
ravines which stretched down to the river from the 
hill sides, the soft earth having been washed out by 
the waters of numerous springs, leaving almost 
perpendicular banks. These ravines were as perfectly 
adapted to the wants and purposes of the French as 
though prepared for the especial emergency which 
had now arisen. They were naturally formed rifle 
pits, so completely masked by foliage as to leave no 
suspicion of their existence. On the right of the 
unsuspecting army lay one of those ravines, broad 
and deep, grown full of heavy trees, and reaching to 
the very heart of the forest on the hill sides. As to 
the other, about two hundred yards from the ravine 
just mentioned, it commences right in the middle of 
the plain, or upper plateau, near the base of the hills, 


"a most singular ditch, with a depth and breadth of 
a few feet at its head, but increasing soon to ten or 
twelve, and at that time overhung and completely 
concealed by a thick growth of vines and bushes ; of 
grasses and trailers and wild Indian plum. Even to 
this day it can scarcely be perceived, or, at least, its 
full capacity cannot be appreciated, until one is right 
upon it, and then in it. It is a most peculiar ditch, 
and could not be better adapted, either for attack or 
defense, were engineers to devise and fashion it. It 
could easily conceal a thousand men." Between 
these ravines was a forest of trees, and bushes, and 
here the troops marched in a road newly cut, and 
barely twelve feet wide, their line of march being 
diagonal with the ravines, and within easy range of 
the enemy therein concealed. 

The army was marching with its advance almost 
at the head of one of these ravines, with the least 
conceivable caution, when suddenly the whole com- 
mand was startled by a volley of rifle shots in front, 
and a terriffic yell, which announced the presence of 
a large body of savages. Lientenant-Colonel Burton 
hurried forward with eight hundred men to support 
Gage, leaving the baggage under Halket's care at the 
river. The woods seemed to be full of French and 
Indians, as they kept up a heavy fire of musketry, 
and made the air ring with their demon-like shouts ; 
yet not one of them could be seen. They lay along 
the ravines, completely concealed from view, deliber- 
ately selecting their victims and shooting them down. 
Burton's troops formed in line of battle, ready to 
move forward and meet the enemy from the 


undergrowth, when, unfortunately, Gage's men 
became panic-stricken, and retreated in the utmost 
confusion immediately upon Burton's command, 
breaking his lines and imparting some of their own 
demoralization to their freshly arrived comrades. 
The two regiments became inextricably mixed, the 
men lost their heads, and huddled together in the 
narrow road, utterly heedless of the commands of 
their oflScers. Braddock became terribly enraged 
and charged amongst the paralyzed soldiers with his 
horse, striking right and left, and endeavoring to get 
them into position. The provincial troops took to 
trees and opened fire upon the enemy, doing good 
service, and Washington urged Braddock to order 
the regulars to do the same, but he refused, and 
persisted in his endeavors to get his men formed in 
line. The colors of the two regiments were fixed as 
rallying points, and the men summoned to fall into 
line, but it was in vain. The officers then undertook 
to form them in platoons, but the terrible war whoops 
of the Indians and the hail of balls from foes they 
could not see had sent dismay to the hearts of the 
terrified men, and they were really worse than 
useless. Braddock cursed them bitterly; he cut 
down several soldiers whom he saw sheltering them- 
selves behind the trees, and others he struck with 
the flat of his sword. The officers labored with the 
utmost zeal to bring their men to some degree of 
reason, and to charge the enemy; they even 
dismounted from their horses, formed platoons and 
advanced in line, hoping by their example to 
encourage the soldiers to follow. Despite every 


eflfort, confusion reigned supreme; the troops were, 
as before remarked, worse than useless, since they 
not only made no assaults upon the enemy, but 
added horror to the havoc by firing upon their own 
friends and shootmg down the only men who were 
doing any service on the British side. Seeing the 
hopelessness of the situation, unless some decisive 
stroke could be quickly delivered, Captain Waggoner, 
who had command of the provincial troops of 
Virgmia, determined to get, with his men, on the 
flank of the enemy, and drive him out. Some fallen 
timber on the brow of the hill was pointed out by 
him to Scarooyadi, and they with eighty men made 
their way to it, where they took shelter, and poured 
a galling fire into the painted imps along the ravine, 
causing them to beat a hasty retreat to better shelter. 
Waggoner's men with a shout started to follow 
up their advantage, when the demoralized mob 
behind them, made the final blunder by firing point 
blank into their ranks, killing two thirds of their 
number. Those that remained uninjured turned and 
fled for their lives, disgusted and distressed. 

Braddock had already had five horses killed under 
him, and, utterly regardless of danger, was every- 
where, urging his men forward; Washington had 
had his clothing pierced, but had escaped injury; 
Captains Orme and Morris had both been wounded; 
Sir Peter Halket and his son shot dead, and nearly all 
the oflScers as well as hundreds of the men sacrificed. 
The French and Indians, seeing the confusion and 
dismay of the British, and witnessing the destruction 

of Waggoners party, became more and more 


emboldened. The savages frequently rushed from 
cover to scalp an officer or gather a trophy, and 
gradually they succeeded in almost surrounding the 
army. Between four and five o'clock, while Braddock 
was delivering an order, he was struck by a bullet, 
which passed through his right arm into his lungs. 
He fell from his horse to the ground, and lay there 
mortally wounded; defeated and abandoned, so far as 
his veteran soldiers were concerned. Captain Orme, 
himself wounded, begged some of the men to carry 
the General off the field, and offered them his purse 
containing sixty guineas as a reward ; but not a man 
would stay for love, respect or gold. Captain 
Stewart, of the Virginia troops, with another American 
officer and Braddock's servant, carried the fallen 
commander from the field in his silken sash, which 
they took from about his waist. When Braddock's 
fall became known, the panic-stricken soldiers threw 
down their arms and ammunition, and fled with the 
utmost precipitation. The teamsters and artillery 
men cut their horses loose, and ihounting them rode 
off at full speed. Everything was abandoned, and 
the retreat became a thoroughly disgraceful rout, 
while the Indians added to the terror of the 
frightened wretches by rushing after them with the 
wildest yells, and occasionally tomahawking and 
scalping one of their number, before they reached the 
river. After crossing this stream, they continued 
their flight for more than a quarter of a mile. Here, 
the General, with several other wounded officers, 
halted, and they succeeded in getting about one 
hundred men to take a position near the road, 

1755.] THE RETREAT. l6S 

with a view to holding the place, until reinforcements 
should arrive from Dunbar. In less than an hour, 
however, the soldiers ran away, and the wounded 
officers, with a few faithful friends who remained 
with them, continued their retreat. The General 
sent Washington back to Colonel Dunbar, with 
instructions to send forward wagons for the wounded, 
and a supply of provisions and hospital stores, under 
the guard of the youngest two Grenadier companies, 
to meet him at Gist's plantation, or nearer if possible. 
Colonel Gage then joined Braddock with some eighty 
men, and continued with him. Braddock was so 
badly wounded that he could not sit his horse, and 
had to be carried in his sash, by soldiers. Dr. Craik 
dressed his wounds, but the old soldier seemed to 
think little of his bodily sufferings; he expressed his 
desire to die and be buried on the site of the great 
misfortune of his life; he was deeply distressed, and 
could scarcely comprehend the calamity which had 
so unexpectedly overtaken him in the hour in which 
he had looked for a brilliant victory, which was to be 
the crowning triumph of his military career and 
give him posthumous fame. 

Few instances are recorded where so merciless a 
slaughter was accomplished upon a foe so largely 
outnumbering its assailants. Such scenes of carnage 
are fortunately not of frequent occurrence. Eighty 
nine commissioned officers went into the battle of the 
Monongahela; and of these twenty-six were killed 
and thirty-seven wounded; four hundred and thirty 
soldiers were slain outright, and three hundred and 
eighty-five wounded. 




The following is a list of the officers who were 
present, and of those who were killed and wounded 
in this disastrous engagement, as reported in the 
Oentlemen'a Magazifie, in August, 1755: 


OiBoen' NamM. 


Killed or Wonnded. 

Edward Bradduck, Esq. 

GenU and com. in chief 

Mortally wounded. 

Robert Orme, Esq., 1 


Roger Morris, Esq., . 

Aids de Camp. 


George Washington, i 
Esq J 

William Shirley Esq.... 



Sir John St. Clair 

Dep'y Qaar. Maa'r Gn'l 


Matthew Leslie, Gent*... 

Gen*l Assist do. 


Francis Halkett, Esq.... 

Major Brigade. 


Offleen* Kiunaa. 

Sir Peter Halkett 

Gage, Esq 



Beck worth 




















Lieut Colonel. 




Klltod or Wounded. 











Died of wounds. 



*Tlito Itol it iBMeonto in mbio ■Ughl pMiiealan, and wm probably 






Offloen* Namaa. 

Barton, Esq 

Sparks, Esq 

DobsoD, Esq 


Bowyer, Esq 

Ross, Esq 

Barbatt, Esq 

Walsham, Esq...., 

Crymble, Esq 

Widman, Esq , 

HaDsard, Esq 

Gladwin, Esq*.... 

Hotham, Esq 

Edmonstone, Esq. 

Cope, Esq 

Brereton, Esq 

Stuart, Esq 















Lieut. Colonel. 



KtUed or Wonoded. 
















Slightly wounded. 








«< - 













*Tblt WM H«tiT7 OladwiB, who won idmi j Uuxvla aftonr«rdi, and bocawn Dopnty-Adintant 

In * " ■-In. 





Officers' Nftni«8 








Killed or Wounded. 







Capt. Lieut. 






McKeller, Esq.... 

Gordon, Esq 

Williamson, Esq 



Capt Lieutenant. 













Dunbar was still forty miles to the rear, having 
been so slow in his movements that he was therefor 
christened "Dunbar the Tardy." Had he been 
present at the battle, however, matters would have 
been worse, rather than better, since an accumulation 
of numbers would have proven of no avail where the 

*AinoDgBt the nftmea entirelj omitted In the lints here given is thet of Oen. Even Shelbj. who 
wa« then a Cupuin ofRangers^ and wm especially known for his keen intellect, great oonrege. 
Mid iron cnnHtilution. He wasa Welshman by Kirth, but came to Maryland when aflmall lad. 
After Biaddock's defeat he remained in command ot hi* rangers, and when Boqtiet'a expedi- 
tion waa organized, he joined it, and under Forbes distinguinhed himself by his valor and 
energy. He was the father of Isaac ahelby, a gallant officer who won dbtinction in the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

Drs. Hugh Mercer and Jamei Craik. Hargeoni^or the Virginia troops, were on the field, and 
the former was seriouslv wounded. ^ When he fell, the troops were in full flight, and finding 
that he was unable to join in the retreat, he concealed biniKell behind a fallen tree, where the 
undergrowth wm heavv. and there he lay until sunset, viewing the wild scene of pillage and 
bloody outrage that followed. He witnessed the slaughter of the wounded and the scalping of 
the dead. After nightfall he lelt his hidins place, and. taking the star* for his compass, slowly 
and painfully made his wav back towardii Fort Cumberland, which post be reached some six 
days later, half-starved.sick. and in much pain. Two years later, while serving as a Otptain in 
Colonel John Armstrong's expedition against the Indians at Kittanning, he wa^ again wounded, 
and a second time made his way alone through the woods to Fort Cumberland. In 1777 Dr. 
Mercer was made a field officer in the Hevolutionary army, and gave up hia life at Prioeetoa. 

1755.] AFTER THE BATTLE. 167 

enemy could not be seen, and where the troops were 
demoralized by fear. His command would only have 
furnished more material for the murderous savages. 

"Nathaniel Gist, son of Christopher, with * Gist's 
Indian,' were dispatched from the battle-field to Fort 
Cumberland, with tidings of the overthrow, but with 
instructions to avoid passing by, or disturbing the 
repose of Dunbar. They traveled a-foot, and through 
unfrequented paths, to avoid the Indians. While 
snatching some repose during the darkness of the 
first night of their journey, in a thicket of bushes and 
grape vine on Cove Run, within view of the camp 
fires of Dunbar, they mistook the noise of the move- 
ment of some bird or beast for Indians, and run with 
the heedlessness of alarm. They thus became 
separated. But each wended his way cautiously 
and alone. When nearing their destination, upon 
emerging from the bushes into the open road Gist 
saw a few rods ahead, his long lost Indian, who had 
also just taken the highway! Like two soothsayers, 
they had to laugh at each other for their causeless 
alarm and separation.*'* 

Washington, though greatly fatigued by the 
events and exertions of the dreadful day through 
which he had just passed, and still weak from his 
sickness, hurried off to the rear to meet Dtinbar, 
and deliver the orders heretofore referred to. He 
was accompanied by two orderlies, and the night was 
so dark that often they were compelled to dismount 
and search for the road. The entire night was spent 

^Thii story wMgircn tb« aaihor of tb« p«p«ra entitled "The MonongAhela of Old," hy Heary 
Beeaon, the fooader oi Cuiontown, Pe,, who hed it from the lipe of Gist hlmMlf . 


in the saddle, but at sunrise they reached Dunbar's 
camp. The distracted teamsters had arrived there 
ahead of Washington, and had spread dismay amongst 
Dunbar's troops by reporting that Braddock was 
killed, the army destroyed, and the Indians pur- 
suing the few who were left. The effect of such 
intelligence upon the camp was instantaneous, and 
it was only by the most stringent orders and threats 
of instant death to any man who should leave the 
ranks, that the soldiers were kept from an imme- 
diate stampede. 

Washington returned to Gist's plantation the next 
day, taking with him the necessary supplies, and 
there met the wounded officers and their escort. 
They reached Dunbar's camp that night, where they 
remained two nights and one day. The woundpd 
officers and men were then placed in the wagons, 
and as there were left no means by which to carry 
the store of provisions and ammunition, all these 
were destroyed by Braddock's order. The artillery 
had been left on the field of battle ; and the military 
chest containing £25,000 in coin, as well as the 
General's desk and papers, were all lost. What 
remained to them now was nothing more than was 
necessary for the supply of their actual wants until 
they should reach Fort Cumberland. On the 13th 
they marched to the Great Meadows. During the 
entire day the dying General was in the greatest 
distress. His wounds caused him the most intense 
pain, yet of these he took little account. His spirit 
was broken, his pride humiliated, and his mind 
depressed by the disgrace of his terrible defeat. He 

1755.] DEATH OF BRADDOCK. 169 

seldom spoke^ and when he did it was only to give 
such orders as were necessary, or to briefly express 
his disappointment and regret. "Who would have 
thought it! Who would have thought it!" he re- 
peated. As the sun set on this quiet Sunday evening, 
it became apparent that the brave old veteran was 
about to close his eyes upon the ^arth, and his faithful 
friends stood around his couch, with sad hearts. He 
turned to Captain Orme, and in a thoughtful way, 
said, " We shall better know how to deal with them 
another time." A little later, his eyes closed, and 
the spirit of Braddock was with the Master. His life 
went out amidst the sombre shades of the forest^ 
near the scene of Washington's reverse, the previous 
year, and his body was buried in silence and sorrow, 
at day-break next morning, the grave being 
made in the road, and the wagons being driven over 
it, that it might not be discovered and disturbed by 
the enemy. The services for the dead were read by 
Washington, the Chaplain having been wounded, and 
Washington being the only staff officer remaining fit 
for any duty whatever. 

Various statements have been made regarding the 
destruction of stores at Dunbar's camp, and several 
writers have asserted that artillery, ammunition and 
money were buried near the camp, in consequence of 
which many searches have been made there for such 
articles. These rumors probably originated in a 
letter written by Colonel Burd to Grovemor Morris, 
dated at Fort Cumberland, July 25, 1755, in which 
the Colonel relates that Dunbar told him, in a con- 
versation at dinner, that he had destroyed all his 


provisions except what he could carry as subsistence, 
as well as all the powder he had with him, nearly 
50,000 pounds, but that his mortars and shells he^ 
had buried. Dunbar was evidently misunderstood 
in this matter, as he afterwards, on the 25th of 
August, wrote to Governor Shirley : " We must beg 
leave to undeceive you in what you are pleased to 
mention of "guns being buried" at the time General 
Braddock ordered the stores to be destroyed; for 
there was not a gun of any kind buried." Colonel 
Burd, in 1759, while on his way to make the road to 
Redstone, searched for the guns he supposed to be 
buried, and dug a great many holes, but found 

Many relics have been gathered, however, by the 
persons living in the vicinity of the camp, and some 
of them have now in their possession, cannon balls, 
bullets, shells, &c. Amongst other articles are 
fragments of 9-inch shells, showing the size of the 
mortars used, and masses of lead formed by bullets 
melted and run together, the surface being roughened 
by the protuberance of the small leaden balls only 
half melted. 

The part played by the French in the defeat of 
Braddock has been variously given, but there seems 
to be a lack of accuracy in most accounts. A recent 
volume of the "Historical Collections of Wisconsin" 
contains the Memoirs of Charles de Langlade, written 
by Joseph Tasse, Esq., of Ottawa, Canada, and trans- 
lated from the French by Mrs. Sarah Fairchild Dean. 
The history of the action of Langlade in the battle of 
the Monongahela, was gathered by Mr. Lyman G. 


Draper, Corresponding Secretary of the Historical 
Society of Wisconsin, from the lips of Captain 
Augustin Grignon, who had obtained the statement 
from Langlade himself, and the truth and accuracy 
of the statements have been abundantly verified. 
The Langlade family came originally from France, 
in 1668. Charles was bom at Mackinaw in 1729, 
and spent the days of his youth amongst the Ottawa 
Indians, who came to regard hiiA as under the pro- 
tection of some powerful Manitou, in consequence of 
which he early gained a great influence over them, 
leading them in their wars with other tribes. 

^^ While Charles de Langlade thus exhibited his 
courage in the obscure combats of tribe against tribe, 
events in Canada were becoming complicated, and 
threatened to take a serious turn. Grave difficulties 
had arisen between France and England in Acadia, 
and the valley of the Ohio, on the subject of the 
frontier boundaries; and although peace still existed, 
there had already been some bloody encounters in 
the wilderness, and it was evident that on either 
side the first occasion would be seized to come to 
blows. Thus, the killing of a French officer, M. de 
Jumonville, sent as an envoy to Washington, at the 
head of thirty soldiers, for the purpose of summoning 
the English to evacuate entrenchments raised by 
them near the Ohio, was the signal for that long and 
terrible seven years' war which kinflted the fires of 
two Continents, and led to consequences so disastrous 
to France. 

"Vaudreuil, Governor of the Colony, took the 
necessary measures to cope with the enemy, and 


hastened to arm the regular troops, and the Canadian 
militia. The savages of the North-west, joined to the 
ocmrev/rs de hois, so numerous at that time, also 
furnished a valuable contingent; and he, without 
hesitation, confided this command to Charles de 
Langlade, whose exploits were already well known 
to him. United to the savages by the ties of blood, 
by similarity of habit, familiar with their dialects, and 
with their modes of warfare, of acknowledged bravery 
and ability, enjojdng unquestionable authority and 
influence, Langlade was exactly the man for the 

'^At his appeal, the tomahawk is unearthed, the 
tribes incite themselves with enthusiasm, and a 
crowd of savage warriors gather around the folds of 
the French flags. We find at the head of these 
Indian bands many celebrated chiefs; among others, 
it is believed, the famous Pontiac, who some years 
later became illustrious by his conspiracy against the 

"After organizing his forces, Langlade received 
orders to direct his steps with all haste towards Fort 
Duquesne, of which General Braddock, recently 
arrived from England, with veteran troops, was 
about to attempt to acquire possession in order to 
drive the French out of the valley of the Ohio. 

^^ Langlade arrived at Fort Duquesne in the 
beginning of July, 1755. Le Sieur de la Perade, as 
well as some French and Indians, sent to observe the 
hostile army whose least movements were watched, 
announced on the eighth of July that it was only a 
half day's journey from the Monongahela — ^the 


McdenguefUee of the Canadians — and that it was 
advancing in three columns. On the receipt of these 
tidings, the commandant at Fort Duquesne decided 
to oppose the advance of the enemy; and, for this 
purpose, De Beaujeu organized a force of about two 
hundred and fifty French, and six hundred and fifty 

"Leaving the fort on the ninth of July, at nine 
o'clock in the morning, De Beaujeu found himself at 
half past twelve in the presence of the English, just 
at the instant when they halted on the South shore 
of the Monongahela, to take their dinner. The 
French and Indians had not yet been perceived by 
the enemy; and they placed themselves carefully in 
ambush in the ravines and thick woods, which 
formed an impassable belt in the steep bank in front 
of them.* 

"Langlade comprehended at once all the advan- 
tages of the position, and hastened to de Beaujeu to 
beg him to commence the action; but that officer 
turned a deaf ear to his entreaties. Unwilling thus 
to relinquish his purpose, he then called together the 
Indian chiefs, showed them the importance of an 
immediate attack upon the English, and advised 
them to go and demand an order to commence battle. 
De Beaujeu gave them a no more satisfactory reply. 
Langlade then made a second appeal to the French 
commander, and insisted Energetically upon the 
necessity of an immediate attack upon the enemy. 

*ThU is conflrmod bjihe relation of M. de Qodefror, an officer in the Fori DnqneeDe garrison: 
«*Tbe party of M. de Beat^ea advanced for attack about three and a half leagaes from Fort 
Dnqnesne, when the enemy were at dinner." This memoir has been pnblished by Mr. John Q. 
Bbea, in his *' Relations divers sur la bataille du Malangneule." 


^ If we are going to fight/ he said, *we must do it 
while the English, not suspecting danger, have laid 
aside their arms, or when they are fording the River, 
for they are too far superior in numbers for us to 
resist them in open country/ De Beaujeu was 
evidently discouraged by the strength of the enemy, 
and hesitated what course to take; but finally 
putting an end to his indecision he ordered the 

*^ The action commenced with vigor, and took the 
army of Braddock by surprise. OflBcers and soldiers 
ran to their arms with such precipitation that many 
of the leaders still had their napkins on their breasts 
when found among the dead. As they occupied 
lower ground than the French, they fired over their 
heads, and only hit a small number. The French 
and Indians, meanwhile, concealed behind the trees 
were, so to speak, invisible; and they returned the 
fire of the enemy by a fusillade, which scattered 
death and consternation amongst the English battal- 
ions. At last the soldiers of Braddock took flight, 
and both the Canadians and Indians charged upon 
them with tomahawks, forcing them to throw them- 
selves into the waters of the Monongahela, where 
many of them were drowned. 

^^This was a disastrous day for the English. 
Braddock, who wished to make war after the 
European manner in the forests of the Ohio, and had 
been unwilling to take advice from any one, paid for 
his temerity with his life, and the loss of the largest 
part of his army. The bodies of some hundred 
soldiers, and many officers, strewed the battle field. 


and immense booty fell into the hands of the French.* 
Had it not been for the Virginia militia, commanded 
by Washington, protecting the retreat of the frag- 
ments of the English army, that portion of the 
savages who did not loiter to pillage the dead, would 
not in all probability have spared a solitary soldier 
to tell the story of their sanguinary defeat.f 

"The French did not lose thirty men, and the 
most of these were killed, not by the English balls, 
but by the branches of the trees which sheltered 
them, and which were violently torn off by the fire 
of the enemy's artillery. The victory was more 
brilliant because the French had only an inferior 
force with which to oppose the army of Braddock, 
numbering at least two thousand men, which 
constrained Washington to say: *We have been 
beaten, shamefully beaten, by a handful of French- 

"After the rout of the English, Langlade took 
energetic measures to prevent the savages from 
seizing the stores of liquor belonging to the enemy; for, 
once under the influence of the liquid fire, they might 
have been carried to excesses which would have 
tarnished the glory of a day so fortunate. Frustrated 
in their attempt the Indians set about searching the 
bodies of the English dead, lying by hundreds on the 

*" Ther* were counted d«Ml on ib« battle fleld six haadrad men, on th« retraat nboat fonr 
bundrtd: alone a Uttla rtraam three hundred. Their total loa* wae reokoned at twelve hundred 
•od aeventy, oiner aoeounta place It at one thou«ind, fifteen huadred, and even Mrenteen hun- 
dred. Tne wounded were abandoned, and almoet all perlahed in the wooda. Of one hundred 
and eixty oiBcers, only six escaped. Several piecea of artillery were taken; alao a hundred 
covered wagons, the military cheat, and theelfecte of the oflicen, who were well eoulpped. 
The laet waa the booty of the MvaKee and Oaoadiane.— Memolri dee Ponchoi, vol. I . p. 3/. 

t'The rout became general. AU the Bnglish took to flight, carrvlng with them their wounded 
OeneraL Terror eelxed even those who had taken no part iu this combat. Dunbar's army, 
teeamped nearly twenty leacuee ttom the fleld of action, deoerted their camp and Joined the 
IVigltlvee, who did not stop till they reached Fort Cumberland, the longest flight on record. The 
French pursued the Bnglbh till fear of some ambuscade made them retrace their steps for they 
liad no auraidon thai they bad struck their fbea with so great a panic— Notice ot Daniel Hyacinth 
Marie Ueaaidde Beai^eo. by John Q. Hbea. 


bloody field. Many of the officers wore rich uniforms, 
and they despoiled them of every valuable article 
they might have upon them. 

^^ Besides the Indians, many Canadians took part 
in the combat, under the command of Langlade; 
among others has brother-in-law, Souligny, his 
nephew, Gautier de Vierville, Pierre Queret, La 
Choisie, La Fortune, Amable de Gere, Philip de 
Rocheblave, and Louis Hamelin. All won, by their 
brave conduct, the congratulations of their chief. 

"The Indians were not alone in their desire to 
despoil the vanquished. La Choisie having found on 
the battle-field the body of an English officer dressed 
in a rich uniform, Philip de Rocheblave claimed to 
have discovered it at the same moment. The former 
took possession of the well filled purse of the officer, 
but the latter maintained loudly that he had an 
equal right to it, and they separated after exchanging 
more than one bitter word. However it may have 
been. La Choisie was assassinated during the following 
night, and the purse disputed with him by de 
Rocheblave was not found upon him. Quite naturally 
the tragical end of La Choisie was attributed to de 
Rocheblave, but his guilt could not be established. 
De Rocheblave was the uncle of Pierre de Roche- 
blave, who became one of the most important members 
of the North-western Fur Company." 

Many of these details had never before been 
published, and the fact that Langlade should have * 
taken so decisive a part in the engagement, must 
naturally excite some surprise, but there is little 
doubt that the French triumph was largely due to 


his exertions and his ability as a military man. He 

figured prominently in later days, and in 1777 one 

of Burgoyne's officers, in a letter referring to the 

expected arrival of Ottawa Indians, wrote : " They 

are led by M. de Saint Luc and M. de Langlade, 

both great partisans of the French cause, in the last 

war; the latter is the person who, at the head of 

the tribe which he now commands, planned and 

executed the defeat of (General Braddock." Burgoyne 

himself wrote to the same effect, and he spoke as 

though the important part taken by Langlade was 

of common notoriety amongst the English. This 

history of the affair divides the honors of that 

memorable battle between Beaujeu and Langlade, 

whereas all previous accounts have given the former 

the exclusive credit for Braddock's defeat. According 

to other accounts Beaujeu originated the plan of 

leaving FortDuquesne to make the attack, and secured 

a reluctant consent to his scheme on the part of M. 

de Contrecoeur, the commander, who was indeed 

upon the point of abandoning the Fort, before 

Braddock's arrival. The Indians were afraid to 

march against a force so largely superior in numbers, 

but de Beaujeu vehemently said to them, "I am 

determined to go out against the enemy. I am certain 

of victory. What! will you allow your father to go 

alone!" His language and his manner aroused the 

savages, of whom there were gathered representatives 

of nearly a dozen tribes, and they responded to his 

appeal by declaring they would follow him, where- 

ever he might lead. Instantly the entire band 

prepared for action, and in less than an hour six 


hundred braves were armed, in their war paint, 
and on the march with two hundred and fifty 
French and Canadians. Beaujeu led his soldiers and 
their allies on to the attack, with the greatest bravery 
and coolness; he had prepared for the worst as to 
himself, having received the holy communion, in 
company with a party of his soldiers on the evening 
preceding the battle. Early in the conflict he fell 
mortally wounded, and shortly afterwards expired. 
His death caused the Indians to falter, and when the 
unfamiliar roar of artillery was added to the 
confusion of the conflict they, becoming terrified, 
began a retrogade movement. Dumas, next in 
command, sprang quickly to the front, cheered them 
on and led them back, to a still fiercer attack than 
the first. It is too late for history to attempt to 
change the records of more than a century far 
enough to give to Langlade the glory accorded 
Beaujeu and Dumas; but it cannot now be doubted 
that the former is entitled to a full share of the 
credit due for the victory given the French arms on 
that memorable occasion. 

After the last sad rites had been paid the dead 
General, the British army continued its dreary 
retreat, and on the same evening reached Little 
Meadows. From that point Washington wrote to 
Colonel Innes the following letter, which was sent 
forward by an express: 

Little Meadows, 15 Jult, 1755. 


Captain Orme, bein^ confined to his litter, and not able to write 
has desired me to acknowledge the receipt of yours. He begs the favor 
of yon to have the room the General lodged in prepared for Colonel 


BurtOD, himself and Capt. Morris, who are all wounded; also that some 
small place may be had convenient for cooking, and, if any fresh pro- 
vision, and other necessaries for persons in their condition, may be had, 
that yon will engage them. 

The horses which carry the wounded gentlemen in litters, are so 
much fatigued, that we dread their performance; therefore it is desired 
that you will be kind enough to send out eight or ten fresh horses for 
their relief, which will enable us to reach the fort this evening. 

I doubt not but you have had an account of the poor gentlemen's 
death by some of the affrighted wagoners who ran off without taking 
leave. I am sir, your most obedient servant, 



At Fort Cumberland. 

Before the receipt of this letter by Colonel Innes a 
number of the teamsters had reached the Fort, and 
they spread consternation throughout the camp 
by reporting that Braddock and his officers were all 
dead; and that the entire army had been either 
killed or made prisoners. Upon receipt of Washing- 
ton's letter, however, Colonel Innes immediately sent 
forward the necessary horses, and prepared quarters 
for the wounded officers and men. When the 
sorrowful cavalcade arrived at the Fort it was 
received with the greatest kindness, and every effi^rt 
made to relieve the suflFerers. They were taken into 
buildings before used as barracks, and at once 
everything obtainable that could contribute to the 
alleviation of their suflFerings was supplied. 

Washington feared lest the exaggerated statements 
made by the badly frightened teamsters should be 
carried east, and at last reach his mother. In order 
to relieve her mind, he at once dispatched a letter, 
assuring her of his safety, and giving her some 
account of the expedition, and its unhappy results. 


On the same date he also wrote to his brother, as 
follows : 

Fort CuiiBCRLAyD, 18 July, 1755. 
Dear Brother : 

As I have heard, since my arrival at this place, a circumstantial 
account of my death and dying speech, I take this early opportunity of 
contradicting the first, and assuring you that I have not as yet composed 
the latter. But by the all powerful dispensation of Providence I have 
been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for I had 
four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet escaped 
unhurt, although death was leveling my companions on every side of 
me I 

We have been most scandalously beaten by a trifling body of men, 
but fatigue and want of time prevent me from giving you any of the 
details until I have the happiness of seeing you at Mount Vernon, which 
I now most ardently wish for, since we are driven thus far. A feeble 
state of health obliges me to halt here for two or three days, to recover a 
little strength, that I may thereby be enabled to proceed homewards with 
more ease. You may expect to see me there on Saturday or Sunday 
fortnight, which is as soon as I can well be down, as I shall take my 
Bullskin Plantations on my way. Pray give my compliments to all my 
friends. I am, dear Jack, your most affectionate brother, G. W. 

Captain Orme wrote, the same day, to Governor 
Sharpe, giving an account of the battle, as follows : 

Fort Cumberland, July 18th, 1755. 
Mt Dear Sir : 

I am so extremely ill in bed with the wound I have received in my 
thigh that I am under the necessity of employing my friend Gapt, Dob- 
son to write for me. 

I conclude you have had some account of the action near the banks 
of the Mononeahela about seven miles from the French Fort; as the 
reports spread are very imperfect what you have heard must consequently 
be so too. You should have had more early accounts of it but every 
officer whose business it was to have informed you was either killed or 
wounded, and our distressful situation put it out of our powers, to attend 
to it so much as we would have done. 

The 9th instant we passed and repassed the Monongahela by advanc- 
ing first a party of 300 men which was immediately followed by another 
of 200, the General with the column of Artillery, Baggage and the main 
body of the army passed the river the last time about one o'clock; as 
soon as the whole got on the Fort side of the Monongahela we heard a 



very heavy and quick fire in oar front, we immediately advanced in order 
to sustain them, but the Detachment of the 200 and the 300 men gave 
way and fell back upon us which caused such confusion and struck so 
great a Panick among our men that afterwards no military expedient 
could be made use of that had any effect upon them; the men were so 
extremely deaf to the exhortations of the General and the officers that 
they fired away in the most irregular manner all their ammunition and 
then run off leaving to the enemy the artillery, ammunition, Provision and 
Baggage, nor would they be persuaded to stop till they got as far as 
Guerst Plantation, nor there only in part, many of them proceeding even 
as far as Col. Dunbar's party, who lay six miles on this side. The officers 
were absolutely sacrificed by their unparalleled good behaviour, advanc- 
ing sometimes in body & sometimes separately, hoping by such example 
to engage the soldiers to follow them, but to no purpose. 

The General had five horses shot under him and at last received a 
wound through his right arm, into his lungs, of which he died on the 13th 
tnst. Poor Shirley was shot through the head, Capt. Morris wounded* 
Mr. Washington had two horses shot under him and his cloaths shot thro' 
in several places, behaving the whole time with the greatest courage, and 
resolution. Sir Peter Halket was killed upon the spot, Col. Burton and 
Sir John St. Clair wounded, & Inclosed I have sent you a list of the 
killed and wounded according to as exact an account as we are able to 

Upon our proceeding with the whole convoy to the Little Meadows 
it was found impossible to advance in that manner, the General therefore 
advanced with twelve hundred men, with the necessary artillery, ammu- 
nition, k provision, leaving the main body of the convoy under the 
command of Col. Dunbar with orders to join him as soon as possible; in 
this manner we proceeded with safety and expedition till the fatal day I 
have just related, and happy it was that this disposition was made, other- 
wise die whole must have either starved or fallen into the hands of the 
enemy, as numbers would have been of no service to us, and our provision 
all lost 

As our number of horses were so much reduced and those extremely 
weak, and many carriages being wanted for the wounded men, occasioned 
our destroying the ammunition and superfluous part of the provision left 
in Col. Dunbar's convoy to prevent its falling into the hands of the 

As the whole of the Artillery is lost and the troops are extremely 
weakened by Deaths, wounds and sickness, it was judged impossible 
to make any further attempts, therefore Col. Dunbar is returning to 
Fort Cumberland with everything he is able to bring with him, 

I propose remaining here till my wound will suffer me to remove 


to Philadelphia, from thence shall make all possible dispa^h to 
England, whatever commands you may have for me jon will do me 
the favor to direct to me here, 

I am with the greatest sincerity your most obedient and most 

Humble Servant, 
By the particular disposition of the French and the Indians it is 
impossible to judge of the numbers they had that day in the Field. 
As the GeneraVs chariot is to be disposed of, I should be glad to 
know if you would have it again; it has been at this place since our 
departure from hence; if you propose taking it again I will send it to 
you and bring the General's coach back, Gapt. Morris' compliments 
attend you with Mr. Washington's. 

P. S. Writing to you as a friend I flatter myself you will excuse 
the hurry in which this is wrote. 

To The Hon'bl Governor Sharpe. 

Notwithstanding the great distance between Fort 
Cumberland and the battle field of the Monongahela, 
the rugged mountains, and the very difficult roads, 
the garrison at the Fort was in a state of the greatest 
uneasiness lest the victorious French, with their 
Indian allies, should pursue the retreating remnant 
of the army and strike it another blow. So com- 
pletely terrified were the defeated English that every 
particle of courage seemed to have been eradicated 
from their natures; they forgot their king, their 
country, their honor, everything in fact save the 
savage war whoop of the Indian and the fatal scenes 
of the battle field. 

Dunbar, who had been so slow in going forward 
with his force that he did not get within sound of 
the conflict, made the best use of his time in marching 
to the rear. On the 20th of July he arrived at Fort 
Cumberland, having fifteen hundred soldiers fit for 
duty. In the hands of a proper officer these men 
would have been sufficient to set at defiance, and 

1755.] Dunbar's retreat to Philadelphia. 183 

even to overcome, any force that the French might 
have been able to send against them from Fort 
Duquesne, but Dunbar was as badly frightened as 
any tyro in the ranks, and he did not feel that his 
precious body was safe so long as he was in the 
shadow of the wilderness. The necessities of the 
case were such that he could not continue his retreat 
immediately, and was compelled to remain at Fort 
Cumberland until the 2d of August, by which time 
the wounded had all been looked after, the weary 
and foot sore men somewhat recruited, and an 
abundance of supplies secured. 

The following extract appeared in Green's Mary- 
land OazettCy July 31st, 1755, and is interesting in 
several respects: 

" By Letters in Town we understand, that Col. Danbar, with the 
Remainder of the two Regiments, and three Independent Companies, 
under his Command, were to march from Fort Camberland on Tuesday 
last for Rays-Town in Pennsylvania. The same Letters mentioned the 
arrival of one Staut at Fort Cumberland, who gave them the following 
accounts : That about the Middle of June last he and his Family were 
carried off from the Back Parts of this Province, by a Party of Indians, 
to Fort Du Quesne; that when he came thither the French had 
not above 400 Men in the Fort; that on the 2d of July, about 
1100 French, and 1300 Indians, came down the Ohio, and in a few Days 
afterwards several other large Parties of both French and Indians arrived 
also from other Parts: That a small Party of French, with about 2,000 
Indians, were soon after sent out to harrass our army on their March, who 
understanding the Rout the General had taken, determined to have 
disputed his Passage over the Monongahela, but coming too late for that 
Purpose, found him entered into the Valley where the action happened. 
That after the Engagement the Indians pursued our People to the Monon- 
gahela, scalped and plundered all that were left upon the Field, except 
five or six, who not being able to keep pace with the Victors in their 
Return to the Fort, were all treated in the same Manner, one Virginian 
only surviving it. [Oh I horrid Barbarity I to kill in cool Blood I But, 
Protestant Reader, such is the Treatment we may expect to receive from 
his most Christian Majesty's American allies, if ever we should be so 


unhappy as to fall into their Hands, except we give up our Religion 
Liberty, and every Thing that is dear and valuable, and submit toi>e his 
Vassals, and Dupes to the Romish Clergy, whose most tender Mercies are 
but hellish Cruelties, wherever they have Power to exercise them.] 

'* He further says, that the same Day of the attack, all the artillery, 
&c^ was carried into the Fort, and the Plunder distributed amongst the 
Indians; a great Number of whom, the second Day afterwards, took their 
Leaves and set out for Canada, carryii^g this Staut with them a Prisoner 
who the first Night afterwards made his Escape from them, and with 
much Difficulty, arrived at Fort Cumberland, almost famishM. 

''He says the French have now about 3,000 Men at the Fort.'' 

On the 1st, Dunbar received a letter from Commo- 
dore Keppel, directing him to send the seamen to 
Hampton, where they were to go on board the ship 

On the same day he wrote the following letter to 
Lieutenant-Governor Morris, of Pennsylvania: 

Fort Cumbeblakd, Ang. 1, 1755. 

With this yonU receive a Letter for Admiral Boscawen, which pray 
put under cover to him, directed to him or officer commanding his 
Majesty's ship at Halifax, and if the despatches I sent you are not gone, 
or an opportunity immediately offering, I would request your sending all 
to Halifax directed as hefore. 

I march from this to-morrow with about 1,200 Men. When I shall 
have the honor of seeing you at Philadelphia is uncertain on account of 
the long march. I hope everjrthing will be fasilitated for our reception. 
It would give me infinite pleasure to hear from you on my March. I 
flatter myself with agreeable news of our Friends at Sea and Gen. Shirley. 
The latter is my greatest concern, as I am assured he will meet with a 
vigorous opposition. 

I leave here the Virginia and Maryland Companies with some of the 
Train to protect this Fort and the General hospital, where there is about* 
400 Wounded or Sick. 

Sir, your most humble and Ob'dent Serv*t 

To Governor Morris. 

P. S. — I fear Ladf s, wives to Gentlemen kiVd, are come or coming 
to Philadelphia. If they arrive and want a little Assistance be so good 
as to supply them. Mrs. Hanson, Mrs. Brereton, and Mrs Hart is their 


On the 2d, with his entire command, and two of 
the independent companies, he marched away from 
the Fort, and did not conclude to give up his flight 
until he had reached Philadelphia. 

Dunbar's abandonment of Fort Cumberland left 
that post under the care of Colonel Innes' small 
command, consisting of one Virginia company, and 
a company of Maryland rangers, upon whom devolved 
the labor of nursing the sick and wounded, as well 
as of defending the position from attack. There 
were at this time 400 officers and men in the hos- 
pitals, disabled by wounds and sickness. 

The retreat of the army had a most disheartening 
effect upon the entire population of the back country. 
The people heard of the flight of the veteran troops, 
and taking quick alarm, most of them, gathering 
together such of their effects as they could carry, fled 
towards the Susquehanna. Everything was aban- 
doned, houses, lands, growing crops, and stock. The 
forts remained garrisoned by small bodies of colonial 
troops,and a few hardy pioneers determined if possible 
to hold their own. Amongst these latter was the 
indomitable Cresap, who prepared for any emergency 
that might arise. 

The French had no conception of the effect of their 

attack, and it was some time ere they learned the 

terrible state of demoralization and panic which 

followed their slaughter of Braddock's army. They 

were not slow to take advantage of this state 

of affairs, however, when they became apprised 

of it, and quickly the forests became filled with 

savages and robbers, who extended their raids 


almost as far East as Winchester, pillaging and mur- 
dering in the most ruthless manner, until the whole 
country from New York to the heart of Virginia 
became the theatre of inhuman bavbarities and 
heartless destruction. 

The defeat of Braddock was totally unlooked for, 
and it excited the most painful surprise, both in 
England and in the Colonies. The British troops 
had been looked upon as invincible, and preparations 
had been made in Philadelphia for the celebration of 
Braddock's anticipated victory. His defeat and his 
death were, therefore, startling disappointments, and 
it was plain that from that time forward the CJolon- 
ists had a much less exalted opinion of the valor of 
the royal troops. 

Braddock had entered upon this campaign full of 
confidence, pride and self-reliance. He was utterly 
ignorant of the Indian and his mode of warfare, yet 
too proud to receive instruction or advice upon the 
subject at the hands of his inferiors in military rank. 
He was bigoted to an extent which led him into error 
as to the value of the allies offered him, in the bands 
of Indians and scouts who were ready to join him, 
and whom he insulted and repelled by his indifference 
and neglect. He entered upon the contest without 
having in any way fitted himself for it, and the 
brave, reckless old soldier paid the penalty of his 
errors with his life. During the fatal battle 
Washington had besought Braddock to permit him 
to take three hundred of the provincials and fight 
the Indians after their own method, assuring him 
that they could take to the trees and quickly rout 


the enemy. To this he would not consent^ and 
answered with much warmth, that he was competent 
to command the troops, and was not yet reduced to 
the extremity of asking advice or of resorting to 
the disgraceful method of warfare in vogue with the 
naked savages. This was the only occasion upon 
which he aroused Washington's anger, and even 
then it was quickly forgotten. 

It has never been clearly settled whether Braddock 
died at the hands of the enemy, or by the act of one 
of his own men, although the question has been 
largely discussed, for many years past. Thomas 
Fossit, a soldier in Captain Cholmondeley's company, 
in his later years persistently declared that he shot 
Braddock, and that he was justified in so doing. 
Fossit was a large man, of great strength, rude habits, 
and strong passions. He had enlisted at Shippens- 
burg, Pa., and had a brother Joseph in the same 
command, who was killed in the battle of the 
Monongahela. Fossit was living near the top of 
Laurel Hill, in 1783, at the junction of Braddock's 
and Dunlap's roads, where he kept a small tavern. 
He was then an old man, but lived many years 
afterwards, and died at about the age of 100 years, 
in 1818. Fossit charged Braddock with having 
killed his brother Joseph by a stroke of his sword, for 
having taken shelter behind a tree during the battle, 
and for this reason, as well as to save the army, he 
alleged that he shot the General. 

Mr. Winthrop Sargent reviews this matter at 
considerable length, and concludes that there was no 
truth in Fossit's story, because he was mistaken 




entirely in a number of statements made concerning 
the incidents of the engagement. There ia cerfaunly 
no positive proof to contradict Foeait's statement, and 
it is not surprising that at his great ^e he should 
have forgotten many of .the facte of the transaction, 
dating back fifty years or more. There is nothing 
more probable than that Tom Fossit, angered by 
the stubbornness of the commander who was deter- 
mined to sacrifice the army to his foolish ideaa of 
fighting Indians, should have been impelled to this 
deed by revenge and hatred, when he witnessed the 
taking of his brother's life. Hon. Andrew Stewart, 
yf- when quite a boy, had 

, -.**-'''^ - ^ heard Fossit assert that 

he shot Braddock, and 
at that time his story 
was generally accepted 
as the truth, as it still 
is, by nearly all the peo- 
ple living in that part 
^yZ of Pennsylvania, who 
have treasured up the 
h legends pertaining to 
S the ill-fated expedition. 
The place of Brad- 
dock's sepulture was 
within a few yards of 
a small stream, the banks of which abruptly sloped 
down to the water, and distant about two miles — 
westwardly — from Fort Necessity. The grave was 
made immediately in the road, about a stone's throw 
from the present National Road. When the march 

1755.] braddook's graye. 189 

was resumed the horses, wagons and troops passed 
over the grave, the purpose being to prevent its 
discovery and desecration by the enemy. 

About 1824, a party of workmen engaged in repair- 
ing the old road, came upon the remains of a human 
skeleton, which was supposed to be that of Braddock. 
Numerous insignia of rank were found with it, and 
there was no knowledge of the burial of any other 
ofl&cer in that vicinity. Those who were present on 
the occasion carried away with them, as souvenirs, 
the buttons and other metal articles which had not 
been destroyed by corrosion. Some of the party 
even went so far in the gratification of their passion 
for relics, as to make way with several of the small 
bones of the hands. 

Mr. James 'Matthews, a blacksmith, who lived at 
Mount Washington, as Fort Necessity has since been 
called, was present on the occasion referred to, and 
witnessed the disinterment of these remains. They 
were carried to a point about one hundred and fifty 
yards Eastward, and buried in a field, at the foot of a 
large oak tree, some twenty-five yards from the 
National Boad. In order to mark the spot more 
clearly to strangers, Hon. Andrew Stewart had 
prepared a board upon which was inscribed the fact 
that this was the last resting place of Major Greneral 
Edward Braddock, and this board was nailed to the 
tree. For twenty-five years the National Boad was 
the great highway between the East and West, and 
thousands of persons passed over it annually. The 
writer can well remember how, when a boy, each 
morning and evening long trains of stage coaches 


arrived at and left Cumberland over this great 
highway. Braddock's grave waa one of the great 
points of attraction on the road, and every day the 
stages were stopped, in order that the passengers 
might disembark for a few minutes to inspect the 
place. The old oak tree, ten years since, fell a 
victim to the imperious hand of time, and during the 
prevalence of a storm was blown down, the trunk 

breaking oflf some feet from the ground, leaving 
only a stripped and shredded trunk to mark the 
sacred spot. The stump has now entirely disap- 
peared, and no mark of the old tree remains. In 
1871 a party of gentlemen from England visited the 
place, and before leaving it they had it enclosed with 
a fence of boards securely built; and thus it remains 

1755.] braddogk's grave. 191 

A foot note in De Hass's History of the Indian 
Wars of West Virginia states that "many years 
since, the remains of (Jeneral Braddock were removed 
to England, and now rest with the quiet sleepers of 
Westminster Abbey." Whence this information was 
derived has not transpired. However, it is certainly 
erroneous. Those remains undoubtedly still lie in 
the place above described, and no inhabitant of that 
locality haa ever heard of their removal to England. 
Those bones which were carried away as souvenirs 
by desecrating curiosity-seekers were afterwards 
gathered together by Mr. Stewart, and are supposed 
to have been deposited in Peale's Museum, Phila- 

It was Washington's intention, when he buried 
Braddock, to return at some future day and erect a 
monument to his memory, but his time was so much 
occupied by the events of the years following that it 
was not until after the close of the revolutionary 
war that he was able to undertake the self-imposed 
task. In 1784 he visited the place, for the purpose 
indicated, and "made a dilligent search for the grave, 
but the road had been so much turned, and the clear 
land so extended that it could not be found." The 
British government is not wont to neglect her soldiers, 
but she never took the smallest notice of the resting 
place of Braddock, and it was left for a stranger's 
hand to mark the spot where he lay, more than half 
a century after he fell. 

The demoralization of the settlers generally after 
the battle of the Monongahela was so great that 


Governor Sharpe again visited Fort Cumberland, and 
on his way to that point, promised them ample 
protection, whereby some were induced to remain 
on their plantations. 

Governor Sharpe t^aid of his visit here at that 
time: "I found by Colonel Dunbar and the other 
oflScers at the Fort that there had been many 
unhappy divisions in the army that General Braddock 
commanded. Himself and the two Colonels were 
scarcely on speaking terms, and very few beside four 
or five favorites mention him with regret. It has 
been hinted to me that in case he had succeeded 
against the Fort, the several companies that have 
been raised in, and that are supported by, these 
Provinces, wouid have been regi^^ted, and given 
to Lieutenant-Colonel Burton, of Dunbar's; Captain 
Morris, one of the aid-de-camps, was to have been 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain Dobson Major, and 
Captain Orme, the other aid-de-camp, was to have 
succeeded Burton as Lieutenant-Colonel in the regi- 
ment that Dunbar commands." 

Washington, while deprecating the lack of judg- 
ment shown by Braddock, in dealing with the 
Indians, was disposed to do him the fullest justice, 
and said of him: ^^He was one of the honestest 
and best men of the British officers with whom I 
was acquainted; even in the manner of fighting he 
was not to blame more than others; for of all that 
were consulted, only one person objected to it. 
Braddock was both my General and my physician. 
I was attacked with a dangerous fever on the march, 
and he left a sergeant to take care of me, and James' 


fever powders, with directions how to give them, and 
a wagon to bring me on when I should be able."* 

The following extracts are taken from the Mary- 
land Qazette^ of the dates given : 

"Annapolis, Aagast 21, 1755. 

" The latest account to be depended on from the Westward is, That a 
Fortnight ago an Officer, who had been sent with a Party of Men over 
the Allegany Hills to reconnoitre, was retamed to Fort Cumberland, and 
reported, That on his way towards the Meadows he met with two Friend 
Indians, who expressing a great Regard for the English, and for his 
safety, advised him immediately to retire, and save his Party from the 
Hands of 400 French and about 100 Indians, who were then at the Place 
where Col. Dunbar was encamped, when he received the News of Gene- 
ral Braddock's Misfortune. 

'^ The Indians also told him, that a Detachment of 100 French was 
ordered to advance to the Meadows, and prepare some Materials for a 
Place of Defence, which is to be there constructed." 

"Annapolis, October 2, 1755. 
'^ From Fort Cumberland we learn, that on the 21st ult. a Boy, who 
was coming from that Place with a Waggon, was wounded in the ann and 
Back by two Arrows, that were shot by an Indian, who lay concealed 
near the Road, just on this side Wills^s Creek. 

" The same Day two Soldiers that were sent on Duty from the Fort, 
were surprized near the same place, and taken Prisoners by five Indians, 
who carried them towards Fort Du Quesne; one of the Soldiers has since 
given them the Slip, and notwithstanding he was dangerously wounded 
by a Tomahawk in the Head, is likely to recover." 

"Annapolis, October 9, 1755. 

" We learn from Fort Cumberland, that as Col. Stevens was going 
thence, with a small Party of Men, to Winchester, he was fired on at two 
different Places by some Indians that lay concealed by the Road's side. 
Two of the Virginians were killed, but the Enemy did not choose to stay 
for their scalps. 

" By a Person who arrived in Town last Monday from Col. Cresap's 
we are told, that last Wednesday Sen*night, in the Morning, the Indians 
had taken a Man Prisoner, who was going to Fort Cumberland from 
Frazier's, and had also carried off a woman from Frazier's Plantation, 
which is four Miles on this side Fort Cumberland. The same Morning 
they fell in with a Man and his Wife, who had left their Plantations, and 

•Hon. Wm. Plndley'a letter, XTV NUm Begbter, 179. 



were retiring into ihe more populoas Parts of the Coantry; they shot the 
Horse on which the Man rid, bat as it did not fall immediately he made 
his Escape; the Woman, it is sapposed, fell into their Hands, as neither 
she nor the Horse on which she was riding, have been since seen or 
heard of. * 

'* The same Party of Indians have also killed or carried off Benjamin 
Rogers, his Wife, and seven Children, and Edmund Marie of Frederick 
County. On Patterson's Creek many Families have, within this Month 
been murdered, carried away, or burnt in their Houses, by a Party of 
these Barbarians, who have entirely broke up that settlement 

*' Another Person, who lefl Stoddert's Fort last Sunday, acquaints us 
that the Inhabitants of that Part of the Country were in the greatest 
Consternation; that near 80 Persons were fled to the said Fort for Pro- 
tection, and many more gone off in the greatest Confusion to Pennsylvania. 
This, it seems, has been occasioned by an Express that was sent Lieuten- 
ant Stoddert and the Neighborhood, by Col. Cresap, advising them, that 
a Party of 17 Indians had passed by his House, and had cut off some 
People, who dwelt on the Town Creek, which is a few Miles on this 
side Col. Cresap's : One Daniel Ashloff, who lived near that Creek, is 
come down towards Conococheague, and gives the same account. He 
says also, that as himself and Father, with several others, were re- 
tiring from their plantations, last Saturday, they were attacked by the 
same Indians, as he supposes, and all but himself were killed or taken 
Prisoners. It is said that Mr. Stoddert who has a Command of 15 
Men, invited a few of the Neighborhood to join him, and to go in 
Quest of the Enemy, but they would not be persuaded; whereupon he 
applied himself to Major Prather for a Detachment of the Militia, 
either to go with a Party of his Men in Pursuit of the Savages, or 
garrison his Fort, while he made an Excursion. We hope there will 
be -no Backwardness in the Militia to comply with such a reasonabUb 
Request, especially as any Party or Person that shall take an Enemy 
Prisoner, will be rewarded with Six Pounds Currency; and the Person 
who will kill an Enemy, with Four Pounds, provided he can produce 
Witnesses, or the Enemy's Scalp, in Testimony of such action." 

" Aknapolis, October 23, 1765. 

^ We hear that a Party of 31 Volunteers, under the Command of 
Capt Alexander Beall and Lieutenant Samuel Wade Magruder, marched 
from the lower Part of Frederick County towards the Western Frontiers 
last Saturday. 

*' It is said that Col. Hcutt Bidgely will take the same Rout, with 
a Party of thirty Volunteers, next Saturday. 

''We hear that next Monday a Party of Volunteers, of about 60 
young hearty Men, will set out for the Westward, from Prince George^s 


Coanty, for th^ assistance and Defence of oar distressed Friends in the 
back Parts of this Province." 

Up to this time Maryland had put no troops in the 
field, save a few companies of rangers ; and previous 
to Washington's defeat at Fort Necessity she refused 
.o do anytSng tow.M. defraying fte ex^pe„«. of the 
war. After the Fort Necessity affair, however, the 
Assembly was convened, and without delay ^6,000 
was appropriated, to be expended under direction of 
Governor Sharpe for the defense of the fix)ntiers, and 
the support of the wives and children of the Indian 
allies. Several appropriation bills were defeated by 
an unfortunate difference which arose between the 
two Houses as to how the revenues should be raised ; 
and thus Maryland took no part in Braddock's 
campaign. She was both willing and able to do so, 
but the objection of the upper house to the con- 
tinuance of the duty on convicts, which the lower 
house proposed, led to a long continued dispute, 
whereby appropriations were prevented. The dis- 
astrous result of the campaign of 1765, however, so 
thoroughly aroused the people of Maryland, that 
when the Assembly was called together by the 
Governor, the lower house yielded its position in 
order that the necessary taxes might be levied and 
collected. They recognized the fact that instant 
action was imperative. The settlers were in terror, 
and hundreds were fleeing from their homes. 
Conococheague Creek was the boundary, beyond 
which few settlements had extended. Fort Cumber- 
land was in a wilderness uninhabited by civilized 
men, save those venturesome trappers and hunters 


who had made themselves homes near the Port; it 
was separated from the settlements Eastward by an 
almost trackless forest, eighty miles in extent, 
and was easily flanked, both on the North and the 
South, so that it presented no obstacle to the 
predatory bands of savages that attacked the fron- 
tiersmen in Virginia and Pennsylvania. The settlers 
were compelled, therefore, to provide means for 
their own defense. They built stoccade "forts," en- 
closing their houses, and thus each man's home 
became a castle, which was often the scene of heroic 
defense, and not unfrequently of heartrending 
disaster, when savage cunning overcame Spartan 
courage. Those who were unable to erect these 
"forts" relied for safety upon the means afforded by 
their more fortunate neighbors, and in case of alarm 
they repaired with their families to the nearest 

On the assembling of the Legislature the emergen- 
cies of the situation were clearly set forth, and 
£40,000 was at once voted as a fund for defense. 
£11,000 of this was to be applied to the building of 
a fort and blockhouse on the Western borders, and 
sustaining a garrison therein; and £25,000 was 
appropriated in aid of any expedition for the general 
service." In 1756 Fort Frederick was commenced, 
and before the close of the year it was garrisoned 
with two hundred men. This fort was built upon an 
elevated plateau, about one fourth of a mile from the 
Potomac. It was constructed of the stone so plentifiil 
in that neighborhood, and its walls were some fifteen 
feet in height, with bastioned corners. As a place of 

1755-] FOBT FREDERICK. 197 

defense against small arms it was all that could be 
desired; but was not calculated to resist an artillery 
attack. The shape of the fort was quadrangular, 
each of its exterior lines being three hundred and 
sixty feet in length, and its walls strengthened with 
earth embankments. The work was done in the 
most substantial manner, as it was designed for 
permanent use, and the expense of construction was 
something more than £6,000. Barracks sufficient 
for the accommodation of three hundred men were 
erected inside, as well as a substantial magazine. 
The walls of this fort * are still standing, firm and 
strong, covered with wild vines, and shaded by the 
foliage of large trees which grow in the enclosure. 
It is thirteen miles east of Hancock, and may be seen 
from the railroad cars in passing over the Baltimore 
and Ohio Road. 

Washington remained at Fort Cumberland a few 
days on his return after the battle, in order to recruit 
his strength, and then took his departure for Mount 
Vernon, at which place he arrived on the 26th of 
July, still suffering from the effects of his illness. 
He was greatly depressed in spirits, in consequence 
of the result of the campaign, in which he had 
suffered a very considerable pecuniary loss, in the 
matter of his horses and general outfit. 

Colonel Innes, being left at Fort Cumberland with 
only a very small force of provincial troops, did all 
that was possible to alleviate the sufferings of the 
wounded soldiers under his care. Many of them 
died and were buried on the hillside near the Fort. 
Others recovered and were assigned to duty. Great 


care was taken by him to have the Fort kept in the 
most perfect order. The men were required to 
thoroughly clean the camp and their quarters each 
day, and every precaution was observed to avoid a 
surprise by the enemy, which might be attempted at 
any moment. 

After Braddock's army had left Port Cumberland, 
on the 9th of June, for the advance on Fort 
Duquesne, the Indians made their appearance with 
great frequency and the utmost audacity. Knowing 
the weakness of the garrison, they had on several 
occasions approached the Fort and fired upon it, but 
without doing any damage. Not being bold enough, 
or strong enough, to attack it, they devoted them- 
selves to murder and plunder wherever opportunity 
ofiered, and several settlers were killed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Fort. Others were taken 
prisoners and carried off. The number of persons 
who thus fell victims to savage cruelty in a few 
weeks was twenty-six. 

Governor Sharpe remained some time at the Fort, 
upon his visit after Braddock's disaster, and on the 
11th of August he declared his conviction that Fort 
Cumberland was not a proper place for a grand 
magazine. He had consulted with the engineers of 
the army, who. unanimously agreed with him in 
this conclusion, because the Fort was badly located, 
being commanded by adjacent hills on two sides. 

During the month of August the sick and wounded 
were removed to Fredericktown, Colonel Innes fearing 
that he might be besieged by an enemy which would 
prove strong enough to capture the Fort. Governor 


Sharpe advised him in case of such an attack^ should 
it appear that he would be unable to hold the Fort, 
to set fire to it, and retire at once. After the 
departure of the men who had been left in the 
hospital the garrison amounted to barely one hundred, 
and they became in a short time almost insubordi- 
nate, the reins of discipline being greatly relaxed. 

Maryland sent a small company of volunteer 
soldiers to the Fort, in September, which was under 
command of Captain Dagworthy, whom Governor 
Sharpe had commissioned. The strength of the 
garrison was thus swelled to one hundred and thirty- 
seven men. 

Fort Cumberland had never supplied the settlers 
with the protection they needed, and many fell 
victims to the tomahawk and scalping knife. On the 
24 th of June the savages had fallen upon two 
families within four miles of the Fort, and near the 
river, and killed six men, women and children. On 
the 26th they killed seven more, inflicting upon them 
the most inhuman outrages. In this latter affair the 
Indians attacked the house of a settler, and toma- 
hawked a woman and three children; the husband 
seized his gun and fired upon the assailants, but 
without effect. One of the Indians fired upon him, 
and the ball passed through his mouth; he then 
sprang through a back door and ran towards the 
woods, when another shot struck him in the thigh, 
inflicting a severe wound. He managed, however, 
to reach the Fort. A boy who was in the house 
was struck upon the head with a tomahawk and 
knocked down, after which he was scalped, his 
assailants supposing him dead. In a little while he 


recovered his senses, and found the Indians engaged 
in plunder. Fearing they would murder hiijoi, he 
remained quiet and feigned death. While lying thus 
his mother, whose head had been crushed by a blow 
of the tomahawk, somewhat recovered, and attempted 
to rise up, when one of the Indians seized her by the 
hair, twisted it about his hand, and passing his knife 
around her head, with a tremendous jerk tore off 
the bleeding scalp. As soon as the Indians left, the 
boy fled from the house, and ran into the river, 
afterwards making his way to the Fort. 

About the 1st of October a war party of Indians 
made a descent upon the families living near the 
Fort, of whom there were a number on both sides of 
the Potomac, some near Colonel Cresap's house, and 
others a few miles east of the Fort. A letter written 
by Dagworthy at the time said: "It is supposed 
that near one hundred persons have been murdered 
or carried away prisoners by these Barbarians who 
have burnt the houses and ravaged all the Planta- 
tions in that part of the country. Parties of the 
enemy appear within sight of Fort Cumberland every 
day, and frequently in greater numbers than the 
garrison consists of" 

A short distance east of the Fort, near the river's 
bank, two trappers had built themselves houses, and 
had brought their families there to settle. About 
the 4th of October a party of savages suddenly made 
their appearance, completely surrounding the houses, 
and taking the people by surprise. Before the men 
could catch up their arms they were shot down, and 
scalped in the presence of their terror-stricken 
families. The houses were plundered, and then 


burned to the ground, the women and children being 
carried off as prisoners, doubtless to a more horrible 
fate, as they were never afterwards heard of. 

Four other families, still closer to the Fort, were 
surprised by another war party a few days earlier. 
On this occasion the Indians crept stealthily up to 
within a short distance of their unsuspecting victims, 
fired upon and killed the men, and then tomahawked 
every living person they found. They tore the 
bleeding scalps from the still breathing bodies, and 
with taunting yells approached the fort and waved 
the scalps in the air, in full view of the garrison. 
After burning the houses of the settlers the savages 
departed towards the north. 

On the 14th of August, only twenty days after his 
return to Mount Vernon, as a private citizen, 
Washington received intelligence of his appointment 
as commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces. He 
not only had not sought this appointment, but had 
declared that he would not accept it unless he could 
be assured of the rank and emoluments to which the 
office was entitled; be authorized to name his field 
officers, and guaranteed such supplies as were nece&* 
sary, promptly. All his requirements were complied 
with, and he was commissioned as commander-in-chief 
of all the forces raised, or to be raised, in the colony. 
Governor Dinwiddle undoubtedly made this appoint- 
ment under the pressure of public opinion, as it was 
well known he desired to promote Colonel Innes to 
the position, and from that time forward Dinwiddle 
was never cordial with the new commander. Captain 

Adam Stephens, who had been with Washington at 


Great Meadows, was made Lieutenant-Colonel. On 
the 14th of September Washington went to Win- 
chester, where he made his headquarters, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stephens went forward to Fort 
Cumberland. After getting matters in a satisfactory 
shape at Winchester, and sending out his recruiting 
officers, Washington made a tour of inspection of all 
the outposts, from Fort Cumberland to Fort Din- 
widdle, on Jackson's river, and in order to facilitate 
military movements he built a shorter and better 
road between Winchester and Fort Cumberland, for 
the passage of troops and supplies. 

In the latter part of this year the old quarrel as 
to rank between provincial officers and those holding 
royal commissions was renewed at Fort Cumberland, 
and it led to many and bitter disputes. Governor 
Sharpe had sent Captain Dagworthy to the Fort with 
a company of thirty men, which had been raised in 
Maryland, and were the first troops furnished by 
that colony. Dagworthy had held a royal commis- 
sion, in the preceding war in Canada, and although 
he had disposed of the commission for half-pay, he 
assumed now to command all provincial officers, no 
matter how high their rank might be. 

In November, Governor Innes was called to his 
home in North Carolina to look after his estates, and 
before leaving he turned over the command of the 
Fort to Lieutenant-Colonel Stephens. But no sooner 
had Colonel Innes departed than Captain Dagworthy 
issued an order assuming command in despite of the 
protest of the officer left in charge by the Governor 
of the Fort. This assumption on Dagworthy's part 


caused wrangling and insubordination amongst the 
officers of inferior grade, all of whom took sides. 
The Fort being in Maryland, Governor Sharpe was 
slow to curtail Dagworthy's pretensions, and appeared 
rather to sustain him. Governor Dinwiddie argued 
that the location of the Fort should not affect the 
matter at all, as it was a "king's fort," built by an 
order sent to him from the king, chiefly by troops in 
the pay of the king, and that it could not in any way 
be regarded as under Maryland authority. The 
disputes upon the question of rank continued 
throughout the entire winter, and Dagworthy persist- 
ently adhered to his right to the command, even 
after Washington himself arrived at the Fort. 
Dinwiddie declared that it was preposterous for a 
Captain in command of only thirty men to pretend 
to outrank a Colonel who was Commander-in-Chief of 
all the Virginia forces; but as Fort Cumberland was 
in Maryland, Dinwiddie would not issue any orders 
concerning the matter, and Washington then declared 
that unless the dispute was settled and his authority 
established he would resign his commission. In 
order to secure a settlement of the question, it was 
determined to refer it to Major-General Shirley, 
Braddock's successor as General in command of the 
colonies. The officers desired Washington to present 
the matter in person, and on the 4th of February, 1756, 
he set out upon a journey to the General's headquar- 
ters at Boston, a distance of five hundred miles, 
accompanied by Captain Mercer, his aid-de-camp, and 
Captain Stewart, of the Virginia light-horse. The 
journey was made upon horseback, the young 


officers being dressed in the most stylish uniforms, 
and accompanied by their black servants. 

General Shirley received Washington with the 
utmost kindness, and entertained him in the most 
hospitable manner. The question as to his rank, 
and Dagworthy's pretensions, was fully discussed, and 
Washington delivered to the General a letter f;t)m 
Governor Dinwiddle, bearing date January 23, 1756, 
of which the following is an extract : 

'* Got. Sharpe has not answered your Excellency's intentiona in 
removing the Dispate between Col. Washington and Capt. Dagwortfay ; 
he has ordered him to keep the command of the Fort,* which he does in 
an absolnte manner. We have purchased and laid in provisions for 
1,000 men for one year ; as the Fort was the most safe place, they were 
deposited there, and a commissary appointed at the charge of thia 
country , he will not allow him to discharge his duty, but refuses any 
of the provisions to be touched but by his order ; and though the provis- 
ions are aupply'd by this country, he insists on a right to supply his own 
men from our magazine, tho* Maryland pays no part of the change ; he 
otherways acts in an arbitrary manner, & insists on his Rank superior to 
any of onr officers, and he has not above 30 men, when Col. Washington 
has upwards of 500. 

" This Fort was built by virtue of His Majesty's instructions to me, 
and by my orders to Col. James Innes, then in the pay. of this colony, and 
with a great charge to this country. It's true it happens to be in 
Maryland, but I presume His Majesty has a right to build a Fort where 
he pleases in any of his colonies ; and the guns mounted are guns sent 
by His Majesty for the service of Virginia ; it cannot reasonably be 
suggested that His Majesty intended them for the Proprietor of 

'' General Braddock gave a commission to Colonel Innes to be Gov- 
ernor of the Fort; his private affairs calling him to his estate, in North 
Carolina, he appointed Lieut Col. Stephens to command in his absence. 
Capt Dagworthy, with his pretended rank, wrested the command from 
him without any rule but his commission of Captain in the Canadm 
Expedition, tho' not on the half pay list, but received a sum of money in 
lieu ; by accepting that money I am of opinion he revoked his com- 

•QoTernor Sbarpe bad ordered GapUin Degworthy to oonflne hb ftathority to irtwpe wlthla 
the Fort alone, and not to attempt to command thoae In the camp. 


" This affair makes sach noise here that I thought it necessary to 
for'd Col. Washington to yon, who can be more particular. If I was to 
call the assembly now, I know this affair has raised the rancour of the 
people so much that they would go into extremes of resentment, and do 
no business for the service. I am sorry I have occasion to be so long on 
this affair, but as it makes much noise here, and without you interpose 
your authority, I do not know what will be the consequence ; as formerly, 
I desire the favor of a Brevet commission to Col. Washington, and to the 
other Field officers, and that you would please to reinstate Col. Stephens 
to the command of the Fort till Governor Innes returns. As commander- 
in-chief of the forces this is in your power only, and without some 
regulation in regard to this unhappy dispute I shall not be able to do 
anything with our Assembly. 

^ I forgot to mention that Fort Cumberland being a King's Fort, I 
cannot conceive that the proprietor Governor can have any Right to 
appoint a Governor, and more so as it has been built by this government ; 
the Right is in you, and I doubt not you will assume it in order to restore 

After reading this letter, and hearing still further 
details from Washington, General Shirley put a final 
end to all difficulties as to rank, bj writing as 
follows to Governor Sharpe : 

Boston, March 5, 1756. 

Inclosed is the extract of a letter which I have lately received by 
Col. Washington from Gov. Dinwiddle, calling upon me to determine the 
right of command between him and Capt. Dagworthy. 

Tou was pleased to assure me at New York that yon would send 
such orders to Capt. Dagworthy as would put an end to this dispute, and 
afterwards that you had actually done it. 

I should be extremely unwilling to do anything that might appear in 
the least disagreeable to any gentleman who had the Honour of bearing 
His Majesty's commission, and should have been glad that no such dis- 
pute had come before me. But as the command I am honored with from 
His Majesty obliges me upon all occasions to act the best for his service, 
I must desire that Capt. Dagworthy may be removed from Fort Cumber- 
land : or acquainted that if he remains there, he must put himself under 
the command of Col. Washington. 

I have taken some time to consider this point, and cannot think 
that Capt. Dagworthy, who now acts under a Provincial commission, has 
any right to the command, as there are no regular troops joined with 
those troops now at Fort Cumberland, which would be the only circum- 

206 fflSTORY OP CUMBERLAND. [1756. 

stance that could occasion a dispate concerning the right of Provincial 
field ofiScera to command in preference to Captains bearing commissions 
from His Majesty. 

I should have sent my orders to Capt. Dagworthy through my aid- 
de-camp, but as you have proposed to me to give him such as would 
effectually remove the occasion of the dispute, I can^t but hope you will 
still do it ; and I think, besides, as he now acts under a Provincial com. 
mission it will be more regular that they should be transmitted to him 
from you. 

With respect to Fort Cumberland, I am informed by Capt. Morris, 
my aid-de-camp, that the late General Braddock had private instructions 
from His R. H. the Duke, to put it in a condition to contain a garrison of 
200 men, and that he appointed Col. Innes Gov*r of it, which was given 
out in orders ; if that be so the matter must remain on the same foot he 
put it upon. 

I am with great Regard, Sir, 
Your Honour's Most Obedient 

Humble Servant, 


Upon concluding his mission to Boston, Washing- 
ton set out on his return to Virginia, spending some 
ten days, however, in New York, where he became 
greatly enamored with Miss Phillipse, a very elegant 
young lady, with whom he became acquainted, and 
who afterwards was married to Captain Morris, his 
fellow aid-de-camp while with Braddock. In March 
he was in • Williamsburg, endeavoring to secure the 
legislation necessary to secure the frontiers, and to 
enable him to march again on Fort Duquesne, which 
he was most anxious to capture. He returned 
shortly afterward to Winchester, where he received 
most startling news as to the depredations of the 
savages on the borders. 

The Indians had penetrated the country almost to 
Winchester, and everywhere they were murdering 


and scalping the inhabitants. He determined then^ 
to enter the woods, and punish the redskins. With 
this object in view he sent a courier to Fort Cum- 
berland for troops, intending to take them, with such 
militia as he could organize, and go in search of the 
enemy. • He quickly discovered, however, that this 
project would have to be abandoned. The forests 
about Fort Cumberland were literally alive with 
Indians, who were constantly devising stratagems 
for destroying the Fort and garrison. The troops 
here had been sent out in various directions to 
punish such parties of French and Indians as they 
might be able to overcome, and to rescue settlers. 
Those left in the Fort were scarcely strong enough 
to defend it, and not a man could be spared. The 
courier returned to Winchester, and reported these 
facts. On his return he narrowly escaped with his 
life, as upon leaving the Fort the Indians fired upon 
him, and endeavored to cut him off. His horse was 
shot under him, and his clothes were cut in several 
places by bullets. Governor Innes, who had returned, 
and was in command of the Fort, declared that he 
could do no more than maintain his position, and if his 
force should be reduced he would be compelled to 
abandon the post at once. Not only did Washington 
thus fail to get the troops he expected, but the 
militia neglected also to respond to his call. 

The Virginia Assembly, seeing the necessity of 
prompt action, appropriated £20,000, and proposed 
the establishment of a chain of forts along the 
AUeghanies from the Potomac to the borders of 
North Carolina. This did not meet Washington's 


views. He advised the construction of a strong fort 
at Winchester, which should be a central point for 
supplies and defense. He said " Fort Cumberland is 
of little use; there is not an inhabitant living 
between it and Winchester, except a few settlements 
about the Fort, and a few families at Edwards's, on 
the Cacapehon. At Fort Cumberland I would have 
one company to garrison the place to secure it, to 
procure the earliest intelligence, and to cover 
detachments sent to the Ohio River, which is all the 
use it can ever be put to." His advice as to making 
the fort at Winchester a strong central point was 
adopted, and Fort Loudon was the result — ^the name 
being given in honor of the commanding General 
who succeeded Shirley. The plan for a chain of 
forts was persisted in, the projected number being 

Fort Cumberland was still maintained, however, 
and at great expense. Colonel Innes found it neces- 
sary in the spring, a second time to go to his home, 
and on this occasion he left Major James Livingston 
in command. 

Colonel Lines was beyond question a gentleman of 
much prudence, and one who had a high regard for 
his "Perquisites;" besides being rather eccentric in 
his orthography. Mr. Brantz Mayer has kindly 
furnished a copy of an original letter which came into 
his possession through Hon. Alexander R. Botcler, 
and which was written by Governor Innes at the 
time of turning over the command of the Fort to 
Major Livingston. It is quite an interesting docu- 
ment, and is as follows : 

1756.] AFFAIRS AT THE PORT. 209 

By James Innes Esqr Oovr of Fort Camberland, 

May 26th 1756. 
To The Fort Major of said Fort or to his assistant when absent on his 
Maj^s Service. 
Yon are to See that all the Out Doors of that Roe of Barracks next 
to Potomack or fasing the New Store be made Stench & Strong not to be 
opened upon any accoant whatever. That the Camp CuUermen be 
Appointed & to keep the Garrison Sweet & clean. 

All the Howses & hotts on the Bottome or near the Garison Not being 
iroediately occnpeyd for His Majestys Use & Service Custome hath 
made them a Perquisite of the Governors, k as farr as the Guns in 
the Fort cann throw a shott the land is deemd for the use of the Gari- 
son- You are therefore to insist upon a moderate Rent as my Right. 
& the account of which you are to trance mitt to me. 

Given under my hand att Fort Cumberland this 26th May 1756. 

To James Livingstok, Esq. 

The "Governor" evidently received some moneys 
from the rent of the houses near the Fort, a numher 
of which were occupied by traders, who had brought 
merchandise of such character as the soldiers cared 
for, in which they speculated. The sums thus 
collected he regarded as his "perquisites," and was 
careful to order that Major Livingston should 
promptly "trance mitt" them to him. 

The location of the Fort was such that several 
spurs of the mountain ranges in the vicinity 
entirely overlooked it, although when it was con- 
structed it was not thought to be within gun-shot of 
any of them. The Indians, however, found oppor- 
tunity to considerably annoy both the garrison and 
the camp at times. On frequent occasions they 
would post themselves on the side of Knobley 
Mountain and fire into the Fort. They did the same 
from the knob now known as McKaig's Hill. And 

although the distance intervening was too great to 



permit them to do much damage, yet very oflen 
their bullets fell inside the palisades^ and rendered 
the men so uncomfortable that they became anxious 
to put an end to such aggressions. On one 
occasion, during the summer of 1756, a large party 
of warriors had been loitering about the Fort for 
several days with a view to taking the scalps of such 
unwary soldiers as might venture within their reach. 
The troops were on their guard, however, and the 
Indians, despairing of cutting any of them off, took a 
position on one of the hills, and spent the entire day 
firing into the Fort. By loading their guns with 
heavy charges of powder, they were enabled to make 
it rather dangerous for such of the troops as were 
exposed. Major Livingston became much annoyed, 
finally, and determined to punish the redskins 
severely. Accordingly he ordered a Captain to take 
seventy-five men and dislodge the enemy. The night 
was cloudy, and there was no moon. The Captain 
took his force out under cover of the darkness, 
crossed the creek at the ford just above its mouth, 
and in perfect silence marched to the foot of the hill; 
here they formed a line, and cautiously surrounded 
the Indians, ascending and approaching to within 
about seventy-five yards of them. The savages were 
totally unprepared for an attack, and had posted no 
guards, evidently believing the garrison was too 
weak to molest them. The soldiers lay quiet, 
awaiting daybreak, at which time they intended to 
make an assault. As the light broke in the eia^st, 
every man lay with his hand on the trigger of his 
gun, and as soon as the Indians began to move about 


the signal was given, when a volley was poured into 
their midst. The surprise was complete. The 
savages were utterly confounded ; they had no time 
to secure their arms before the whites discharged 
another volley, cutting down most of them. Those 
who were not killed or wounded sought safety 
in flight, but they were picked off one after another, 
and few succeeded in getting off with their lives. 

The Indians after this troubled the garrison but 
little by firing from the hills, but they sought by 
every means to be revenged for the slaughter of their 
comrades, and gathered in great numbers about the 
Fort. Amongst the most cruel, bold and bloodthirsty 
of these warriors was Kill-buck, a Shawanese chief, 
who had, previous to the war lived near the settlers, 
on the South Branch of the Potomac, most of whom 
he knew. He was a powerful man, and possessed of 
much intelligence, but inhuman in his nature. He 
had made good use of his knowledge as to the homes 
and strength of the settlers, and had been guilty of 
many cruel murders. He had command of the 
Indians who had gathered about Fort Cumberland, 
and held a council for the purpose of determining 
upon the best method of capturing the Fort and 
destroying the garrison. It was finally determined 
to resort to stratagem, and a plan was made by which 
they were to secure an entrance, on the pretense of 
friendship, after which they were to overpower the 
troops and put all, oflBcers and men, to death. 
Accordingly, Kill-buck, marched up to the Fort, at 
the head of his warriors, making signs of friend- 
ship, and requested Major Livingston to admit 


them, in order that they might have a con- 
Bultation; he said they were the friends of the 
English, and did not wish them harm, but would 
bury the hatchet. Major Livingston knew the 
character of Kill-buck too well to trust him, but 
nevertheless pretended to believe his professions, and 
ordered one of the gates to be opened to them. 
Feeling secure in the success of their stratagem, the 
warriors filed in, grimly looking to the right and left. 
So soon, however, a^ the principal warriors had 
entered, the gates were closed, and Kill-buck found 
the troops drawn up in Une in front of their barracks, 
with their loaded guns in their hands ready for 
service. He turned upon the Major and haughtily 
asked the cause of this treatment, whereupon that 
officer charged him in the most forcible and con- 
temptuous language with having come with a lie in 
his mouth and murder in his heart, to deceive him; 
he told Kill-buck that he had seen through his 
stratagem, and now intended to punish him severely 
for his treachery. Kill-buck and his chiefs were 
seized and disarmed, and were then dressed in 
petticoats; the gates were opened, and they were 
driven forth with jeers and laughter by the soldiers, 
who taunted them with being squaws, and old 
women. This humiliation was greater punishment 
to the Indians than death, and they left the place 
utterly dejected and disgraced. 

One of the parties of Indians that visited Fort 
Cumberland in August was commanded by Langlade, 
who was sent here to ascertain what the English 
were about, and whether preparations were being 


made for another advance. The order under which 
he came was as follows: 

"Dumas, Chevalier of the Royal and Military Order of St Louis, 
Captain of Infantry; commandant of the Ohio and its tribntkries : It is 
ordered that Sieur Langlade, Ensign of Infantry, start at the head of a 
detachment of French and Indians, to go in the direction of Fort Cum- 

'^ In case the savages prefer to quit the great highway, Sieur Langlade 
will, with the French detach himself from them, in order to follow them ; 
the principal object of his mission being to examine if the enemy is 
making any movement in those parts. 

" He will march with caution and distrust, to avoid all surprises and 
any ambuscade. If he strike in conjunction with his Indian allies, he 
will employ all his talent to prevent them from the exercise of any 
cruelty upon those who may fall into their hands : 

'* Done at Fort Duquesne, the ninth of August; 1756.'' 

Langlade's party advanced no farther than Fort 
Cumberland, and they did little or no damage. 

Washington's views as to the campaign proposed 
to be now commenced differed from those of Governor 
Dinwiddie, very materially. Washington was anxious 
to get rid of Fort Cumberland, as he thought it 
useless, for various reasons which he gave; among 
others, it was commanded by adjacent hills; was not 
strong enough in its construction; and was easily 
flanked. Dinwiddie had persistently declared that 
it should be maintained, and he had made it the 
chief depot of stores; besides which he had sent a 
portion of the troops from Winchester, and thus 
interfered with the work on Fort Loudon, which 
Washington was desirous of having completed. 
Dinwiddie had found it convenient to oppose 
Washington in all of his plans, and gave him much 
annoyance; losing no opportunity to vent his resent- 
ment in this manner upon the commander of the 


Virginia forces, because he had secured the place the 
Grovernor intended for his favorite, Colonel Innes. 
Washington wrote as follows to Speaker Robinson : 

Winchester, 5th August 1756. 

Fort Cumberland at present contains all our propsions and valuable 
stores, and is not capable of an hour's defense, if the enemy were 
only to bring a single half-pounder against it, which they might do 
with great ease on horseback. Besides, it lies so remote from this 
place, as well as from the neighboring inhabitants, that it requires as 
much force to keep the communication open to it as a fort at the 
Meadows would do, and employs one hundred and fifly men, who are 
a dead charge to the country, as they can be of no other use than just to 
protect and guard the stores, which might as well be lodged at Cox*8 
Fort;* indeed better, for they would then be more contiguous to this 
place, to the inhabitants, and to the enemy, and more serviceable if we 
should ever carry an expedition over the mountains, by opening a road 
where the Indians have blazed. A strong garrison there would not only 
protect the stores, but also the few remaining inhabitants on the Branch,! 
and at the same time waylay and annoy the enemy, as they pass and 
repass the mountains. Whereas the forces at Fort Cumberland, lying in 
a comer quite remote from the inhabited parts to which the Indians 
always repair to commit their murders, can have no intelligence of any- 
thing that is doing, but remain in total ignorance of all transactions. 
When I was down I applied to the Governor for his particular and 
positive directions in this affair. The following is an exact copy of his 
answer : — ^' Fort Cumberland is a king's fort, and built chiefly at the 
charge of the colony, therefore properly under our direction until a 
governor is appointed." Now, whether I am to understand this ay or no, 
to the plain, simple question asked, — ''Is the fort to be continued or 
removed ?" I know not 

To this letter Speaker Robinson replied, saying, 
"The Committee were all in opinion with you, that 
the keeping of Fort Cumberland was an unnecessary 
expense; but upon my mentioning their opinion to 
the Gbvernor, he appeared very warm, and said Lord 
Loudon might do what he pleased, but for his part 

*Gox*s Fort WM on Pattenon's Creek, SS miles from Fort OamberUnd. 
fSouth Branch of the FotomM. 

1756.] A COUNCIL AT THE FORT. 215 

he would not remove the garrison^ nor order the fort 
to be demolished." 

Shortly after this, Washington, while on a visit 
to Mount Vernon, wrote as follows to Governor 
Din widdie : 

I have in several letters to your* Honor expressed my opinion with 
candor and freedom about the situation, works and garrison at Fort 
Cumberland. I have upon all occasions said that Fort Cumberland is a 
place of no strength, and never can be tenable from the badness of the 
ground. It is far remote from any of our inhabitants, exposed to the 
insults of the enemy, contains all our valuable stores (save what I have 
removed to Winchester), and a garrison of 170 men, which is too large a 
number to be spared from other places, merely to defend the stores at 
this, and too small to afford detachments to waylay and surprise the 
enemy. I shall, therefore, beg leave to observe, in regard to Fort Cum- 
berland, that if it is continued we must be confined to act defensively, 
and keep our forces dispersed as they now are. The place must be 
fortified with strong works or else it will inevitably fall, garrison and 
stores, into the enemy's hands. I inclose Col. Shepherds* letter on this 
head in answer to one I wrote him. 

I have the honor to be &c., Ac, 

Mount Vernon, Sept. 23, 1756. 

Dinwiddie still vehemently opposed all proposi- 
tions for the removal of the Fort, and wrote to 
Washington, stating his reasons for its maintenance; 
but finally proposed to him that the entire matter 
should be referred to a council of ofScers to be held 
at the Fort. This was agreed to. The council was 
appointed, and in due time held its sessions, at 
which the question was fully argued, and carefully 
considered in every particular. The council reported 
at large, assigning the reasons which might be urged 
both for retaining and for abandoning the Fort, but 
forbore to express a decided opinion. Colonel 
Washington approved the report, and endorsed 
thereon his own comments, after which he forwarded 


the whole to Governor Dinwiddie. The Council 
agreed that the Fort was wholly defenseless^ 
imperfectly constructed, and commanded by several 
hills within gunshot; but they thought it important 
that a post should be maintained in this quarter, 
since the only road to the West for wheel carriages 
passed in this direction. With this view of the 
subject Colonel Washington concurred, but was still 
of the opinion that a more favorable position ought 
to have been chosen, and suggested that it should be 
in advance of Fort Cumberland, somewhere in the 
vicinity of Little Meadows. He thought, also, that 
Virginia should not be expected to maintain this Fort 
alone, but that Maryland and Pennsylvania should 
unite with her in the enterprise, as they were all 
equally interested in the prime object, which was to 
facilitate an expedition to the Ohio River, and to 
furnish a means of protection against the advance of 
the enemy into either of the Colonies. 

Upon receipt of the report, Governor Dinwiddie 
wrote to Washington in reply: "I received the 
opinion of the council of war in regard to Fort 
Cumberland; as it was an affair of great consequence 
I called the council for their advice. In consequence 
thereof I hereby order you, immediately to march 
one hundred men to Fort Cumberland, from the 
forces you have at Winchester, which Captain Mercer 
says are one hundred and sixty enlisted men. You 
are to remain at Fort Cumberland, and make the 
place as strong as you can in case of an attack. 
You are to send out parties from the Fort to observe 
the motions of the enemy, if they should march over 


the Alleghany mountains. Any stores at the fort, not 
absolutely necessary for its defense, you are to send 
to Winchester." 

Previous to the calling of the council, Washington 
had been requested by the Assembly to prepare a 
plan of defense for the frontiers, by means of a line 
of forts extending from Maryland to North Carolina. 
In compliance with this request, he submitted a plan 
embracing twenty-three forts, of which Cox's Fort 
was the most advanced, Fort Cumberland being left 
entirely out. 

Colonel Stephen succeeded Major Livingston in 
command of the Fort in the fall, and the Colonial 
Records furnish us with the following letter written 
by him to the Governor of Pennsylvania : 

Fort Cumberland, Sept 30, 1756. 

Yesterday came into this garrison John Adam Long, who lived in this 
neighborhood, and was taken Prisoner on the 3d of April last, near to a 
fort on the Virginia Frontiers, commanded by Captain Cox. He is a 
sensible man of fifty five years of age, and informs me that he was 
carried directly to Fort Duqaesne, on his way to which place he met one 
hundred and fifty Indians near to this Fort, going against the inhabitants 
of the Virginia frontiers ; that this party, joined with several others down 
before them, engaged Captain Mercer, at the head of a detachment from 
this Fort; that there were nine Indians killed in that engagement, which, 
with their peeing (he Tracts of several scouting parties after them, made 
them return without doing much mischief to the Inhabitants ; that he 
was detained at Fort Duquesne about twenty days, during which time 
the Delawares carried in several Prisoners, One of which they roasted A. 
Live. Two others they put to death in a Cruel and Barbarous Manner. 


The French oflBcers constantly professed a desire 

to prevent everything of a barbarous character on 

the part of their Indian allies, but as there are 

numerous well authenticated instances in which 


they were witnesses to scenes of torture, which 
they made no effort to prevent, the honesty of their 
professions may well be doubted. 

In a letter of M. Yandreuil to M. de Machault^ 
dated Montreal, August 8th, 1756, found in the New 
York Colonial Manuscripts — ^Paris Documents, vol. 
X., under the head of "Occurrences since the 10th of 
June," are the following entries : 

** Five deserters from Fort Camberland arrived at Fort Duqaesne. 

^ A detachment under the command of Sieur de Celeron de Blainville 
fen in with some of the enemy's scouts at this side of Fort Cumberland. 
These two parties met unexpectedly, and fired point blank, the enemy 
immediately fell back; we killed three of them, whose scalps have been 
carried off by the Indians, but we lost Sieur de Blainville, one Huron, 
one Delaware, and one Onondago. 

''Five Chonanons had a similar adventure a Kttle nearer Fori 

Cumberland. They scalped three English. One of their men was 


'* A party from different tribes having divided, returned in squads 

with a number of scalps. 

**Sieur de Rocheblave, with another cadet, a corporal, a militiaman, 
and twenty Chouanon's knocked at the gate of a small fort, three leagues 
beyond Fort Cumberland, where there remained some families and thirty 
militia. He killed four Englishmen, whom the Indians scalped; wounded 
three who dragged themselves into the fort, and took three prisoners.* 

" A detachment under the command of M. de Celeron had a fight 
near Cresap's Fort, in the rear of Cumberland; killed eight Englishmen, 
whose scalps the Indians were not able to secure, finding themselves in 
the dusk of the evening, under the musketry of the Fort. We have had 
two Indians killed and one wounded. 

'' The garrison at Fort Cumberland is not pud; it is greatly dimin- 
ished by sickness which has prevailed there all winter, and still continues. 

" On the 8th of June the grass was growing in the roads commnni- 
eating with Cumberland. Expresses no longer came any further than 
Winchester on account of our Indians, who are always in the field. 

" Not a grain of Indian corn has been planted between that post and 
Kaneghuigik, twenty five leagues distant from it towards the sea. 

''It was thought that Fort Camberland would be soon abandoned; 

*It i0 not known that waj fort wm in existence "three left^ue* beyond Fort Camberlftad/* 
Creeap's fort WM about four leagues east, and is probablj the one referred to. Below Bvitt'a 
Creek, and about three miles ftom Cumberland, there is a tract of land which was named fa 
1791 "Fort Lip," which ia referred to in Jacob's Life of Creaap. There may have been a small 
fort there. ^ 

1756.] EXECUTION OF A SPY. 219 

more than three loonths have elapsed since a wagon or bateau had come 

It will be seen that the French were constantly on 
the alert, and were kept well informed of all that 
transpired. In the fall of 1756, two of their spies 
came to Fort Cumberland, and endeavored to 
possess themselves of an accurate knowledge of the 
strength of the garrison, the number of men in the 
guard, the weakest points in the Fort, &c, with a 
view to arranging a plan by which the Indians might 
capture it. The movements of these fellows were 
closely watched, and finally the commandant of the 
fort ordered their arrest. They were immediately 
tried by a court martial, convened for the purpose, 
and the evidence being conclusive they were re- 
manded to prison, one of them being sentenced to 
death. He was taken out next morning, and hanged 
to a tree in the vicinity of the Fort. The other was 
sent under guard to Annapolis, to Governor Sharpe, 
his life being spared on condition that he would 
divulge to the Governor certain important informar 
tion concerning the French and Indians. 

When Washington received Governor Dinwiddie's 
order, requiring him to march one hundred men to 
Fort Cumberland from Fort Loudon, he was much 
annoyed thereby, and wrote to Dinwiddie, assuring 
him that the change would occasion much inconve- 
nience, as the works at Winchester were still 
incomplete, and the force there was so small that it 
was barely suflBcient to protect the place. He did 
not, however, want it inferred by his acts and words 
that he objected to Fort Cumberland, on any personal 


grounds, and concluded his letter by saying, "I had 
rather a thousand times be at Fort Cumberland." 

Washington had visited the Fort only a short time 
before, early in November, and had ordered all stores 
to be removed to Winchester, except such as were 
absolutely needed for the use of the garrison. While 
here he had a conference with a number of Catawba 
Indians who came in, and were friendly. They 
asked him to supply them with clothing, wampum, 
pipes, tomahawks, and silver trinkets for the hands 
and arms. He regretted his inability to gratify their 
demands, but assured them of the friendship of the 
English for the Catawbas, and gave them tomahawks 
and wampum, which he purchased for them. 

The question as to the abandonment of Fort 
Cumberland was still discussed very earnestly, and 
Lord Loudon wrote to Governor Dinwiddie, saying: 

*'A8 to the affair of Fort Camberland I own it gives me great 
nneasinefis, and I am of the same opinion with yon, that it was very 
material to have supported that Fort this winter, and after that we coald 
easily have made it a better post than ever it has. been, from what I hear 
of it. I cannot agree with Colonel Washington in not drawing in the 
posts from the stockade forts in order to defend that advanced one; and I 
should imagine mach more of the frontier will be exposed by retiring 
yonr advanced posts near Winchester." 

Washington was convinced that Lord Loudon's 
opinions were based upon the representations of 
Grovemor Dinwiddie, and he became soon after greatly 
annoyed by the contradictory orders transmitted 
to him by the Governor, in consequence of which 
he was uncertain as to what was really expected of 
him. He said "if, under these circumstances, my 
conduct is responsible for the fate of Fort Cumber- 


land, it must be confessed that I stand upon a 
tottering foundation indeed." He steadily opposed 
the abandonment of the stockade forts on the South 
Branch, and protested against the scheme, as dan- 
gerous and unwise, involving the peril of the entire 
firontier. He wrote to Speaker Robinson again, 
giving expression to his fears. That gentleman in 
his reply said : 

*^ I am truly ooncerned at the uneasiness yon are under in your 
present situation, and the more so, as I am sensible that you have too 
much reason for it. The resolution of defending Fort Cumberland, and 
evacuating the other forts, was taken before I knew or mistrusted any- 
thing of the matter. I must confess I was not a little surprised at it, and 
took the liberty to expostulate with many of the council upon it, who 
gave me in answer, that Lord Loudon had insisted that Fort Cumberland 
should be preserved, and as we had so few troops, it could not be done 
without breaking up the small forts and taking the men from them. 

" It was to no purpose to tell them that our frontiers would thereby be 
entirely exposed to our cruel and savage enemy, and that they could 
receive no protection from Fort Cumberland, as it was in another 
province, and so remote from any of our inhabitants; and further that the 
act of Assembly, which gave the money solely for the defence and pro- 
tection of our frontiers, would be violated and the money applied 
otherwise than the Assembly intended. Yet notwithstanding all I could 
say they persisted in their resolution without alleging any other reason 
than that it was in pursuance of Lord Loudon^s desire. 

'* It cannot be a difficult matter to guess who was the author and 
promoter of this advice and resolution, or by whom Lord Loudon has 
been persuaded that the place is of such importance. But supposing it 
were really so, it ought to be defended by the people in whose province 
it is [Maryland], or at least at the expense of the three colonies jointly, 
and our own frontier not left exposed for the defence of a place, from 
which we cannot receive the least advantage or protection. The present 
unhappy state of our country must fill the mind of every well-wisher to it 
with dismal and gloomy apprehensions, and without some speedy altera- 
tions in our counsels, which may God send, the fate of it must soon be 

About the first of January, 1757, Washington estab- 
lished his headquarters at Fort Cumberland, where 


he remained until March. He had concluded that 
Lord Loudon's opinions had been based upon Governor 
Dinwiddie's representations, and learning that there 
was to be a conference of the Southern Governors 
with Lord Loudon, in March, he asked Governor 
Dinwiddie's permission to attend, and in response to 
his request received a very ungracious letter from 
that official, granting him the privilege in the most 
churlish terms. Washington then wrote Lord Loudon 
a lengthy letter, explaining in full all military 
matters with which he had been connected, and the 
defects of the militia law of Virginia, which had 
caused no end of trouble and confusion. This letter 
impressed Lord Loudon very favorably, and when 
Washington arrived in Philadelphia he was received 
by him in the most cordial manner, and frequently 
consulted upon matters of importance. The con- 
ference discussed the plan for future operations, and 
the result of Washington's representations as to Fort 
Cumberland was, that the Virginia troops, provisions 
and stores were ordered to be moved to Winchester, 
which was to be made headquarters, and Fort 
Cumberland was henceforward to be garrisoned 
by Maryland forces. The Fort had been greatly 
strengthened during the winter, and a considerable 
sum of money expended in its improvement. 

About this time Captain Jacobs, an Indian chief, 
and forty warriors, made their appearance in the 
Cove, near Raystown, or Bedford, on their way to 
attack the garrison at Fort Cumberland, expecting 
to be joined by others to a number sufficient to 
enable them to carry out their project. They killed 

1757.] A FIGHT FOR LIFE. 223 

and captured all the people at the little settlement 
of the Cove, and burned the houses. Hugh McSwine, 
one of the settlers, was absent from his home, 
and on his return, finding the ruin that had been 
wrought, started in pursuit and overtook the Indians. 
Jacobs declared him a spy and made him prisoner. 
With the Indians was a white man, named Jackson, 
who was more bloodthirsty and villainous than his 
red comrades. McSwine and another prisoner were 
put in charge of Jackson and an Indian, while the 
rest of the party went in search of other settlers. 
Jackson and the Indian, with the prisoners, traveled 
all day, and in the evening stopped at a deserted 
cabin, where McSwine was given an ax, and sent to 
cut wood for a fire. As soon as he got the ax 
McSwine struck the Indian in the head with it and 
killed him, after which he turned upon Jackson, but 
that individual was too quick for him, and the result 
was a hand to hand encounter. Both were powerful 
men, and the struggle was long and fierce, the other 
prisoner being so badly frightened that he gave no 
aid. McSwine finally got hold of the dead Indian's 
gun, and succeeded in dispatching Jackson, after 
which he scalped him and the Indian, and started at 
once for Fort Cumberland, where he arrived the 
following evening, and warned Washington of the 
intended attack. Jacobs afterwards discovered the 
dead bodies of his friends, and finding the trail of 
the prisoners to lead towards Fort Cumberland, 
abandoned his intention of attacking it. McSwine 
was sent by Washington to Winchester, where he 
received a Lieutenant's commission. 


McSwine had numerous adventures with the 
savages afterwards, and was finally killed in a battle 
with them near Ligonier. 

On the 5th of April, Governor Dinwiddie ordered 
the immediate evacuation of Fort Cumberland by the 
Virginia troops, two companies of which were to 
proceed to Fredericksburg, under command of 
Colonel Stephen, to be sent thence by direction of 
Lord Loudon to South Carolina, where it was 
anticipated an attack would soon be made. This 
letter miscarried, and on the 8th of April a 
council of war was called at the Fort, at which it was 
determined that the place should be held until 
the arrival of Captain Dagworthy with the Maryland 

On this day one hundred and twenty-four Catawba 
Indians arrived at the Fort, and were hospitably 
received by Colonel Stephen. They declared their 
intention to help their white brothers, the English, 
to drive out the French. A few days after their 
arrival, two of these Lidians were in a canoe on the 
Potomac, near the Fort, intending to cross the river. 
When they had reached the middle of the stream 
they were suddenly fired upon from the shrubbery 
on the opposite side, and both Lidians fell dead in 
the canoe. All the Indians in the Fort, and about 
one hundred white men, went at once in pursuit of 
the foe, and succeeded in securing a number of 

Fort Cumberland long continued to be a source of 
uneasiness and dispute. It was the cause of much 
annoyance to Washington, as well as to the Gover- 


nors and Assemblies of Virginia and Maryland. 
When the Maryland Assembly met, Governor Sharpe 
appealed to it for money to supply the wants of the 
garrison, but was met with a most indignant refusal. 
" That garrison," said the Assembly, "was stationed 
contrary to the plain destination of all the forces 
raised and to be supported by law; and, if any evil 
consequences have heretofore or may hereafter follow 
a want of supplies, let those answer for them who 
have, contrary to law, been the means of stationing 
troops where they had no right to place them."* 

The difficulties of keeping up communication 
between the Fort and Winchester were of the most 
serious character. The whole country was infested 
with Indians, and the couriers were often killed or 
captured. Dinwiddle's letter of the 5th, heretofore 
referred to, was lost entirely, and another, of 
the 7th, wafi three days in reaching its destination. 
Washington wrote to Dinwiddle a. follows: 

Fort Cumberland, 10 April, 1757. 

Your letter bj express on the 5th instant, I fear has fallen into the 
hands of the common enemy, for I have never seen it. The other, of the 
7th, I this day received, and being exceedin^i^ly embarrassed to come at 
your intentions, and really at a loss to know in what manner to act in 
such perplexed and difficult circumstances, I called a council of officers 
to my aid. The result of the advice you will find enclosed.! 

It will not be in my power to be in Williamsburg by the 22d, as your 
Honor desires ; bat as soon as I can I certainly will. I leave orders with 
Colonel Stephen to march this garrison to Fort Loudon, as soon as it is 
relieved, which cannot be before this express may return, and then your 
further orders may be received. We have no advice of Dagworthy's 
marching, though orders were sent him. 

I shall order all the country's stores to be carried to Fort Loudon, 

•VotMftnd ProoMdings Mftr/Und AjiMmblT» Oct. 1757. 

fThia wu to the eff«ot tli*t the Fort should not be OTMoated notil the arriTal of the Harylead 



and the two companies on Patterson's Greek to be posted on the Branch 
to complete the namber that was designed for that place. I have 
ordered a particular return of the provisions to be made out, and Colonel 
Stephen to take Captain Dagworthj's receipt for the quantity left 

We have been at a good deal of unavoidable expense and trouble to 
furnish the Indians with such things as thej wanted. Some hostile 
Indians killed two Catawbas, on Thursday last, at about one hundred and 
fifty yards from the Vort, and seventy from a sentry, and made their 
escape, though pursued by other Catawbas and near two hundred men. 
And the day before yesterday, two soldiers were killed and a third taken 
prisoner, as they were coming tu this place from the Fort below. The 
rest of the party, being ten in number, with Captain Waggoner among 
them, made their escape. 

The enclosed remonstrance I have just received, and think it 

expedient to send it to your Honor, that yon may know the temper and 

disposition of the troops. As I expect to be with yon in two or three 

days after the express, I think it needless to add anything but an apology 

for the incoherence of this letter. The Indians are all around, teazing 

and perplexing me for one thing and another, so that I scarce know what 

I write. 

I have the honor to be &c., 


About the 17th of the month Washington took 
his departure from Fort Cumberland, and at once 
made his headquarters at Fort Loudon, where he 
remained until near the close of the year, at which 
time he obtained a leave of absence, and retired to 
Mount Vernon to recuperate his health, which was 
seriously broken. 

On the 8th of June, Lieutenant Baker, who had 
been out to within a few miles of Fort Duquesne, on 
a scouting expedition, returned to Fort Cumberland. 
He had taken with him a party of five soldiers and 
fifteen Cherokees, and they had surprised some 
French and Indians on Turtle creek, about twelve 
miles from Fort Duquesne. The^ brought in five 
scalps and one prisoner, a French officer named 
Velistre; and, besides, they had killed two other 

1757.] A FALSE ALARM. 227 

French officers, whose names were Lasosais and St. 

A few days after Washington's departure six 
Cherokee Indians, who had been as far West as the 
Ohio River, returned to the Fort, and stated to Captain 
Dagworthy, who had arrived and taken command, 
that they had seen a large force of French and 
Indians near Fort Duquesne; that they were armed 
^.h big go.,, «.d h«l plenty of wagoL «.d horse,, 
and were marching to attack Fort Cumberland. 
Captain Dagworthy, who questioned them very 
closely, was so strongly hnpressed with their story 
that he at once sent an express towards Winchester 
to overtake Washington, and to notify the people 
throughout the country. Colonel Stanwix, with his 
regulars and the militia from the forts on the Branch, 
was at once marched to Fort Cumberland, and every 
preparation possible made for its defense. Washing- 
ton had long feared a movement of this kind, and 
was convinced that it could not be successfully 
resisted. He said the road from Fort Duquesne to 
Fort Cumberland was the only one over which it 
would be possible for the French to bring their 
artillery, unless they should build a new road, which 
would involve a great deal of expense and months of 
labor. To ascertain the exact strength and the 
intentions of the enemy, he had spies sent out to 
watch their movements. He wrote: "We have 
received nothing new from Fort Cumberland since 
the 16th. The Indians who brought the first news, 
imagine that some of Spotswood's party a.* yet 
watching the enemy. On the contrary, I apprehend 


they are all cut off;* for a man who left Fort 
Cumberland on the 16th says the woods appear to 
be quite alive with hostile Indians, who show them- 
selves openly in the day. This is unusual with them 
unless they are strong." Fortunately the rumor as 
to the approach of the French was untrue, and none 
of them made their appearance. But Washington 
was constantly apprehensive of an attack by the 
Indians on Fort Loudon, and observed the strictest 

At the close of the month of June, Captain Beale, 
who was commanding at Fort Frederick, endeavored 
to persuade Colonel Stanwix to order Washington to 
reinforce Fort Cumberland again. Colonel Stanwix, 
who was then at Carlisle, was commander-in-chief of 
the Middle and Southern provinces, at the time, and 
he concluded to give that matter into Governor 
Sharpens hands to act according to his own judgment. 
Washington said he did not deem it advisable to 
send any of his troops to Fort Cumberland, as it was 
not in imminent peril, and as Virginia was under the 
necessity of looking after her own frontier, which 
was constantly threatened. Colonel Stanwix wrote 
to Governor Sharpe as follows: 

Gamp kear Carlisle, July 4, 1757. 

I did imagine that on receipt of an account of our First Alarm being 

contradicted that you would send home your militiai and I am at the 

same time glad to hear that you can depend upon the 500 men when 

any real occasion requires it ; as yon apprehend it is for his Majesty's 

service that an officer & Detachment from the new companies be sent to 

reinforce Fort Cumberland you will please to order it to be done in such 

proportion as you who must be the best judge think necessary. 

*Capt«ln Bpotawood and his party were actoally cat off by the Indiftns and everr one of them 


A careful inspection of all the provisions in the 
Fort was made in August, and Mr. Kennedy, in 
whose charge they had been placed, had all the meats 
repacked and pickled, for use in the future. A 
considerable portion of the stores was spoiled, and 
•Colonel Stanwix sent fresh supplies to replace them. 

The condition of Fort Cumberland was taken up 
for consideration in the Maryland Assembly at the 
session of 1757, and the following address was read 
in the House of Delegates on the 15th of December: 

" Fort Cumberland we are informed, was first begun by some gentle- 
men of the Ohio Company, as a storehouse of their goods designed for 
the Ohio Indian trade, and never was garrisoned by troops stationed 
there by the direction of any law of this province, but commonly by 
Virginia forces. That fort, we have too much reason to believe, from an 
extract from your Excellency to the Secretary of State, laid before the 
lower House in September session, 1756, in which are the following words : 
" There are no works in this province that deserve the name of fortifica^ 
tious ; just behind, and among our Western settlements, are some small 
stoccado or pallisadoed forts, built by the inhabitants for the protection 
of their wives and children ; and besides these, there is one larger, 
though, in my opinion, not much more capable of defense, on Potowmack, 
about 56 miles beyond our settlements. It has been distinguished by 
the appellation of Fort Cumberland, and is at present garrisoned by 
three hundred men from Virginia. It is made with stoccados only, and 
commanded on almost every side by circumjacent hills ; a considerable 
quantity of military stores, that was left by Gen. Braddock, still remain 
there, and two of the carriages that his Majesty was pleased to order to 
Virginia two years ago, are mounted therein;" is not tenable even against 
a trifling force, should they come with any cannon ; and therefore humbly 
submit it, whether it might not be a prudent measure to remove his 
Majesty's artillery and stores (though indeed the provisions we are told 
are chiefly spoiled) from thence to a place of security. 

"Though Fort Cumberland may be constructed, for anything we 
know, near a place proper for the stationing a garrison at, for his 
Majesty's service in general, yet being, as we have been informed, between 
eighty and ninety miles from the settlements of the Westernmost inhab- 
itants of this province, and in the truth of that information, are confirmed 
by your excellency's message of the 11th of this instant, wherein you 
say 'the distance from fort Frederick to fort Cumberland, by the wagon 


road, is 75 miles/ and consequently the carriage of provisions thither 
very expensive ; we humbly conceive it cannot be reasonably desired, that 
the people of this province should be burthened with the great expense 
of garrisoning that fort, which, if it contributes immediately to the 
security of any of his majesty's frontier subjects, it must be those of 
Virginia or Pennsylvania, who do not at present contribute anything 
towards the support of it, that we know of. 

" We understand the most common track of the Indians, in making 
their incursions into Virginia (which have been lately very frequent) is 
through the wild desert country lying between fort Cumberland and fort 
Frederick, and yet we cannot learn that the forces at fort Cumberland 
(though most of these that are in our pay, the summer past, have been 
stationed there, contrary, we humbly conceive, to the law that raised 
them) have very, rarely, if ever, molested those savages in those their 
incursions ; from whence we would willingly presume their passage is 
below the Ranges, which troops stationed at Fort Cumberland, can 
with safety to that fort, extend themselves to ; and consequently, that any 
security arising from those troops, even to the Virginians who are most 
in the way of being protected by them, must be very remote, and to us 
much more so. 

" When from the incursions and horrid depredations of the savage 
enemy in the neighboring colonies, an opinion prevailed, that a force 
was necessary for the defense and security of the western frontier of 
this province, it was thought most likely to be conducive to those ends, 
to have it placed some where near the place fort Frederick is now 
constructed; because from thence, the troops that might be judged 
proper to be kept on foot for the security of the frontier inhabitants 
might have it in their power to range constantly in such manner as 
to protect them against small parties; and in case any considerable 
body of the enemy should appear, or the fort should be attacked, the 
troops might at very short warning be assisted by the inhabitants. 

" Near the sum of £6,000 has been expended, in purchasing the 
ground belonging to, and constructing fort Frederick, and though we 
have not any exact information what sum may still be wanting to com- 
plete it, (if ever it should be thought proper to be done) yet we are 
afraid the sum requisite for that purpose, must be considerable ; and we 
are apprehensive that fort is so large, that in case of attack, it cannot be 
defended without a number of men larger than the province can support, 
purely to maintain a fortification.'' 

After his retirement to Mount Vernon, Washington 
was attacked by a fever which prostrated him, and 
rendered him unfit for duty during the next four 


months. On the Ist of March, 1758, he resumed his 
command at Fort Loudon. A great many changes 
for the better took place in these four months. 
Governor Dinwiddie turned over the government to 
Mr. John Blair, President of the council, and sailed 
for England in January. Mr. Blair had charge of 
the government then until the arrival of Mr. Francis 
Fauquier, who had been appointed as Dinwiddie's 
successor. A still more important change was found 
in the addition of William Ktt to the British min- 
istry, he having a fuller comprehension of afifairs in 
America than was displayed by any other members 
of the cabinet. Pitt determined upon retrieving the 
misfortunes and disgraces of Braddock's campaign, 
and at once a combined expedition westward was 
mapped out, with a view to putting an end to the 
power of the French on the Ohio. Lord Loudon 
returned to England, and the command fell upon 
Major -General Abercrombie. The forces were 
divided into three bodies; the first, under Major- 
General Amherst, was to attempt the reduction of 
Louisburg and Cape Breton, and was to be aided by 
the fleet under Boscawen; the second under Greneral 
Abercrombie, was to march against Crown Point; and 
the third, under General Forbes, was to proceed to 
Fort Duquesne, and capture it. Many distracting 
questions were peremptorily disposed of before the 
troops marched. First, the colonial troops were put 
upon the same footing as the regulars, except that 
the colonies were to clothe and feed them; and finally 
the questions as to rank were settled; the provincial 
officers of rank no higher than Colonel were to be 


equal in command with those who held royal 
commissions. Thus Washington found everjrthing, 
under the new administration, much pleasanter, as 
well as more encouraging. Virginia augmented 
its forces to two thousand men, who were divided 
into two regiments, one of which was placed 
under Washington (who still retained his position of 
commander-in-chief of all the Virginia troops), and 
the other under Colonel Burd. As General Forbes 
was detained at Philadelphia, Colonel Bouquet* was 
sent on to Raystown, now Bedford, Bedford county, 
Pennsylvania, with the advance of the regular troops, 
where the final preparations for the march upon 
Fort Duquesne were to be made, and where the 
troops were to be concentrated while the roads were 
being opened and prepared. 

Meantime the Maryland Assembly, on the 26th 
of February, had passed an order for the enlistment of 
four hundred men to range the frontiers, and protect 
the settlements. The sum of £10,000 was appro- 
priated to pay for their equipment and support. 

The construction of roads to insure easy communi- 
cation with all necessary points first attracted Colonel 
Bouquet's attention, in order that there should be no 
delay in forwarding either supplies or reinforcements. 
He regarded Fort Cumberland as a post not to be 
neglected in the perfection of his plans, and wrote 
as follows to Governor Sharpe : 

CoNioooEGH, 13th of June, 1758. 
Sib : As it will be the greatest benefit to his Majesty *8 Service to have 
a Road of communication open from each of the Provinces to Fort 

*HttnT7 Boaquei wm of Franoh descent ; be wm i4>polnted Lienteoftnt-Colooel in the British 
armj In 1760^ Ho wm appointed a Brigedier In 1765, and died at Penaacola, Florida, la 17$B. 

1758.] Washington's return to fort Cumberland. 233 

Cumberland, I am under the necessity of requesting of you to have the 
straightest Road reconnoitered leading from Fort Frederick to Fort 
Cumberland. Recommending to those you appoint to mark it out, to 
report the time that 500 men will take to cut it Any Expense you 
may be at shall be paid by Sir John St. Clair, as he will be the nearest^ 
to you. Please to send him the Report of it, that if found practicable he 
may send troops to work at it. 

I am with the highest Regard Sir, your most obdt 

and most humble serrH 

To the Honble Gov. Sharpe. HENRY BOUQUET. 

The Virginia troops were ordered to join Colonel 
Bouquet's forces, and Washington marched for Fort 
Cumberland on the 24th of June, arriving here on 
the 2d of July. The march was made in detach- 
ments, Washington being with the advance, and 
lieutenant^olonel Stephen taking six companies 
direct to Raystown by another route. Upon his 
arrival at Fort Cumberland, Washington addressed 
the following letter to Colonel Bouquet : 

Camp near Fort Cumberland, 3 July, 1758. 
Tii Colond Henry Bouquet, 

Commanding at Raystown: 

Sir : According to orders I marched from Winchester on the 24th 
ultimo, and arrived at this place yesterday, with five companies of the 
first Viri^nia r^ment, and a company of artificers from the second, as 
you may observe by the enclosed returns. My march, in consequence of 
bad teams, and bad roads, notwithstanding I had sent forward the artifi- 
cers and a covering party three days before, was much delayed. As I 
cannot suppose yon intended to send any part of my men upon the roads, 
till joined at this place by Colonel Byrd, I shall decline sending any on 
that service till he arrives, which I presume will be to morrow. 

There came twenty-eight wagons with me to this place, and I believe, 
if they were wanted, ten more might be had upon the South Branch, 
strong and good, but carrying horses are certainly more eligible for the 
service to which they are destined. I have received a very scanty allow- 
ance of tents for the five companies, namely, sizty-nine only. Out of 
these most of the officers must either be supplied or lie uncovered. They 
will readily pay for what they receive if required. No bell tents were 

sent to us. 


My men are bare of regimental clothing, and I have no prospect of a 
supply. So far from regretting this want daring the present campaign, 
if I were left to pursue my own inclinations, I would not only order the 
men to adopt the Indian dress, but cause the officers to do it also, and be 
the first to set the example myself. Nothing but the uncertainty of 
obtaining the general approbation causes me to hesitate a moment to 
leave my regimentals at this place, and proceed as light as any Indian in 
the woods. It is an unbecoming dress, I own, for an officer ; but conve- 
nience, rather than show, I think, should be consulted. The reduction of 
bat-horses alone would be sufficient to recommend it, for nothing is 
more certain than that less baggage would be required, and the public 
benefitted in proportion. 

It appears that within a short time after writing 
the ahove letter Washington actually did put his 
men in Indian dress, as the fact is referred to in a 
letter written him by Colonel Bouquet, from Rays- 
town, in July, in which he commends the costume, 
and declares it should be a pattern for the dress of 
the soldiers in the expedition then going on. 

Several hundred Indians had joined Washington, 
and many of them were with him still, at Fort 
Cumberland. These proved useful on frequent occa- 
sions. The construction of a passable road between 
the fort at Raystown and Fort Cumberland was 
absolutely necessary, and had been commenced, but 
numerous parties of hostile Indians being about the 
forts, as well as along the line of the road, rendered 
the work exceedingly dangerous. The couriers going 
forth and back were constantly fired upon, and a 
wagoner was shot down one day within five hundred 
yards of Will's Creek, and in sight of the fort. 
Washington sent out several parties of Cherokees to 
attack these prowling bands, but Colonel Bouquet 
rather checked their efficiency by ordering that an 
officer and several soldiers should accompany the 


Indians. The largest party sent out consisted of 
eighteen Cherokees, and they succeeded in driving 
off the enemy. 

On the 6th of July Robert Munford wrote the 
following letter, from Fort Cumberland, to his uncle, 
Colonel Theodoric Bland, of Prince George's County : 

Hond Sir,' 

Had opportuaities offered, as frequently as Inclination would have 
induced me to write to you, you might have read a Letter from every 
encampment. After being delayed at Winchester, five or six weeks 
longer than Expected (in which Time I was ordered Express to Williams- 
burgh & allowed but a day after my return to prepare) we pushed off 
into the wide Ocean. I was permitted to walk every step of the Way to 
this humble Fort, to eat little, to lay hard, over Mountain, thro* Mnd and 
Water, yet as merry k hearty as ever. Our Flankers & Sentrys pretend 
they saw the Enemy daily, but they never approached us. A De- 
tachment is ordered off this moment to clear a Road thirty miles, and 
our Companies to cover the Working Party. We are in fine scalping 
ground I assure you, the guns pop about ns, & you may see the fellows 
prick up their Ears like a Deer every moment. Our Colonel* is an 
Example of Fortitude, in either Dans^er or Hardship, and by his easy, 
polite Behaviour, has gained not only the Regard but affection, of both 
officers and soldiers. He has kindly invited me to his Table, for the 
Campaign, offered me any sum of money, I may have occasion for, 
without charging either Principal or Interest, and signified his appro- 
bation of my conduct hitherto, in such a manner, as is to my advantage. 
In passing my recruiting Acct : I was allowed 18f pr : man, you may 
judge how much I was Looser when several officers had 40s. Col. 
Charles Carter, jnnr, has a horse of mine in keeping 'till my Return ^ 
where he may remain if you think proper. The Batt : money and Forage 
money allowed me amounts to £66. In everything possible, I shall be 
upon the frugal scheme. You may depend upon hearing by all opportu- 
nities from Dr Sir, yr truly Affect: & ever 

obliged nephew 

Camp near Fort Cumberland, 

July 6th, 1758. 

To Mrs. Blakd : 

Hond Madam : 

Tho' I've hardly a moment at my own Disposal, I can^t omit sending 

*Thla refan to Colonel Wm. Burd, of th« 2d Virginl» Rogiaent and not to Wubiogton. m 
•uted In A foot noto to tho Bland P»pon. 


a few words to my dear aunt. Employed from San to Sun, yet from Light 
to Night, I am mindful of my dear distant Friends. That yon and yours 
may enjoy Every Blessing that Heaven can bestow, is the tribate of a 
Heart sincerely yrs ROBT. MUNFORD. 

P. S. My love to the Lasses. 

To Col Thbo Blavd, in Prince George. 

About this time Colonel Bouquet proposed an 
expedition, with a force of regulars, into the enemy's 
country, but Washington opposed the movement, as 
he said it could only be made with a cumbersome train 
of supplies, and must prove futile. He wanted to 
move at the earliest possible moment, with a force 
large enough to take Fort Duquesne, and thus by a 
brilliant stroke close the campaign. He wrote 
another letter then, as follows, to Colonel Bouquet: 

Gamp near Fort Cumberland, 19 July, 1758. 

Your obliging favor of this date I just now had the pleasure of 
receiving. You flatter me much by coinciding with me in opinion 
relative to the proposed expedition. 

Captain Dagworthy returned hither yesterday in consequence of 
orders from Sir John St. Glair, forwarded by the commanding officer at 
Fort Frederick. I will send out a party on Braddock^s Road which I 
shall be able to reinforce when Gol. Mercer returns.* 

I am exceedingly obliged by the handsome and polite manner in 
which you are pleased to give me leave to attend the election at Win- 
chester. Although my being there under any other circumstances would 
be very agreeable to me, yet I can hardly persuade myself to think of 
being absent from my more immediate duty, even for a few days. I will 
not, however, come to any absolute determination till I receive answers 
to some letters on that subject, which I expect this night or to-morrow.f 

Just before gomg to Fort Cumberland, Washington 
had met, courted, and become engaged to Mrs. 

^ • ^ ■ a -I __ _ 

*GoloneI M«roer was then engaged in making the roed between Fort Gnmberland end Baje- 

fWMhington having reoolved to i|uit the army at the don of thia campaign, had proposed 
himself as a candidate for the House of Burgesses, and his friends wanted him to be present at 
the election, as he had three actire oompetiton, who were at work In person to defeat htm. 
He, howerer, declined to attend, and remained at Fort Oumberlaud, where he shortly after- 
wards received intelligence of his election by a handsome mi^ortly. A Virginia election in 
those days was rather peculiar in some respects, and the participators must have had a "good 
old time." as Washington was called on to foot a bill of £38 sS. Items : a hogshead and a barrel 
ef punch ; SS gallons of wine, iS gallons strong beer and eider, and dinner for hie Meads. 


Martha CustiB, a charming young widow, and he 
wrote from this place a volume of ardent love letters 
to that lady. These, however, have not heen made 
public, and the curiosity of the world ss to this love 
affair must remain ungratified so far as this corres- 
pondence is concerned. 

On the 21st a letter from Washington to Colonel 
Bouquet apprised him that Colonel Burd was in want 
of a supply of vermillion for the Indians, who needed 
it in pEg on the war paint, and ^r^paring for 
battle. He says: 

"The bridge is finished at this place,* and to morrow Major Peachey, 
with three hundred men, will proceed to open Gen. Braddock's road. I 
shall direct them to go to Qeoige's Greek, ten miles in advance. Bj that 
time I may possibly hear from yon. If they go farther it may be 
requisite to reinforce the party. But this matter, I suppose, will be 
ordered according to the route determined on by the General, for it will 
be needless to open a road, of which no use will be made afterwards. 

"Colonel Stephen gives me some room to apprehend that a body 
of light troops may soon move on, I pray your interest most sincerely 
with the General to get my regiment and myself included in the num- 
ber. If any argument is needed to obtain this favor, I hope without 
vanity I may be allowed to say, that, from long intimacy with these 
woods, and frequent scouting in them, my men are at least as well 
acquainted with all the passes and difficulties as any troops that will be 

Washington had supposed that the advance upon 
Fort Duquesne would be made over the old road 
which Braddock had used. He was greatly surprised, 
therefore, to learn that Colonel Bouquet had declared 
his intention of constructing a new road from Rays- 
town to the Ohio River, and marching a part of his 
force by that route, the other part to take Braddock's 

•9owb«r» hM Any record been found m to tb« looUlon of thi* bridge. Braddoek'e m«n bad 
prepend tbe tmberi for m bridge, over WUla' Greek, In USA, but tbere Is no btetonr of lis 
ereelion. Tbe prohebiUtf is tbsl it was fonnd neoescsry to pot np s bridge for nee during tbe 
spring and Ml ffsebetAfas at such times tbe ereek was too mucb swollen to permit of wagons 
fMtfring tbe ford. 


Road^ and the two bodies to unite on the Mononga- 
hela. The accounts which Braddock had given of 
his road, in his dispatches, were of such a character 
as to lead the commander of the present expedition to 
believe the road well nigh impassable, and Bouquet's 
project of a new road through Pennsylvania was 
encouraged by interested parties in that State, who 
assured him it could be easily built, and that the 
grades would be light. Washington strongly opposed 
the idea; he assured Colonel Bouquet that it would 
cost the army a fatal loss of time, and result in a 
barren victory, at best, in the end. He wrote as 
follows to Colonel Bouquet: 

Camp kear Fort Cumberland, 25 July, 1758. 
Dear Sir : 

I do not incline to propose anything that may seem ofBciouSi bat 
would it not facilitate the operations of the campaiprn, if the Virginia 
troops were ordered to proceed as far as the Great Crossing, and con- 
struct forts at the most advantageous situations as they advance, 
opening the road at the same time? In such a case I should be glad 
to be joined by that part of my regiment at Raystown. Major Peachy, 
who commands the working party on Braddock *s road, writes me that 
he finds few repairs wanting. Tonight I shall order him to proceed 
as far as Savage River, and then return, as his party is too weak to 
adventure further. 

We have received advice that our second convoy, of more than 
seventy wagons, will be at the South Branch to-day, where I expect they 
will be joined by other wagons with forage. They will all proceed to 
this place immediately. 

I shall most cheerfully work on any road, pursue any route, or enter 
upon any service that the General or yourself may think me usefully 
employed in, or qualified for, and shall never have a will of my ownt 
when a duty is required of me. But since you desire me to speak 
my sentiment freely, permit me to observe, that after having conversed 
with all the guides, and having been informed by others, who have a 
knowledge of the country, I am convinced that a road, to be compared 
with General Braddock's, or, indeed that will be fit for transportation 
even by pack-horses, cannot be made. I have no predilection for the 
route you have in contemplation for me, not because difficulties appear 

1758.] THE TWO ROADS. 239 

therein, but because I doubt whether satisfaction can be given in the 
execution of the plan. I know not what reports you may have received 
from your reconnoitering parties, but I have been uniformly told that, if 
you expect a tolerable road by Raystown yon will be disappointed, for no 
movement can be made that way without destroying our horses. 

Bouquet was not convinced by Washington's 
representations, yet he was desirous of fully consult- 
ing with him, and fixing upon a plan which would 
meet with his approval. He therefore wrote to 
Washington, saying: "Nothing can exceed your 
generous dispositions^ for the service. I see, with the 
utmost satisfaction, that you are above the influences 
of prejudice, and ready to go heartily where reason 
and judgment shall direct. I wish sincerely that we 
may all entertain one and the same opinion ; therefore 
I desire to have an interview with you at the houses 
built half way between our camps." Both officers 
went to the place designated, half way between Fort 
Cumberland and Raystown, and entered into a 
discussion of the question at issue. Washington 
stated that the road taken by Braddock had been 
laid out by the Ohio Company, aided by traders and 
Indians, the sole object being to secure the best and 
most direct route ; that the road was in pretty good 
order, and could be made ready for use with but 
little labor, and that the building of a new 
road by another route would consume precious time, 
and extend the campaign into another year, which 
would have a demoralizing effect upon the soldiers, 
as well as upon the colonies. But General 
Forbes had determined upon the new route through 
Pennsylvania, and Colonel Bouquet naturally took 
the same position. Washington succeeded, however. 


in persuading him to abandon the idea of dividing 
his forces, and it was finally determined that the 
advance upon Fort Duquesne should be over a new 
road to be built from Raystown. Washington was 
greatly dispirited by this, and he wrote to Major 
Halkett, in August, that this would ruin the expe- 
dition, as they would be utterly unable to get beyond 
Laurel Hill during the winter. He also wrote again 
to Colonel Bouquet: 

Gamp near Fort Gumberlavd, 2d Angost, 1758. 

The matters of which we spoke relative to the roads, have, since 
oa^ parting, been the subject of my closest reflection, and so far am I 
from altering my opinion, that the more time and attention I bestow, the 
more I am confirmed in it, and the reasons for taking Braddock's road 
appear in a stronger point of view. To enumerate the whole of theae 
reasons woald be tedious, and to you, who have become so much 
master of the subject, unnecessaty. I shall, therefore, briefly mention a 
few only which I think so obvious in themselves, that they must 
effectually remove objections. 

Several years ago the Virginians and Pennsylvanians commenced a 
trade with the Indians settled on the Ohio, and to obviate the manv 
inconveniences of a bad road, they, after reiterated and ineffectual 
efforts to discover where a good one might be made, employed for the 
purpose several of the most intelligent Indians, who, in the course of 
many years* hunting had acquired a perfect knowledge of these moun- 
tains. The Indians having taken the greatest pains to gain the rewards 
offered for this discovery, declared that the path leading from WilFs 
Creek was infinitely preferable to any that could be made at any other 
place. Time and experience so clearly demonstrated this truth that the 
Pennsylvania traders commonly earned out their goods by Will's Greek. 
Therefore, the Ohio Gompany in 1753, at considerable expense opened 
the road. In 1754 the troops whom I had the honor to command greatly 
repaired it, as far as Gist's plantation; and in 1755 it was widened 
and completed by General Braddock to within six miles of Fort 
Duquesne. A road that has so long been opened, and so well and so 
often repaired, must be much firmer and better than a new one, allowing 
the ground to be equally good. 

But supposing it were practicable to make a road from Raystown 
quite as good as General Braddock*s, I ask have we time to do it? 



Certainly not To surmoant the difficulties to be encountered in making 
it over such mountains, covered with woods and rocks, would require so 
much time as to blast our otherwise well grounded hopes of striking the 
important stroke this season. 

The favorable accounts that some give of the forage on the Bays- 
town road, as being so much better than that on the other, are 
certainly exaggerated. It is well known that on both routes, the rich 
valleys between the mountains abound with good forage, and that those 
which are stony and bushy are destitute of it. Colonel Byrd and the 
engineer who accompanied him, confirm this fact. Surely the meadows 
on Braddock^s road would greatly overbalance the advantage of having 
grass to the foot of the ridge, on the Baystown road ; and all agree that a 
more barren road is nowhere to be found, than that from Baystown to the 
inhabitants, which is likewise to be considered. 

Another principal objection made to General Braddock^s road is in 
regard to the waters. But these seldom swell so much as to obstruct the 
passage. The Youghiogany river, which is the most rapid and soonest 
filled, I have crossed with a body of troops, after more than thirty days' 
almost continuous rain. In fine, any difficulties on this score are so 
trivial that they really are not worth mentioning. The Mouongahela, the 
largest of all these rivers, may, if necessary, be easily avoided, as Mr. 
Frazier, the principal guide informs mCf by passing a defile, and even 
that he says, may be shunned. 

Again, it is said, there are many defiles on this road. I grant that 
there are some, but I know of none that may not be traversed ; and I 
should be glad to be informed where a road can be had over these moun- 
tains, not subject to the same inconvenience. The shortness of the 
distance between Baystown and Loyal Hanna is used as an argument 
against this road, which bears in it something unaccountable to me ; for 
I must beg leave to ask whether it requires more time or is more difficult 
and expensive, to go one hundred and forty-five miles on a good road 
already made to our hands than to cut one hundred miles anew, and a 
great part of the way over impassable mountains. 

That the old road is many miles nearer Winchester in Virginia, and 
Fort Frederick in Maryland, than the contemplated one is incontestible ; 
and I will here show the distance from Carlisle by the two routes, fixing 
the different stages, some of which I have from information only, but 
others I believe to be exact. From this computation there appears to be 
a difference of nineteen miles only. Were all the supplies necessarily to 
come from Carlisle, it is well known that the goodness of the old road is 
a sufficient compensation ior the shortness of the other, as the wrecked 
and broken wagons there clearly demonstrate : 





From Carlisle to Shippensburg 21 

" Shippensburg to Fort London ^ 

" Fort London to Fort LiUleton 20 

" Fort Littleton to Juniatta Crossing 14 

*' Jnniatta Crossing to Raystown***.** 14 

" Raystown to Fort Dnqnesne •• 100 





From Carlisle to Shippensbnrg 21 

" Shippensbnrg to Chambers' 12 

" Chambers' to Pacelin's ^12 

" Pacelin's to Fort Frederick 12 

" Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland 40 

" Fort Cnmberland to Fort Dnqnesne 115 


All that Washington could say, however, was of 
no avail, and Colonel Bouquet was ordered at once 
to have his men go to work on the new road. 

About one-fifth of the force at Fort Cumberland was 
taken sick early in August, and no salt provisions of 
any kind were on hand, nor an ounce of salt, so that 
all fresh meat had to be barbacued in Indian style, 
which process caused a loss of at least one-half. 
There were no pack horses in camp, and in 
order to equip Captain McKenzie's company for a 
march of fourteen days, upon which it had been 
ordered, five horses were pressed from some country- 
men who had come to the camp on business. 
Colonel Burd's men were sick, and all were 
greatly dispirited. Washington said, "This sickness 
and depression of spirits cannot arise from the 
situation of our camp, which is undoubtedly the most 
healthy of any ground in this vicinity, but is 


occasioned, I apprehend, by the change in their mode 
of living, and by the limestone water." 

There was a vast amount of impatience exhibited 
by some of the officers, and this was aggravated by 
the selfishness and lack of patriotism displayed by 
those settlers and traders who had influence, and 
who were more interested in securing the construe- 
tion of a road at the expense of the government than 
in the success of the enterprise against Fort Duquesne. 
The following letter was written by Robert Munford, 
a Virginian, to his uncle ,Theodoric Bland, Sr., and 
is found amongst the '^ Bland Papers :" 

Gamp near Fort Gumbebland, August 4th, 1768. 
Hon'd Sib : If 'tis honorable to be in the service of one's coantrv, 
'tis a reputation gainM by the most cruel hardships you can imagine, 
occasioned more by a real anxiety for its welfare, than by what the poor 
carcase suffers. Every officer seems discontented in camp, happy on 
command, su deep is the interest of our conntty implanted in the minds 
of all. Sometimes the army wears a gloomy, then a joyous, aspect, just 
as the news either confirms our stay here, or our departure. The General 
with the small pox in one, the flux in the other, division of our forces, 
and no provision ready, are indeed excuses for our being here at present; 
yet all might have been prevented. A few hearty prayers are every mo- 
ment offered up for those self-interested Fennsylvanians who endeavor to 
prevail on our General to cut a road for their convenience, from Bays- 
town to Fort Duquesne, that a trifling good to particulars, should retard 
what would conduce to the general welfare! 'Tis a set of dirty 
Dutchmen^ they say, that keeps us here I It would be impertinent to 
condemn, yet I must [think] our leaders too deliberate at this important 
juncture, when all are warm tor action, all breathing revenge against an 
enemy that have even dared to scalp our men before our eyes. The 
amusement we have in the meantime is only following the brave dogs 
over the mountains for some miles, and our sole satisfaction sufficient 
fatigue to make us sleep sound. An old scoundrel has intimated to the 
General that the Virginians have bribed the guides; for 'tis practicable 
to go the new road, contraty to their report. We have lost all our 
Indians by the assistance of a man, the [aforesaid] old dog, who inter- 
posed through some dirty views he has of superseding Mr. Atkins. Thus 
are our officers in a manner ruined by persons whose souls scorn a 


thought that tends not immediately to their own advantage. I'm sorry 
to live upon my country, when IVe so small a prospect of repaying her 
by any service. We shall march to Raystown shortly, thence to the Fort* 
if permitted. I shall embrace the next opportunity of writing you our 
transactions, and am as always, dear sir, your most 

afiTte nephew, kc 

P. S. By ezpresSi we have an acc*t that some of the enemy Indians 
have joined the Pennsylvanians. 

On the 17th of August a wagoner was shot, and 
his horse killed, within three miles of the Fort, and 
several parties of hostile Indians were seen in the 
woods. Four days later the following letter was 
written to Colonel Bouquet, by Washington : 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 21 August, 1758. 
Dear Sir : 

Twenty-five Catawbas came here this evening, and the convoy may 

be expected day after to morrow, as it was at Pearsairs last night. 

Governor Sharpe may be expected here in a day or two. I am at a 

loss to know how he ranks and whether he is entitled to the command. 

In the British army his rank is that of Lieutenant-Colonel only, but what 

it may be as governor, in his own province, I really do not know, nor 

whether he has any out of the troops of his own province. I should, 

therefore, be glad of your advice, being unwilling to dispute the matter 

with him wrongfully, or to give up the command if I have a right to it. 

Governor Sharpe arrived at Fort Cumberland 
shortly afterwards, but Washington's position as 
commander-in-chief was not interfered with. Indeed 
Governor Sharpe was more interested in the suc- 
cessful prosecution of the enterprise against Fort 
Duquesne than in the matter of personal glory. He 
gave all the aid and encouragement in his power to 
the project, and did all that could be expected of 
him. The delay, however, in the movements of the 
army had resulted in the greatest depression to the 
entire command, and in the total annihilation of the 

*Fort Duqueantt. 


enthusiasm with which they had advanced thus far. 
Two months of inactivity had filled Washington with 
disappointment and apprehension, and he addressed 
the following letter to Speaker Robinson, of the 
House of Burgesses, than which a more gloomy one 
he probably never indited : 

Gamp at Fort Cumberland, 1 September, 1758. 
My Dbar Sir : 

We are still encamped here, very sickly and quite dispirited at the 
prospect before us. 

That appearance of glory which we had once in view, that hope, that 
laudable ambition of serving our coantty, and meriting its applause, are 
now no more; all is dwindled into ease, sloth, and fatal inactivity. In a 
woid all is lost, if the ways of men in power, like certain ways of 
Providence, are not inscrutable. Bnt we, who view the actions of great 
men at a distance, can only form conjectures agreeably to a limited 
perception ; and being ignorant of the comprehensive schemes which 
may be in contemplation, might mistake egregiously in judging of things 
from appearances, or by the lump. Yet every fool will have his notions — 
will prattle and talk away ; and why may not I ? We seem then in my 
opinion to act under the guidance of an evil genius. The conduct of 
our leaders, if not actuated by superior orders is tempered with something 
I do not care to give a name to. Nothing now but a miracle can bring 
this campaign to a happy issue. 

Washington evidently devoted a considerable 
portion of his time while at Fort Cumberland, on this 
occasion, to a correspondence of a more tender nature 
than that given in these pages. There are on record 
numerous evidences of many hours spent in the 
contemplation of the graces and perfections of his 
lady love, whose vision brightened the solitary 
evenings of camp life, and recently there was sold in 
New York an autograph letter written by him at 
this time, to Mrs, Sarah Fairfax, who was formerly 
a Miss Gary. She had at one time been the object 
of Washington's afifections, and he had made her a 


proposal of marriage, which she declined, as she 
had already given her heart to Mr. George William 
Fairfax. Until twelve months since this letter was 
never published, and is now for the first time 
embraced in the contents of a book. It was found 
among the papers of Mrs. Fairfax; who died at 
the age of eighty-one years, in Bath, England, where 
she had lived widowed, childless and infirm for many 
years. The letter is as follows : 

Camp at Fobt Cumbbbland, 12th September, 1758. 
Dbab Madam :— 

Yesterday I was honored with your short but very agreeable favor of the 
first inst— how joyfaHy I catch at the happy occasion of a renewing a corres- 
pondence which I feared was disrelished on your part, I leave to time that 
never failing expositor of all things— and to a monitor equally faithfal in my 
own breast to testify. In silence I now express my joy. Silence, which, in 
some cases— I wish the present— speaks more intelligently than the sweetest 

If you allow that any honour can be derived from my opposition to our 
present system of management you destroy the merit of it entirely in me by 
attributing my anxiety to the animating prospect of possessing Mrs. Cnstis — 
when — I need not name it — guess yourself— Should not my own Honor and 
country's welfare be the excitement? 'Tis true. I profess myself a votary 
of Love— I acknowledge that a lady is in the case— and further I confeas that 
this lady is known to you. — Yes, madam, as well as she is to one who is too 
sensible of her charms to deny the Power whose Influence he feels and muat 
ever submit to. I feel the force of her amiable beauties in the recollection of 
a thousand tender passages that I could wish to obliterate, till I am bid to 
revive them, — but experience, alas ! sadly reminds me how impossible this 
is, — and evinces an opinion which I have long entertained, that there is a 
Destiny, which has the sovereign control of our actions — not to be resisted by 
the strongest efforts of Human Nature. 

You have drawn me, dear madam, or rather I have drawn myself, into an 
honest confession of a simple Fact— misconstrue not my meaning — doubt it 
not, nor expose it— The world has no business to know the object of my Love 
—declared in this manner to you— when I want to conceal it. One thing 
above all things in this world I wish to know, and only one person of your 
acquaintance can solve me that or guess my meaning— but adieu to this till 
happier times, if I ever shall see them. The hours at present are melancholy 

dull, neither the rugged toils of war, nor the gentler conflict of A B a 

is in my choice. I dare believe, you are as happy as you say. I wish I was 
happy also. Mirth, good humor, ease of mind and— what else ? cannot fail to 
render you so and consummate your wishes. 

If one agreeable lady could almost wish herself a fine gentleman for th« 

1758.]. THE TWO ROADS. 247 

sake of another; I apprehend, that many fine gfentlemen will wish themselves 
finer e'er Mrs. Spotswood is possest She has already become a reigning^ toast 
in this camp; and many there are in it, who intend (fortune fiivoring) to make 
honorable soars speak the inUness of their merit and be a messenger of their 
Love to her. 

I cannot easily forgive the unseasonable haste of my last express, if he 
deprived me thereby of a single word you intended to add,— the time of the 
present messenger is, as the last might have been, entirely at your disposal. 
I can't expect to hear from my friends more than tills once before the ^te of 
the expedition will some how or other be determined. I therefore beg to 
know when yon set out fbr Hampton and when yon expect to return to 
Bel voir again — and I should be glad also to hear of your speedy departure as 
I shall thereby hope for your return before I get down; the disappointment of 
seeing your family would giye me much concern — From anything I can yet see 
His hardly possible to say when we shall finish. I don't think there is a proba- 
bility of it till the middle of November. Your letter to Captain Gist I 
forwarded by a safe hand the moment it came to me. His answer shall be 
carefully transmitted. ' 

Col. Mercer, to whom I delivered your message and compliments, joins me 
very heartily in wishing yon and the Ladies of Belvoir the perfect enjoyment 
of every happiness this world afibrds. Be assured that I am, Dr madam, with 
the most unfeigned regard, yr most obedient and meet oblig'd H'ble serv't, 


N. B. Many accidents happening (to use a vulgar saying) between the 
cup and the lip, I chooee to make the exchange of carpets myself, since I 
find you will not do me the honor to accept mine. 

On the 16th of September Washington left Fort 
Cumberland, for Raystown, at which place he arrived 
on the same day. He had a conference with Greneral 
Forbes, in which the situation was discussed at 
length. Major Halket wrote to Governor Sharpe, 
the same date, as follows: 

Gamp at Bbabtowv, 16th September, 1758. 
Dear Sir : This evening Colonel Washington arrived, who surprisea 
the General extremely by the account that he gives of the great scarcity 
of provisions at Fort Cumberland, after having wrote to Colonel Boquet 
80 fully upon that subject, however, the General (who is greatly fatigued 
from the business that his just cominnf to Reastown has oblidged him to 
go through) has ordered me to inform you that he will send off a convoy of 
provisions to morrow, the particulars of which Mr. Sinclair will inform 
you of, at the same time the bearer carries orders for all the Virginians 
to be ready to march immediately upon the arrival of Colonel Wash- 
ington, who sets out for that purpose to morrow morning, which will 
diminish the consumption of provisions at Port Cumberland very 


considerably, and make it- a verj easy matter to support yoa for the 
future, as your numbers will be so much diminished. 

Three days ago commissary clerk wrote to Mr. Rutherford, at 
Winchester, to supply your people with spirits, and all the other necessarys 
that you desired which letter I hope will be in good time to answer your 
expectations. I am dear sir, your most obdt humble servant, 
To Governor Sharpe. FRANCIS HALKETT. 

Upon Washington's departure from Fort Cumber- 
land^ Governor Sharpe took command of the post, and 
had a garrison composed of Maryland troops alone, 
after the Virginians had left. In the latter part of 
September, by an unavoidable accident one of the 
storehouses located on the river bank, and used for 
the deposit of ammunition was blown up, and most 
of its contents destroyed. A few days after this 
occurrence Governor Sharpe received the following 
letter : 

Camp at Rbastown, 2d October 1758. 

About this time we expect their will be a number of the Shannondo 
Waggons arriving at Fort Cumberland with provisions from Win- 
chester; the General therefore begs that you will be so good as to 
engage as many of them as possible upon the same terms as the 
Pennsylvania waggons, to go upon our Expedition, and that you will 
take the opportunity of their coming here, to send over all the Buck shott 
at Fort Cumberland, seven Boxes containing two hundred weight each, 
were lodged in the new store under the hill, which was sent from Fort 
Frederick along with the shelles. Six hundred weight was likewise 
lodged in store that was blown up, if any of that remains undistroyed, 
you will send it also, and provided the carriages can be ready time 
enough they may take the benefite of the officer and thirty men sent from 
the Second Virginia Regiment for horses, to escort them — if this party 
marched before that the waggons can be got Ready they must be escorted 
by the Recovered men of the Virginia Regiments. 

If their are any spair wheels or carriages for Howitzers be pleased 
to send them likewise in some of the empty Waggons, Captain Hay 
having brought no spair ones with the Train, and we may come to 
have occasion for them. I am, sir 

your most obedient humble servt, 
To Gov. Sharpe, Fort Cumberland. • FRANCIS HALKETT. 






























666 y 





In compliance with this letter Governor Sharpe 
sent forward all the shot and shell remaining at the 
fort, except a small quantity necessary for the 

The force under General Forbes' command, at 
Raystown, at this time, was as follows: 

XT c n^^ No. of field Company 

Name of Corps. offi.«r- nmLJ 

Division of 1st. Battal. 
of Royal Americans. 
The Highland or 62d reg't. 3 37 998 ) , n^^ 

Division of ditto. 3 12. 269/ *'^''' 

Ist Virginia Regiment. 3 32 782 ) ^^^ 

2nd Virginia Regiment. ** "' ""** 

3 N. Carolina companies. 

4 Maryland companies. 
Ut Battallion ) p^^^,^ 

The three lower Counties, 

Total, 5980 

Detachments on the frontiers of Pennsylvania and the road of commu- 

From the I Total 

Penn*a. Regiment. | I Major. 10 Captains. 17 Subalterns. 563 

From the North ) Total 

Carolina Regiment I I 3 61 624 

Early in September the advance of the army at 

Raystown had moved forward to Loyal Hanna, near 

Fort Ligonier, and on the 11th of that month Major 

Grant, of the Highland Regiment, marched off on a 

premature movement against Fort Duquesne, taking 

with him a force of 37 officers and 805 men. On the 

14th he reached a point within eleven miles of Fort 

Duquesne, where he left the baggage, under a guard 

of 50 men, and moved forward with the rest of the 

command to the summit of a hill, less than half a 

mile from the fort, which point he reached about 


"Major Grant sent two officers and fifty men to 


the fort, to attack all the Indians, &c., they should 
find Ijdng out of the fort; they saw none, nor were 
they challenged by the sentries. As they returned, 
they set fire to a large store house, which was put 
out as soon as they left it. At break of day. Major 
Lewis was sent, with 200 men (loyal Americans and 
Virginians), to lie in ambush a mile and a half fix)m 
the main body, on the path on which they left their 
baggage, imagining the French would send to attack 
the baggage guard and seize it. Four hundred men 
were posted along the hill facing the fort, to cover 
the retreat of Major M'Donald's company, who 
marched with drums beating toward the fort, in 
order to draw a party out of the fort, as Major 
Grant had some reason to believe there were not 
above 200 men in the fort, including Indians; 
but as soon as they heard the drums, they sallied 
out in great numbers, both French and Indians, 
and fell upon Captain M'Donald, and two columns 
that were posted lower on the hill to receive them. 
The Highlanders exposed themselves without any 
cover, and were shot down in great numbers, and 
soon forced to retreat. The Carolinians, Marylanders, 
and Lower Countrymen, concealing themselves 
behind trees and the brush, made a good defence ; but 
were overpowered by numbers, and not being sup- 
ported, were obliged to follow the rest. Major Grant 
exposed himself in the thickest of the fire, and 
endeavored to rally his men, but all to no purpose, 
as they were by this time flanked on all sides. Major 
Lewis and his party came up and engaged, but were 
soon obliged to give way, the enemy having the hill 

1758.] MAJOR grant's defeat. 261 

of him, and flanking him every way. A number 
were drove into the Ohio, most of whom were 
drowned. Major Grant retreated to the baggage, 
where Captain Bullet was posted with fifty men, and 
again endeavored to rally the flying soldiers, by 
entreating them in the most pathetic manner to stand 
by him, but all in vain, as the enemy were close at 
their heels. As soon as the enemy came up to 
Captain Bullet, he attacked them very furiously, for 
some time, but not being supported, and most of his 
men killed, was obliged to give way. However, his 
attacking them stopped the pursuit, so as to give 
many an opportunity of escaping. The enemy 
followed Major Grant, and at last separated them, 
and Captain Bullet was obliged to make off. He 
imagines the Major must be taken, as he was sur- 
rounded on all sides, but the enemy would not kill 
him, and often called to him to surrender. The 
French gave quarters to all that would accept it.'** 

The rear division of the British army moved from 
Raystown for Loyal Hanna on the 14th of October, 
at which place it lay until ihe 18th of November, when 
it marched under General Forbes for Fort Duquesne. 
On the 25th of November the command arrived at 
Fort Duquesne, but the French had set fire to the fort, 
and retreated down the river, so that General Forbes 
had no difficulty in taking possession of the place. 

On approaching the fort it was discovered that a 
number of the Highlanders who had been taken 
prisoners in the fight with Major Grant, had been 
horribly mutilated, their heads having been impaled 


on stakes driven in the ground, and their kilts at- 
tached thereto. This act of barbarism thoroughly 
enraged the Highlanders, who were in an ecstacy of 
disappointment at not being able to avenge their 
decapitated comrades. 

Governor Sharpe returned to Annapolis in the 
middle of October, and on the 22d the militia at Fort 
Cumberland were paid off, but were continued there 
on garrison duty. 

In December the Maryland Assembly took into 
consideration the condition of the road between Fort 
Frederick and Fort Cumberland, with a view to 
securing the construction of a shorter road between 
these points, the location of which should be entirely 
in Maryland, thus obviating the necessity of fording 
the Potomac. A committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Colonel Thomas Cresap, Crabb, Joseph Chapline, E. 
Dorsey, Josias Beall and Francis King, members of 
the Assembly, was appointed for the purpose of 
inquiring into the convenience of clearing a road 
from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland, through 
Maryland, and to make an estimate of the cost of 
the same. The committee reported as follows : 

Yoar committee have made an enqairj into the Situation of the 
present wagon road from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberiandi and are of 
opinion that the distance bj that Road from one Fort to the other is at 
least Eighty miles, and find that the wagons which go from one Fort to 
the other are obliged to pass the river Potowmack twice, and that for one 
third of the year they can H pass without boats to set them over the 

Your committee have also made an Enquiry into the condition of the 
Ground where a road may roost conveniently be made to go altogether 
on the north side of the Potowmack which will not exceed the distance 
of Sixty-two miles at the expense of £250 current money, as may appear 
from the following Estimate) viz : 

1758.] COST OF THE NEW ROAD. 253 



£ B d 

For clearing a Road from Fort Frederick to Licking creek, 3} 


From Licking creek to Prakes^s creek, 8} miles. 12 

From Prakes's creek to Sideling Hill creek, 12 miles 16 

For a bridge over Sideling Hill creek 60 

From Sideling Hill creek to Fifteen Mile creek, 4 miles 22 

From Fifteen Mile creek to Town creek, 15 miles 140 

From Town creek to Col. Cresap^s, a good road, 4 miles 

From Col. Gresap's to Fort Cumberland, wants no clearing, 15 


Tour committee are of opinion that a Road through Maryland will 

contribute much to lessen the expense of carrying Provision and warlike 

stores from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland, and will induce many 

people to travel and carry on a trade in and through the Province, to and 

from the back country. 

This road was eventually constructed. 

Washington returned to Mount Vernon, from Fort 
Duquesne, where he was married to Mrs. C ustis, and 
settled down to domestic pursuits. 

After the capture of Fort Duquesne, a small force 
of British troops was returned to Fort Cumberland, 
and continued there as a garrison, the Maryland 
Assembly having manifested a decided disinclination 
to incur the expense of keeping it up. The King's 
officers did not feel at liberty to abandon it, since it 
was a King's Fort, and might be useful in preventing 
Indians from descending upon the settlements in 
force, without being observed. As a matter of fact, 
however, the garrison was useless, it being so weak 
in point of numbers that the men hardly dared go 
out of sight of the Fort. Hostile savages drove the 
people from their homes, killing many and destroy- 
ing their property. Colonel Cresap, whose house 


was the shelter of many helpless neighbors, finally 
took his own family back to the Conococheague, for 
safety, and all the settlers about Oldtown followed 
him. Having placed his family in security, Cresap 
raised a company of volunteers, and came to Fort 
Cumberland, from which point he followed Braddock's 
road to Savage Mountain, at the foot of which, on 
the west side, he met a small party of Indians, and 
had an engagement with them, in the course of which 
"his son Thomas was killed by an Indian; but as 
both fired at the same time, he also killed the Indian, 
or so badly wounded him that he was killed a few 
minutes afterwards by William Lynn. Nothing 
more was done at this time or place, and the party 
returned home."* 

While the Indiana were carrying on this desolating 
wiir upon the head 
waters of the Potomac 
tliey on several occa- 
^>, sinus attacked the house 
Colonel Cresap, and 
isome sharp battles oc- 
fcurred there. Killbuck, 
who hated Cresap bitr 
terly, made several at- 
tempts to kill him, on one 
■cjtwion hiding about in 
the vicinity for several 
(lays, but never getting a 
view of his enemy. On one occasion when Cresap's 
house was attacked, the Indians killed one of his 


friends, Mr. Wilder, which Cresap described as 
follows in a letter to Governor Sharpe : 

As Mr. Samuel Wilder was go'mg to a house of his about 300 yards 
distant from mine, with 4 men and several women, the Indians rushed 
on them from a rising ground, but they perceiving them coming, Run 
towards my house hollowing, which being heard by those at my house, 
they run to their assistance and met them and the Indians at the Entrance 
of my lane, on which the Indians Immediately fired on them to the 
amount of 18 or Twenty, and Killed Mr. Wilder, — the party of white men 
Returned their fire and killed one of them dead on the spot and wounded 
severall of the others as appeared by Considerable Quantity of Blood 
strewed on the Ground, as they Run ofi^, which they Immediately did, and 
by their leaving behind them 3 Qunns, one pistole and Sundry other Em- 
plements of war, &c., &c. 

I have Inclosed a List of the Desolate men, women and children, who 
have fied to my house which is Inclosed by a small stockade for safety, 
by which you*ll see what a number of poor Souls, destitute of Every 
necessary of Life are here penned up and likely to be Butchered without 
Immediate Relief and assistance, and can Expect none, unless from the 
province to which they Belong. I shall submit to your wiser Judgment 
the Best and roost Effectual method for Such Relief, and shall Conclude 
with hoping we shall have it in time. 

Indian hostilities being kept up with great perti- 
nacity, Colonel Cresap organized another company 
of volunteers, and "with his surviving sons — Daniel 
and Michael — and a negro of gigantic stature, marched 
again, taking the same route on Braddock's road. 
They advanced this time as far as Negro Mountain, 
where they met a party of Indians. A running fight 
took place; Cresap's party killed an Indian, and the 
Indians killed the negro; and it was this circum- 
stance — ^the death of the negro on the mountain — 
that has immortalized his name by fixing it on this 
ridge forever. This was, I believe. Colonel Cresap's 
last battle with the Indians, for after peace was made 
he returned to his farm at Oldtown."* 

*J«oob'» Life of Cftptaio CreMp. 


In 1766 the conflict between the Indians and the 
whites ceased, peace having been agreed upon. 
Seven months previous, however, the British troops 
had been withdrawn from Fort Cumberland, and the 
settlers were left to their own resources. The final 
act of the British government in connection with 
Fort Cumberland was foreshadowed in the following 
letter written by Greneral Gage to Grovemor Sharpe, 
and sixty days later the troops here were sent to the 

New York, May 12, 1765. 


As I shall BOOQ find it necessary to withdraw the Troops which 

are now in Garrison in Fort Camberland in your Provincci I think it 

proper to acqaaint yon of it, that yoa may give such Direction concerning 

* * * * the Fort, or any stores which there may be belonging to 

your Province, as you shall judge necessary. 

His Majesty having been pleased to appoint Colonel Bouquet to the 

rank of Brigadier General, and to the command of the Troops in the 

Floridas, Lieutenant Colonel Beid will take the command on the side of 

Pittsburgh, who will have Directions to correspond with you and to give 

you timely notice of everything of moment which shall be proper for 

your Information. 

I have the honor to be with irreat Begard, 


your most obedient 

humble servant, 
Hon'ble Gov'r SHABPE. THOS. GAGE. 

The cessation of Indian hostilities rendered a 
garrison at Fort Cumberland longer unnecessary, and 
after the abandonment of the place by the English 
soldiers, the provincial stores were removed, and the 
post was never again occupied, save for a few days, 
in 1794, when the troops engaged in suppressing the 
whisky insurrection were gathered here. 

The restoration of peace, and the feeling of security 
resulting therefrom, led many persons from the 




EaaterD counties to settle in this section of couutry. 
From what is now Frederick county came most of 
the early settlers about Fort Cumberland, nearly all 
of them being emigrants from Germany and England. 
Settlements sprung up at Fort Cumberland, Oldtown, 
on George's Creek, and at points further west. 
Frederick county then embraced all the Western 
part of Maryland, and it was not until 1776 that 
Washington county was taken from it. In 1789 
Allegany county was organized. 

troKE BumtEoritHt 




The various settlements west of Sideling Hill 
continued to grow in numbers, until the population 
became sufficiently great to justify the general desire 
for the erection of a new county, in order that the 
public business might be more readily transacted. 
The great distance which the people in the neighbor- 
hood of Fort Cumberland were compelled to travel 
in order to attend court, and to look after the records 
of their lands, &c., also proved of great inconvenience. 

The first steps towards furnishing greater con- 
veniences were in the direction of incorporating a 
town, and at the meeting of the Legislature in 1787 
a petition was read in the House praying that the 
town of Cumberland might be established, the town 
having already been laid oflf in 1785, by Thomas 
Beall, of Samuel, who was owner of the land. 

The town was located upon a tract of land called 
" Walnut Bottom," which was described as "beginning 
at two bounded white oak trees standing on a cliff of 
rocks at the lower end of a bottom near half a mile 

1785.] WASHINGTON TOWN. 259 

below Ihe mouth of Will's creek, near the river side." 
"Walnut Bottom" was surveyed by Thomas Cresap 
on the Ist of June, 1745, for Governor Thomas 
Bladen, who took up several large tracts of land in 
this section of the State, which was at that time em- 
braced in Prince George's county. Governor Bladen 
sold his right to "Walnut Bottom" to George Mason, 
of Fairfax county, Virginia, who obtained a grant 
for the same on the 25th of March, 1756. On the 
25th of October, 1783, Mason sold "Walnut Bottom" 
and another tract, in close proximity, called "Lime 
Stone Rock," (which he had bought of Daniel Cresap,) 
to Thomas Beall of Samuel, for the sum of £1,407.10 
current money. "Walnut Bottom" embraced all the 
bottom land lying along the river from Mr. F. 
Mertens' boat yard to Mr. J. G. Lynn's residence, 
and extending back to Maryland Avenue, Front 
Street to Valley Street, and thence by a line through 
the Will's Creek Tannery across to the river. 

Immediately after purchasing this land, Beall went 
to work clearing that part of "Walnut Bottom" 
lying west of Will's Creek, and erected several build- 
ings. In 1785 he laid out a town, which was 
commonly called Washington Town, and sold a 
number of lots to settlers. Two years later the 
inhabitants of the place petitioned the Legislature 
for authority to establish a town, which they wished 
to name after the old Fort, as being more appropriate 
and distinct than any other title that could be given it. 

On the 20th of January, 1787, the following act 
was passed by the Legislature, authorizing the erection 
of the town of Cumberland : 


An Act for erecting a town at or near the moath of Will's Creek, in 

Washington County. 
Whereas, It is represented to this general assembly by Thomas Beall, 
Son of Samuel, that he is possessed of a tract of land called Walnai 
Bottom, contiguous to the mouth of Will's creek, in Washington county, 
whereon, at the instance of many of the inhabitants of said county, he 
hath been induced to lay out ground for a town : and the said Thomas 
Beall hath prayed a law to appoint commissioners to lay out and erect a 
town on the said land and to secure the purchasers of lots therein , 
reserving the right of the proprietors and their interest in the said land ; 
and this general assembly are of opinion that the erecting of a town at 
the mouth of the said creek may be convenient and beneficial to the 


II. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That Andrew 

Bruce, Daniel Cresap, George Dent, John Lynn and Evan Gwynn, or 
any three or more of them, be and are hereby appointed commissioners to 
survey a quantity^of land not exceeding two hundred acres, being part of 
the said tract of land called Walnut Bottom, contiguous to the mouth of 
Will's creek, in Washington county, and the same, when surveyed, to lay 
out into lots, streets, lanes and alleys, (the main streets running in the 
direction of Patowmack river, not to be less than eighty feet wide; and 
the streets crossing the said main streets not to be less than sixty feel 
wide,) to be erected into a town, and to be called and known by the name 
of Cumberland; and a correct and accurate certificate and plot thereof 
returned to the clerk of Washington county court, who is hereby required 
to record the same among the Land Records of the said county, and to 
keep the original plot in his office, and a copy from the original or the 
record thereof shall be conclusive evidence as to the bounds and lines of 
the lots of the said town, and of the streets, lanes and alleys thereof. 

III. And be it enacted. That the said commissioners, or a major part 
of them, shall cause the said lots in the said town to be substantially and 
fairly bounded and numbered, and they and their successors are hereby 
required, from time to time, to take care that the said boundaries be con- 
stantly kept up and preserved. 

lY. And be it enacted, That on the death, removal or resignation, of 
any of the said commissioners, the major part of the remaining commis- 
sioners shall appoint another to serve in the stead of such commissioner 

so dying, removing or resigning. 

V. And be it enacted. That the said commissioners of the said town, 

or a major part of them, shall have full power to employ a clerk, who 

shall be under oath, fairly and honestly to enter into a book to be kept for 

that purpose, all the proceedings of the said commissioners relating to the 

1787.] LAYING OFF THE TOWN. 261 

said town, in which book, among other things, shall be entered a copy of 
the plot and certificate of the said town, describing everj lot by its num- 
ber, and who the taker up, or purchaser was or shall be ; and the said 
book shall always be open to the inspection and examination of the said 

VI. And be it enacted. That the said commissioners, or a major part 
of them, are empowered to levy, assess and take, by way of distress, if 
needful, from the inhabitants of the town, by even and equal proportion, 
a sum not exceeding ten pounds current money yearly, to be paid to their 
clerk : and they shall have power to remove or displace their clerk as 
often as they shall think fit. 

VII. And be it enacted. That every purchaser of any of the lots of the 
said town in fee, and every lessee thereof, for years, or rent reserved, 
shall hold and possess the same against any person hereafter claiming 
title to the same, and shall not be disturbed in their possession ; and if 
any person shall hereafter make claim to the land, or any part thereof, 
laid off in virtue of this act, and shall, by due course of law, make good 
title thereto, such person shall be entitled to recover from the said 
Thomas Beall, his heirs, devisee, executors or administrators any pur- 
chase money or rents by him received from any of the purchasers or 
lessees of any of the said lots, and, upon any such recovery the 
tenants holding under the said Thomas Beall shall thereafter hold 
under pay the rent reserved to the person making title to and recov- 
ering the same land. 

VIII. And be it enacted, That if any of the buildings already built 
on the land so as aforesaid to be laid out by the said commissioners, 
and erected into a town, should happen to interfere with, or stand on 
any of the streets laid off in virtue of this act the same shall be 
permitted to continue, but shall not at any time hereafter be repaired 
or rebuilt. 

The provisions of this act were carried into effect 
so far as to lay off the town, but the surveys, boun- 
daries, map, &c., were not filed amongst the land 
records as required. 

At the date of the passage of the act authorizing 
the erection of the town of Cumberland there were 
but few houses here, and scarcely more than thirty- 
five families. So far as can be ascertained the actual 
residents were as follows : 


Thomas Beall, George Dent, Andrew Bruce^ David 
Lynn, Evan Gwynn, (lived at Everstine place) George 
Lowderrailk, Michael Kershner, George Calmes, 
Benjamin Wiley, Peter D'Evecmon, Dickeson Sim- 
kins, William Hoye, Charles F. Broadhag, John 
Graham, Charles Clinton, George Hoffman, David 
Watkins, James McCoy, Jacob Lowry, Jonathan 
Cox, Thomas Stewart, David Hoffman, John S. Hook, 
George Payne, Robert Clark, John Lynn, Jeremiah 
Wilson, John C. Beatty, George Simmons, James 
Slicer, David Harvey, Eli Williams and John 
Mustard^ George Blocher and Henry Wineow. 

The town was located then almost entirely on the 
west side of Will's Creek, and nearly all the houses 
were built along the old Braddock Road, now Green 
street; but on the bluff in the neighborhood of Wash- 
ington street several had been erected. There was 
also a large log house at the " Blue Spring," which 
is still standing, just above the Cumberland Hose 
Company's house, on North Mechanic street, and one 
or two a short distance further up the road. 

The first white child bom in Cumberland, after its 
incorporation, was Frederick Dent. In a log house 
(now rough-<5oated, and known as the " Dent House," 
or " Devecmon House," on Green street,) lived George 
Dent and wife. To them in October or November, 
of 1787, was bom a son, who was christened Frederick. 
This son moved to Pittsburgh while a young man, 
and in 1817 removed to Missouri. He was the father 
of the wife of General U. S, Grant, the commander- 
in-chief of the national armies in the late war, and 
late President of the United States. Mr. Dent died 


in Washington city, at the White House, in 1876, 
within one hundred and fifty miles of the place of 
his birth, at the ripe age of 89.* 

By an euct of the Legislature, in 1777, it had been 
ordered that a bounty of fifty acres of land should be 
given to each able-bodied recruit who should enlist 
and serve in the American army for a period of 
three years ; and that a bounty of one hundred acres 
of land should be given to each recruiting oflScer who 
should enlist twenty able-bodied recruits. An addi- 
tional act was passed, in 1781, directing that these 
lands should be chosen from the territory of the 
State lying westward of Fort Cumberland. In 1787 
the Governor and Council, by authority of the Legis- 
lature, appointed Francis Deakins to survey these 
lands and make a return of a general plot of the 
county westward of Fort Cumberland. Mr. Deakins 
performed this duty, showing that 4,165 lots of fifty 
acres each had been laid off, he being careful to 
indicate those lots which were already occupied and 
improved by settlers, they being conditionally secured 
to the persons settled thereon. This return showed 
that three hundred and twenty-three families were 
settled on six hundred and thirty-six of the aforesaid 
lots, which they had improved and cultivated. 

These settlers were authorized, by an act of 1788, 
to purchase their lots, and were given preference 
thereto, at a price not less than five, and not to 
exceed twenty, shillings per acre, the payments to 
be made in three equal instalments, the whole 

*Mr. Fred«riok fienl •topp«d to din« in CamberUad, while vn roat« to th« W«t in 187S, nnd in 
n brief conven>«tion with the writer remftrlr«d with some pride that he wm the flnt white child 
torn in Camb«rl*nd. 




amount to be paid in three years. Various acts were 
afterwards passed by the Legislature to secure to 
each of the oflScers and soldiers of Maryland the lots 
to which they were entitled for their military services. 
The following is a list of the settlers then located 
upon the lands l3dng in Maryland west of Fort 
Cumberland : 

William Ashby, 
Anthony Able, 
QeoTffe Anderson, 
Patrick Burnes, 
Charles Boyles, 
Thomas Baker, 
Philip Bray, 
Mallner Burnstredder, 
John Beall, 
John Blair, 
John Brenda^e, 
Peter Bonham, 
Norman Bruce, 
Daniel Cresap, Sr.. 
Daniel Cresap, Jr.. 
Robert Cresap, 
James Cresap, 
Joseph Cresap, 
John Durfin, 
Aaron Dackwortb, 
Nicholas Darbin, 
William Darham, 
John Domer, 
Joseph Davis, 
Steven Davis, 
Levi Davis, 
Samnel Dawson, Sr., 
Samuel Elliott, 
Adam Eckart, 
John Ervin, 
Herman Frazee, 
Joseph Frost, 
George Fezenbaker, 
Briant Gaines, 
Edward Grimes, 
Paul Grim, 
John Great, 
Benjamin Green, 
Samuel Humphreys, 
Edward Huston, 
James Henderson, 
John House, 

Ralph Adams, 
John Arnold of A., 
John Arnold of Jno., 
Andrew Bruce. 
William Barnes, 
Michael Beem, 
Benjamin Brady, 
John Buhman, 
Ben. John Biggs, 
Frederick Bray, 
Thomas Barkus, 
George Barkus, 
Samuel Barrell, 
William Coddington, 
Peter Crawl, 
Thomas Cordray, 
Henry Crosley, 
John Cruise, 
Samuel Dawson, Jr., 
William Dawson, Sr., 
William Dawson, Jr., 
Edward Dawson, Sr., 
Edward Dawson, Jr., 
Thomas Dawson, 
Joseph Dye 
Barney Dewitt, 
Terrance Dyal, 
John Elbin, 
Samuel Ellison, 
John Eckhart, 
John Firman, 
John Friend, 
Gabriel Friend, 
Richard Greeo, 
Daniel Green, 
Thomas Green wade, 
Salathiel Goff, 
John T. Goff, 
Andrew House, 
Elisha Hall, 
John Harshan, 
Moses Hall, 

Anthony Arnold, 
Moses Ayers, Sr., 
Moses Avers, Jr., 
Robert Boyd, 
Matthew Ball, 
Frederick Burgett, 
Josiah Bonham, 
Micajah Bumham, 
Amariah Bonham, 
John Brufly, 
John Buckholder, 
Jacob Beall, 
Nathan Corey, 
Godfrey Corbus, 
Edmund Cutler, 
Ely Clark, 
Michael Com, 
Benjamin Coddington, 
Samuel Durbin, 
James Denison, 
Peter Doogan, 
Samuel Durbin, 
Edward Davis, 
Jacob Duttro. Sr., 
Jacob Duttro, Jr., 
Peter DeVecmon, 
David Eaton, 
George Eckhart, 
Charles Friend, 
Hezekiah Frazier, 
Joseph Friend, 
Harry Franks, 
George Fiddler, 
James C. Goff, 
Evan Guynn, 
John Giasman, 
John Garey, 
John Glaze, 
Nicholas Holsbury, 
Charles Huddv, 
Richard Hall,' 
George Harness, 


George Haver, 
William Howell, 
Paal Hoye, 
Robert Johnson, 
Evan James 
Conrad Joleman, 
John Keyser, 
Henry Kite, 
John Lowdermilk, 
William Logsden, 
Daniel Levit, 
Jacob Lower, 
Rosemond Long, 
Joseph Lee, 
Stepnen Masters, 
Gabriel McKinsy, 
John Matthew, Sr.. 
John Magomery, 
Christopher Myers, 
James McMullen, 
Nathaniel Magrader, 
Josiah Magrader, 
Samuel McKinsy, 
Peter Nimirck, 
George Paine, 
Henry Porter, 
Moses Porter, 
George Preston, 
Henry Peters, 
John Purgoson, 
Peter Poling, 
Stephen Pierson, 
Godfrey Richards, 
William Rideford, 
John Richards, 
John Rubash, 
Daniel Recknor, 
John Simpkins, 
Jacob Storm, 
George Sapp, 
John Steyer, 
Garrett Snedeger, 
John Strickler, 
Matthew Singleman, 
John Stuck, 
John Trotter, 
David Troxell, 
Peter Tittle, Sr., 
Ezekiel Totten, 
James Utter, Sr., 
James Utter, Jr., 
John Vanbuskirk, 
Moses Williams, 

Adam Hicksenbangh, 
Benjamin Hull, 
Richard Harcourt, 
William Jones, 
John Jonas, 
William Jacobs, 
Jacob Koontz, 
Henrv Kemp, 
George Laporte, 
William Logsden, 
Ralph Loflrsden, 
Elisha Logsden, 
John Lynn, 
Zachariah Linton, 
Henry Mattingly. 
Henry Myers, 
Philip Michael, 
Moses Monro, 
Solomon Munro, 
Josiah McKinsy, 
John Metz, 
James McPipe, 
Thomas Matthew, 
John Neff. 
Johannes Pau?h, 
Robert Parker, 
Gabriel Powell, 
Nicholas Pittinger, 
Henry Pittinger, 
Hfczekiah Pound, 
Martin Poling, Sr., 
John Price, 
John Ryan, 
John Rhoads, 
John Ratton, 
David Robertson, 
Adam Rhoades, 
Peter Stuck, 
William Shaw, 
Joseph Scott, 
Simon Speed, 
Matthew Snooke, 
John Seyler, 
William Stagg. 
James Schimer, 
Peter Tittle, Jr., 
Michael Tedrick, 
Jesse Tomlinson, 
John Trimble, 
William Utter, 
Thomas Umbertson, 
David Vansickle, 
William Wells, 

Samuel Hatton, 
Abraham Hite, 
Jacob Hazlewood, 
Samuel Jackson, 
William Jones, 
Jacob Kreger, 
John Kelly, 
Leonard Kimble, 
David Lee, 
John Liptz, 
Breton Levit, 
Jacob Lee, 
James Montain, 
William Moore*, 
John Matthews, Jr., 
Jacob Miller, 
Alexander Moore, 
Daniel Moore, 
Moses McKinsy, 
Daniel McKinsy, 
Conrad Millen, 
Elias Majors, 
John Nepton, 
Samuel Postlewait, 
Michael Paugh, 
Margaret Poling, 
John Porter, 
Samuel Poling, 
Martin Poling, 
Richard Poling, 
Charles Queen. 
Benjamin Rush, 
Enoch Read 
Roger Robertson, 
Aaron Rice, 
Michael Raway, 
John Ragan, 
John Streets, 
Moses Spicer, 
Abel Serjeant, 
Adam Seigler, 
Jacob Seigler, 
Joshaa Scutchfield, 
John Sibley, 
Frederick Thaxter, 
John Tomlinson, 
Jacob Trullinger, 
Moses Tilsonel, 
Richard Tilton, 
Charles Uhl, 
John Vincent, 
Henry Woodger, 
John Workman, 

^WlHiftm Moore had 9 boob and 11 dftnghton by his ftrat wife and 1 aon by hla second wife. 

34 - 




Archibald White. James Wells, Andrew Workman, 

Arthur Watson, Peter Wells, Jacob Workman, 

Jesse Walter, Samuel Wikoff, Stephen Workman, 

John Wikoff, George Winters, Thomas Williams, 

Alexander Wilhelm, James Woodrin^er. Joseph Wamick, 

George Wilhelm, Alphens Wipwire, John Whiteman, 

Peter Wikoff, George Waddle, William Workman. 

Jacob Wikoff, Isaac Workman, 

The act of 1788 provided that three commissioners 
be appointed to fix the value of the lands occupied 
by the aforegoing persons, and to settle all disputes 
that might arise concerning pre-emption. 

The commissioners appointed were David Lynn, 
Daniel Cresap, and Benjamin Brookes. In making 
the surveys Mr. Deakins had ten assistant surveyors, 
they being Henry Kemp, Daniel Cresap, Lawrence 
Bringle, Benjamin Price, John Tomlinson, Jonas 
Hogmire, Thomas Orm, John Hooker, John Lynn, 
and William Hoye, and they were paid for their 
services ten shillings current money per day. The 
distribution of the lots to officers was made by lottery, 
each ticket designating four lots contiguous to each 
other, or as nearly so as possible. 

Dr. Jos M. Toner, of Washington City, furnishes 
the following extract from The Cciumhian Magctsdne, 
for April, 1788, page 216, showing that the brave 
deeds of the soldiers in the expedition against the 
French were highly esteemed. 'The final sentence 
contained in the extract, to be sure, somewhat tinges 
the obituary with the ridiculous, but it was doubtless 
quite gratifying to the returned heroes to be able to 
read this testimonial to their courage : 

To the Editor of the Columbian Magazine • 

Sir : The following is an extract from the journal of an officer on 
General Forbes's expedition a^^ainst Fort Duquesne (now Fort Pitt) in 
the year 1768: 


*^ About one hundred yards from F*ort Cumberland, is a large square 
post with a pjramidical top, having a plate of lead, with the followinf^ 
inscription nailed on one side of it, viz : 




Risam teneatus ! — Some of these men, afterwards reiumedj and are 
now officers in the Virginia service. B. 

At the session of the Legislature of 1789, a petition 
was presented asking for the erection of a new 
county, and the following act was passed on the 25th 
of December, in that year: 

An Act for the Division of Washington county, and for erecting a new 

one by the name of Allegany : 
Whereas, A namber of the inhabitants of Washington county, by 
their petition to the General Assembly, have prayed that an act may pass 
for a division of said county by Sideling Hill Greek, and for erecting a 
new one out of the Western part thereof; and it appearing to this General 
Assembly that the erecting such a new county will conduce greatly to 

•Colonel Stephen wm at the time In eommand of % portion of the Vlrglnie troop*. 


the doe administration of justice, and the speedy settling and improving* 
the western part thereof, and the ease and convenience of the inhabitants 

II. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That all 
that part of Washington county which lies to the westward of Sideling 
Hill Creek, shall be and is hereby erected into a new coanty, by the name 
of Allegany county, and the inhabitants thereof shall have, hold and 
enjoy, all such rights and privileges as are held and enjoyed by the 
inhabitants of any other county in this State. 

III. And be it enacted, That the county court and orphans^ court for 
Allegany county shall be held at the town of Cumberland, until the 
voters of said county, by election to be held as hereinafter provided, shall 
determine on some other place } and until a place shall be fixed on by the 
said election, and a coort house shall be built, the justices of said county 
may contract and agree at the county charge for a convenient place io 
the said tows to hold their courts, and for a convenient place in the said 
town for the keeping of their books, papers and records. 

IV. And be it enacted, That all causes, pleas, processes and plead- 
ings, which now are, or shall be depending in Washington county court 
before the first Monday in December, 1790, shall and may be prosecuted 
as effectually in that court as if this act had not been made, and in case 
any deeds or conveyances of land in that part of Washington county now 
called Allegany county, have been, or shall be before the first Monday 
in December, 1790, acknowledged according to law, the enrollment or 
recording thereof in either of the said counties, within the time limited 
by law shall be good and available. 

V. And be it enacted. That the county charfre of Washington county 
heretofore assessed shall be collected and applied as if this act had not 
been made. 

VI. And be it enacted. That the County Court and Orphans* Conrt 
of Allegany County shall first be held on the first Monday in April, 1791, 
and the said County Court be afterwards held on the first Mondaj in the 
months of April and September yearly, and the said Orphans' Court 
shall be afterwards held on the second Monday in the months of June, 
August, October and December, and the same Courts shall have the same 
powers and jurisdiction respectively as other County and Orphans' 
Courts within this State. 

VII. And be it enacted. That all civil causes to be brought in Alle- 
gany County shall be determined within two Courts from the appearance 
court, and none shall continue longer, unless under such circumstances 
as civil causes in other County Courts may be continued longer than 
three courts from the appearance court. 

1791.] THE FIRST COURT. 269 

VIII. And be it enacted, That the Governor and Council be author- 
ized and required to commission fit and proper persons in the said 
county to act as Justices of the Peace, and fit and proper persons as 
Justices of the Orphans' Court, as also Surveyor and other officers, and 
that a fit and proper person be appointed by the Governor and Council 
Sheriff of Allegany County, and be commissioned and qualified in the 
usual manner, to continue in office until a new appointment shall take 
place in the other counties of this State, under an election according to 
the constitution and form of government. 

IX. And be it enacted. That at the first election to be held in the said 
county for a Sheriff, the Voters of said county shall and may, by a 
majority of votes determine the place at which the courts of the said county 
shall be held afVer the said election. 

In December of 1790, an act was passed appoint- 
ing Andrew Bruce, Evan Gwynn and Joseph Cresap 
Commissioners of the Tax for Allegany County, and 
requiring the Tax Commissioner of Washington 
County to transmit to them an account of all the real 
and personal property in the new county. 

The first Court held in Allegany County was 
convened on the 4th Monday and 25th day of April, 
1791. There being no Court House the session was 
held at the house of John Graham, in Cumberland. 
Upon the opening of the Court, Andrew Bruce 
produced his commission as Associate Justice, and 
was sworn in and took his seat upon the Bench. 
John Beatty was appointed Sheriff, and John Lynn 
Clerk of the Court. On the 27th of April Richard 
Potts appeared in Court and presented his commis- 
sion as Chief Justice of the County Courts in the 
Fifth Judicial District. John Simkins also presented 
his commission as Associate Justice, and took the 
oath of office. Jeremiah Willison was appointed 
Crier, and the following attorneys admitted as mem- 
bers of the Bar: — Greorge Magruder, Samuel Selby, 


John Johnson, Lenox Martin and William Claget, 

each of whom paid a license of £3 for the privilege 
of practicing. 

Lenox Martin presented his appointment, from the 
Attorney-General, as Prosecutor for the State in this 
Court, after which the business of the Court was 
proceeded with. The session commenced on the 
25th of April, and closed on the 29th, embracing five 

Li laying off the town the ground now occupied 
by the county buildings, comprising four lots, was set 
apart for that especial purpose by the proprietor of 
the town, Thomas Beall of Samuel, and in 1793, by 
an act of the Assembly, Thomas Beall, John Lynn, 
William McMahon, George Dent and Benjamin 
Tomlinson were appointed commissioners to contract 
and agree for the building of a Court House and Jail, 
and to prepare the plans and superintend the con- 
struction thereof The Justices of the Levy Court 
were required to levy the sum of six hundred pounds 
current money to pay for the same ; £200 to be levied 
in 1794; £200 in 1795, and the remainder in 1796. 
In compliance with this act a building was erected 
on the lot adjoining that now occupied by the 
Allegany County Academy, on the north side of 
Washington street, the basement of which was of 
stone, and the upper story of brick. The basement 
was used as a Jail, and the upper portion as a Court 

At the session of the Justices of the Levy Court, 
held in 1794, the sum of £200 was levied, in accord- 
ance with the law, towards paying for the erection of 


the Court House and Jail. In 1795 a further sum of 
£200 was levied. In 1796 the sum of £100 was 
levied to pay for work on the Court House, and 
£37 10s for the completion of the Jail. In 1799 a 
final levy of £75 was made for the completion of the 
Court House, making a total expenditure for the 
work of £612 10s. 

In 1790 there was a small wooden bridge over 
Will's ' Creek, very near the site of the present 
Baltimore street bridge, and in 1791 the Levy Court 
of the County appropriated to Thomas Beall of 
Samuel, and Alpheus Beall, the sum of £20, to be 
expended in repairing the bridge. In 1792 a further 
sum of £20 was appropriated for a similar purpose, 
to be expended under the direction of William 
McMahon and Joseph Kelly. In 1795 David Hoff- 
man, John Graham, and P. Murdoch were appointed 
Commissioners to superintend the buildmg of a bridge 
over Will's Creek, for which purpose £30 was appro- 
priated from the County Treasury. These Commis- 
sioners entered into a contract with William Logsden 
on the 29th of April, 1796, the conditions of which 
were that Logsden was to rebuild the bridge over the 
Creek, and to have it completed and ready for use 
by the 1st day of September following. It was to 
have good and sufiicient abutments, to be five feet 
higher than the former bridge was; to be sixteen 
feet wide, and furnished with a railing three feet 
high; the contractor to maintain the bridge for 
seven years, and rebuild it if carried away by freshets, 
except in case the water should become so high as to 
float the structure and carry it off. The sureties 


of the contractor were John and Ralph Logsden 
The work was completed in the time specified. In 
1799 the sum of £26 12s 13d was levied to pay for 
some improvements made upon the bridge, and to 
pay the balance due on account of its construction. 
This bridge stood until 1810. 

The value of the taxable property in Allegany 
County, in 1791, was fixed at £78,978 Is lid; the 
tax levied was 7s 3d on each £100. In addition to 
the funds raised by taxation considerable sums were 
secured by the rigid enforcement of the laws imposing 
fines for drunkenness, profane swearing, and failure 
to work on the roads. In some instances the 
violations of these laws were quite numerous, and the 
penalties incurred were various, ranging from 5d for 
"one profane curse" to £1 12s 6d for "profane 
swearing" and £2 7s 6d for "drunkenness and Sabbath 

Liberal rewards were paid by the county authorities 
for the destruction of wolves, the premium for an old 
wolf's scalp being £5, and for a young wolf £1. 

The Judges of the Orphans' Court in 1791 were 
James Prather, Daniel Cresap, and John H. Bayard. 

The Justices of the Levy Court were: — Daniel 
Cresap, Thomas Beall of Samuel, Samuel Barrett, 
James Prather and John H. Bayard. 

In 1792 the Justices of the Levy Court were: — 
John Orm, Samuel Barrett, James Prather, Gabriel 
Jacob, John H. Bayard and John Reed. 

In 1794 Cumberland again became the scene of 
warlike preparations, and again an army was assem- 
bled on the historic ground about the old Fort, but 


now the stars and stripes of the young Republic 
waved in the place once occupied by the old English 
ensign. The enactment of laws, by Congress, laying 
a duty upon spirits distilled in the United States, and 
upon stills, caused a feeling of violent opposition to 
spring up in the PennsyLvania counties of Alleghany, 
Washington, Fayette and Westmoreland, where 
considerable quantities of whisky were made. In 
Washington County the opposition was most bitter, 
and in a little while the officials whose duty it was 
to enforce the requirements of the law became sub- 
jected to violence and insult. Public meetings were 
held by the malcontents, and resolutions were passed 
strongly condemning the law as well as any person 
who might attempt to enforce it. The first effort 
to impose the duties levied was made in 1791, 
and in September of that year Robert Johnston, a 
collector of the revenue, was seiaed at a place on 
Pigeon Creek, in Washington County, Pa., by a party 
of men, who tarred and feathered him, cut oJBf his 
hah*, and otherwise insulted hun. The leaders in 
this outrage were known, but no officer dared arrest 
them. Other outrages were perpetrated, and for 
three years the troubles grew worse and worse, the 
insurgents sending their men into adjacent Counties 
of Virginia and Maryland to breed disaffection. In 
the outset men of influence and property had 
encouraged the rebellion, but they had not anticipated 
the serious results which followed. On the 7th of 
August, 1794, the President issued a proclamation 
announcing his intention to enforce the laws by 

calling out the militia, and he called upon the 


Governors of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia for sufficient militia to form an army of 
15,000 men, which was to be organized and prepared 
to march at any moment. A second proclamation was 
published on the 25th of September, when the stub- 
born persistence of the insurgents rendered further 
temporizing impossible, calling the troops into active 
service. The New Jersey and Pennsylvania soldiers 
were ordered to assemble at Bedford, and those of 
Maryland and Virginia at Cumberland. Governor 
Lee, of Virginia, was put in command of all the 
troops, and the Governors of New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania took subordinate commands. 

The assembling of the militia from Maryland and 
Virginia at Cumberland, created great excitement in 
the village. How long they remained here is not 
exactly known, but on the 18th of October, 1794, 
Washington arrived, and spent several days inspect- 
ing the condition of the men and their supplies. 
On the 19th he appeared in full uniform, and held 
a review, on the old parade ground of Fort Cumber- 
land, at which the entire population of the town was 
present. This was the last occasion upon which he 
wore his uniform. 

The troops had been encamped along Will's Creek, 
on what was known as the "Island," where they had 
good water from a spring, near by. On the 19th the 
command was marched up to the parade ground, and 
drawn up for inspection. General Washington rode 
along the line, from the right to the left, and was 
loudly cheered by the men. Afterwards the com- 
mand marched in review, and Washington raised his 


hat as a salute, while they passed. Generals Lee and 
Morgan were both present, and participated. 

Hon. Alexander R. Boteler has in his possession 
an oil painting representing this review. It was the 
work of an amateur artist, and upon its completion 
passed into the hands of General Daniel Morgan. 

The army marched in two divisions, from Cumber- 
land and Bedford. The insurrection was suppressed 
without difficulty, as the great strength shown by 
the government overawed the disturbers, and Greneral 
Morgan was left with a detachment of troops during 
the winter, in the disaffected district, as a safeguard 
against further trouble. 

The necessity existing for good roads was greatly 
felt at this time, since all the supplies of the inhabit- 
ants were brought from the East, and a great part of 
the year the muddy roads and steep hills made 
transportation both slow and expensive. On frequent 
occasions salt, rope, cloth, iron, &c., were brought 
from the Eastern towns on pack horses, a cheaper 
and more expeditious method than by wagons. The 
Legislature passed acts for improving and straighten- 
ing the roads from Hancock to Cumberland, from 
Cumberland to Turkey-foot, and from Cumberland 
to Winding Ridge. 

On the 1st of January, 1795, Cumberland was 
made a Post-town, and by order of the Postmaster 
General a post oflSce was established therein, and 
Charles F. Broadhag appointed Postmaster, which 
position he held until July 1st, 1802. 

Li order to provide facilities for the purchase and 
sale of produce, &c., in the town, a shed was erected 


on a lot of ground on the bank of the Creek, about 
sixty feet south east of the present gas works property, 
and in December, 1795, an act of the Legislature was 
passed making it a market house for the town, and 
providing that from and after the first day of May, 
1796, Wednesday and Saturday of each and every 
week should be held and considered as market days, 
the hours to be from any time in the morning until 
9 o'clock A. M. A fine of fifteen shillings was imposed 
upon any person who bought or sold any articles of 
provision at any place other than the market house 
during market hours. 

In 1797 the Justices of the Orphans' Court were 
John H. Bayard, Evan Gwynn and A. A Browne. 
The Associate Justices of the County Court were 
Patrick Murdoch and Hanson Briscoe. Sherifi^, 
Robert Sinclaire. 

The Court House at this date was still uncompleted, 
and the sessions of the Court were held at the tavern 
of Abraham Faw, a building located on Green street, 
west of Small wood, just where the residence of the 
late William Landwehr now stands. For the use of 
his house for this purpose, in 1797, Mr. Faw was 
paid the sum of £3, as also 4s lOd for 9 days' use of 
rooms for meetings of Tax Commissioners, and Is lOd 
for three days' session of the Levy Court. 

It is thought that a temporary Jail was made of 
an old log house of very limited dimensions, which 
stood on the opposite side of the road, a short 
distance west of the tavern. This old house was one 
of the structures supposed to have been built about 
1 755, and used as a guard house. It had no windows, 

1797.] HOTEL RATES. 277 

and the single door was thickly studded with wrought 
iron nails. 

At the meeting of the Court, in 1797, Andrew 
McClery, Robert McClery, John McClery and Henry 
McClery, carpenters; John Wright, weaver; William 
Thistle, farmer; Thomas Thistle, student at law, 
natives of Ireland; and Christian Deetz, tailor, a 
native of Germany, were naturalized, and fully 
invested with all the rights of American citizenship. 

The following. Inn Keepers' Rates, established at 
the April Term of Court, 1798, are somewhat in 
contrast with those of the present day : 

8. D. 

A Hot Dinner for a Qentlemani with Beer or Cider 3 

A Snpper 07 Breakfast 2 

French Brandy, per } pint 1 10 

Peach Brandy, per i pint 1 3 

Lodging in clean sheets 1 10 

ditto double ditto 9 

Ditto in sheets before used 6 

Hay per niflrht for Horse 1 6 

Ditto for 24 hours 2 6 

Madeira and Claret Wine per quart. 10 

Port, Sherry or Lisbon Wine 7 6 

Whisky per gill 6J 

Other Wine per ^quart 5 

Com and Oats, per quart. 3 

Lodgings for Servants 6 

Cold Dinner, per gentleman 1 10} 

SupperandBreakfast per servant 1 6 

Dinner per Servant 1 10 

The town grew steadily, and in 1797 had one 
hundred dwellings and one hundred and twenty 
families, three merchant mills and three church 
congregations, German Lutheran, Methodist and 
Roman Catholic. Amongst the persons who came 


here to live from 1790 to 1800 were families of the 
following names: — Howard, Broadhag, Bridenhart, 
Beatty, Bayard, Brown, Briscoe, Beard, Deetz, Davis, 
Deems, Erb, Entler, Faw, Fisher, Gephart, Graham, 
Hughes, Korns, Lichlider, McMahon, McCleary, Ma- 
gruder, Murdoch, Moore, Miller, Milburn, Morris, 
Osbom, Perry, Pigman, Richards, Russell, Rizer, 
Rafters, Shuck, Smith, Selby, Stonesifer, Sinclair, 
Thistle, Wineow, Wright. 

Benjamin Tomlinson was amongst the earliest 
settters in the county, and in 1789 he built the house 
on Will's Creek, some five miles from Cumberland, 
now occupied by Mrs. Alexander King, a grand- 

The militia law in existence at this date caused 
the citizens of Allegany county much annoyance, as 
they were compelled to travel long distances, either 
on horseback or on foot, to attend the drills provided 
for by law. Consequently they caused a statement 
to be made to the Legislature setting forth their 
grievances, and that body in 1798 passed an act 
authorizing the field officers having command of the 
militia of Allegany county to appoint certain days 
for drill each year, at such place in the county as they 
might direct. 

The subject of Roads attracted considerable atten- 
tion again in 1798, and in order to improve the 
condition of the road from Cumberland to Sideling 
Hill a liberal appropriation was made. A further 
sum of £56 5s was levied in 1802 for this purpose. 
In January, 1799, an act of the Legislature was 
secured for the opening of a road from "Martin's 


Ford, on the North Branch of the Potowmack, to 
intersect the main road leading from the mouth of 
George's Creek to the town of Cumberland," and 
Joseph Cresap, Thomas Dawson of William, and 
Ebenezer Davis were appointed Commissioners for 
the purpose of laying off this road in the most direct 
and convenient way; it was to be kept in order by 
the persons living on the tracts of land known as 
^^The Cove," "Long Bottom," and "Lot No. 3581." 
The first effort towards advancing the cause of 
education in Allegany county was made in lr799. 
On the 15th of January, in that year, an act was 
passed by the Legislature entitled " An act to incor- 
porate a school in Allegany County, by the name of 
Allegany County School, the purposes of which are 
shown by the following extract from the law, viz : 

*' Whereas, it is reasonable that . education shoald be extended to 
the several parts of this State, and that there should be a public 
school in Allegany County, therefore : 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That in order 
to the erecting and building a house and other conveniences for a 
county school, the persons hereinafter named shall have power to 
purchase one or more acres of land in or adjoining the town of 
Cumberland, in Allegany county, to wit : John Lynn, Evan Gwynn, 
William McMahon, Joseph Cresap, David Lynn, Patrick Murdoch, 
Hanson Briscoe, John B. Beall and John C. Beatty, who shall be visitors 
of said school ; which said persons so nominated visitors for Allegany 
county school, and their successors, appointed in the manner hereinafter 
declared, shall and are hereby declared to be one community, corporation 
and body politic, to have continuation forever, by the name of The Visitors 
of Allegany County School, and by that name to sue and be sued, implead 
or be impleaded, and to make and have a common seal, and the same 
to break, alter or renew, when and so often as they shall think fit. 

Under the provisions of this act a building was 
erected for school purposes on the lot now occupied 
by the school building of SS. Peter and Paul's Church, 

280 HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND. [1790-1800. 

German Catholic. The School building was of 
brick, one story in height, and amongst the early 
Principals of the school were Profeseors Pierce 
and Benjamin Brown. The Academy was placed in 
charge of a board of visitors, who were given power 
to elect their own successors, and the organization is 
maintained to this day. The original board appointed 
by the act of 1798, consisted of John Lynn, Evan 
Gwynn, William McMahon, Joseph Cresap, David 
Lynn, Patrick Murdoch, Hanson Briscoe, John B. 
Beall and John C. Beatty, and the sum of $200 per 
year was granted them from the State Treasury. 

The lack of data, either written or printed, renders 
it extremely di£Scult to procure a correct list of the 
people residing here at a date so early as 1800, 
especially since there are few persons living, old 
enough to remember distinctly such matters. 

To designate the houses that are oldest is equally 
difficult. Certainly the most venerable of them was 
that known as " Washington's headquarters," which 
occupied the ground on which Mr. O. C. Gephart's 
residence now stands, 
and which is well re> 
membered by hundreds 
of citizens, as it was not 
removed until about the 
t year 1844. It was co- 
temporary with Fort 
8 HBAiKiDABTBBs Cumbcrfand, and stood 
but a short distance from the parade ground. This old 
house was occupied at one time by Mrs. Bridenhart, 
a daughter of Michael Kershner, and she entertained 

1790-1800.] OLD HOUSES. 281 

several students there as boarders for some years. 
It was also occupied for several years by David Lynn 
as a residence, afterwards by George Bruce, and 
finally by John Kane. 

In 1844 it was bought by George Blocher, who 
moved it to a lot on the Bedford road, a mile distant, 
where it was repaired and occupied for twenty-two 
years by John Baker. It still stands, on the ground 
of Christian Eichner, a short distance from Cumber- 

About 1784 George Lowdermilk built a frame 
house some fifty yards west of Washington's head- 
quarters, and occupied it for twenty years. 

The "McMahon House," — still standing on the 

Southwest comer of Smallwood and Green Streets — 

was built about the year 1792, and had a store-room 

adjoining. The back building, erected several years 

afterwards, was constructed of brick, and was the 

first of the kind in the town. The brick were 

brought up the river in a keel boat, from some point 

below. The mason work was done by Henry Wineow, 

who was then the only brick mason in the place. 

Mr. McMahon was a gentleman of some wealth, and 

thoroughly hospitable. In October, 1794, while 

Washington was here for the purpose of inspectmg 

the Western Army, on the occasion of the Whiskey 

Insurrection, he was the guest of Mr. McMahon, and 

the entire population of the town called there to pay 

their respects to the great man. This old house is 

now a deserted and dilapidated wreck, but deserves 

to be held in some degree of veneration, as one of the 

few remaining landmarks of those early days. The 

282 HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND. [1790-1800. 

lot on which this building stood is marked "9" on 
the map. In this house John V. L. McMahon was 
born, a man of great intellect and scholarly acquire- 

On the north side of Green street, lot No. 31, 
Michael Kershner built a two-story house, with a 
porch, about 1790. This has disappeared altogether, 
unless a portion of the plastered house standing there 
may be a remnant of it. 

A short distance west of the McMahon house, and 
about where Mrs. W. Landwehr s house now stands, 
was built a two-story log tavern, by Abraham Faw. 
In this building were born J. Galloway Lynn, and 
afterwards General E. 0. C. Ord, of the United States 
Army. Previous to the erection of a Court House, 
several sessions of the Grand Jury and the Court 
were held there, and this tavern became the general 
resort of most of the persons who came to the town. 

The Devecmon house, on Green street, east of 
Smallwood, was built about 1790, by George Dent, 
who was the surveyor of the town. This house is 
still standing, the lower story being now several feet 
below the street. Mrs. Dent died about 1807, in the 
house of Dickeson Simkins, on north Mechanic street, 
comer of Valley street. 

Probably the first house built on the east side of the 
Creek was that erected by David Hoffinan, a little 
south of the Blue Spring, on north Mechanic street. 
It was constructed of logs, and was about 40 x 25 
feet in size. 

The log house on north Mechanic street, above 
the "Blue Spring," was built about 1791, by an old 

1790-1800.] OLD HOUSES. 283 

bachelor, named Wyatt. It was used in 1809 by 
Samuel Smith, as a store house, and the Post oflBce 
was then kept there, Mr. Smith being the Postmaster. 

The log house, now weatherboarded, standing on 
the comer of north Mechanic street and Valley street, 
was built by Dickeson Simkins, in 1790. 

About the same time the house on north Mechanic 
street, No. 209, next below Wegman's store, was 
built by Benjamin Morris, a shoemaker, and brother- 
in-law of Simkins, who carried on his business there. 

The log house next to J. Wegman's dwelling. No. 
215 north Mechanic street, was built at the same 
time by John Snowden Hook, a farmer, who came 
here from Washington County, and purchased a con- 
siderable tract of land, embracing what is known as 
** Hook's Graveyard." 

The house occupied by the late Emanuel Easter, 
No. 132 north Mechanic street, was built about 1800, 
and a pottery established by Jacob Neff. Mr. Easter 
was an apprentice with Neff, and afterwards carried 
on the business up to the time of his death, at an 
old age, in 1877. 

The house of Mrs. Charlotte Wright, No. 140 
north Mechanic street, was built about the year 
1800, and Mrs. Wright has now been living there 
continuously for more than fifty years. 

A house, supposed to have been built by Jonathan 
Cox, stood near the spot now occupied by Lewis 
Smith's tavern on north Mechanic street, and David 
and Jonathan Cox, tanners, had a tannery a short 
distance above the ground now occupied by Withers' 
tannery. Cox's house was built of stone. 

284 HISTORY OP CUMBERLAND. [1790-1800. 

George Shuck, who came here about 1790, from 
York, Pa., lived in a log house, where Shipley's tavern 
now stands, in 1800. 

Thomas Beall, of Samuel, built a house on Liberty 
street, a short distance below the City Hall, on the 
opposite side. The date of its erection is uncertain, 
but is supposed to have been about 1785. It is still 

A log house, was built by John Miller about 1794, 
.on the lot on the comer of Liberty and Bedford 
streets, and is still in use, immediately opposite the 
City Hall, and is known as the "Snyder property." 

George Payne had a house in 1796, on the Little 
Valley Road, near "Payne's Spring," which was on 
his property. 

Several other old buildings are still in existence, 
which are supposed to have been constructed previous 
to 1800, but their history is not positively known. 

The eflfort to preserve the chronology of the history 
of the town, so far as its growth is concerned becomes 
exceedingly difficult at this time, since there were 
no newspapers in existence, and the memory of the 
old inhabitants utterly fails to establish dates with 
any degree of accuracy. Consequently the events of 
the next twenty years must be treated as best they 
may be under the circumstances. 

It has been heretofore stated that in 1755 a bridge 
was built across Will's Creek, near the mouth of the 
stream. This was carried away by a freshet, and 
about 1790 a wooden bridge was built where the 
present iron bridge stands. The new structure was 
built upon wooden piers, and by frequent repairs and 

LAND, 1806. 

feRfiE DENT. J 


1805.] SURVEY OF THE TOWN. 285 

much patching was kept in serviceable condition until 
1804, when it was damaged by high water. In 
January, 1805, the Legislature passed an act author- 
izing Upton Bruce, David Hoffman, senior, Thomas 
Thistle, George Hoffman, and William McMahon to 
hold a lottery, and thereby raise a sum of money not 
to exceed $2,000 for the purpose of purchasing a fire 
engine for the town of Cumberland, and directing 
them to appropriate the balance of the money on 
hand, after making such purchase, to the erection of 
a bridge over Will's Creek. Whether the lottery 
was held is not recorded, but certainly another bridge 
was erected, and this was in turn washed away by a 
great freshet, in 1810, at which time the Creek 
rose to an unprecedented height, entirely flooding 
Mechanic street. After the bridge was destroyed, 
in 1810, a ferry was established, and kept in use 
until a new bridge was erected. The ferry consisted 
of a rope stretched across the Creek at the foot of 
Baltimore street, the ends being lashed to large 
walnut trees, and a flat boat being attached to a ring 
which was made to slip along the cable. Another 
wooden bridge was shortly after put in the place 
of the one destroyed, and this stood until 1820, 
when a suspension chain bridge was substituted 
therefor, a full description of which will hereafter be 

The survey of the town, as made in 1787, having 
never been filed in the office of the Clerk of the 
Court of either Washington or Allegany County, as 
required by the law authorizing the survey, the 
Legislature passed an act January 27, 1805, reciting 


that " Whereas, Thomas Beall, son of Samuel, and 
other persons, did lay off a parcel of their land 
contiguous to the mouth of Will's Creek, in Allegany 
County, into lots, a great part of which have since 
been purchased, and considerable improvements made 
thereon, and there being no record of the same, the 
title of the proprietors thereof are precarious and 
uncertain; and it appearing right and proper that 
commissioners should be appointed to lay out and 
erect a town on the said lands, and to secure the 
purchasers of lots therein, reserving the right of 
the proprietors and their interests in said lands,"' 
therefore, Roger Perry, Evan Gwynn, Jonathan 
Cox, George Hoffman, and Upton Bruce were 
appointed Commissioners to have an accurate sur- 
vey made, and an exact plot thereof, showing the 
original location of the streets, lanes, lots, &c., filed 
in the office of the Cerk of the Court. They were 
required to have the lots numbered one, two, three, 
and so on, and these numbers were to be given as 
they were in the original location. They were 
authorized to summons witnesses for the purpose of 
securing such information as should be necessary to 
ascertain the true lines, and were then to set up 
boundary stones at the beginning of the lots. This 
act contained provisions for securing purchasers in 
their rights, and repealed the act of 1786. 

In 1806 the provisions of this act were fully carried 
out by the Commissioners, Mr. George Dent having 
been employed as the surveyor, and the plat made 
by him was filed in the Land Records of Allegany 
County, an exact copy of which is here given. That 

1806.] SURVEY OF THE TOWN 287 

lK>rtion of the town lying on the east and north side 
of Will's Creek was first laid out in 1798. 

The Commissioners in making their return, sub- 
mitted the following remarks, which were filed 
together with the map, and an Jiccurate description 
of each lot : 

The Town of Gamberland had grown into considerable size before 
the passage of the law anthorizing its being laid oat, and as no correct 
plat had been preserved of its ancient location, or boandaries set up, by 
which it could be ascertained correctly, the Commissioners for the want 
of some guide of this kind met with considerable difficulty in assigning 
to each lot its due and proper situation, particularly so, on the east side 
of Wiirs Creek, where the lots bein)^ of no given size, and the streets 
crooked and irregular one lot became of little service in leading to the 
establishment of another; the conveyances or titles by which many of the 
lots were held were very imperfectly drawn, and many blunders com- 
mitted, so that they frequently served rather to add to our perplexity than 
furnish us with correct information. The Commissioners, nevertheless, 
trust they have produced as perfect a return as could be desired or ex- 
pected, and that besides the advantage of every man knowing how and 
where to find the precise situation of his lot, many disputes will be quieted 
from the having a settled and determined record to refer to. Several 
additions have been made to the Town as just laid off, and as each 
addition begins with number I, 2, and so on, it follows that there are five 
lots thus numbered in the Town of Cumberland, a circumstance it was 
impossible for the Commissioners to avoid under the restriction of the 
law giving them their powers. At first glance of the plat this may seem 
like confusion, but which it will be easy to avoid if where in searching for 
any number due rrgard be had to the addition it is distinguished by as 
lying in. There are on the plat two lots numbered 219, which could not 
be avoided, as by some error conveyances had been made to two different 
persons for two adjoining lots by this number, but to distinguish we have 
called one the senior and the other the junior lot. Occasionally on our 
approach to the neighborhood of some metalic substance, we found our 
selves led astray from the attraction of the needle; sometimes we were 
unable to discover where the cause lay, though the effect was quite plain. 
It was observable that in passing by where had been several years back a 
smith shop the attraction from small particles of iron concealed under the 
ground was very considerable, and would have thrown us totally into 
confusion had it not been discovered in time. So that in any future 


ranning dae caution ought to be paid to this circumstance. The Com- 
missioners ask for their intentions, and their return, a fair and liberal 
interpretation! and while they are confident strict and equal regard has 
been paid to each particular interest, express a hope their labors will be 
found to have given order, form and certainty to what was heretofore 
perplexed, confused and doubtful, and that each proprietor of a lot in the 
Town of Cumberland may discover its situation, extent and limits, by a 
reference to the plat, and without an appeal to the remedy at law, which 
is always attended with expense and delay. 


The accumulation of the records of the Court 
rendered it necessary that a proper place should be 
provided for their preservation, and in 1806 the 
Legislature authorized the County Commissioners to 
levy the sum of $1,200, which was to be collected in 
one, two and three years, for the purpose of building 
oflBces for the reception of the ^pers and records of 
the County, and for the proper accommodation of the 
Clerk of the Court. Such a building was erected on 
the public grounds in the vicinity of the Court 
House, and just where the Academy building now 
stands. It was occupied continuously until the com- 
pletion of the new Court House in 1840. 

In 1810 an act supplementary to the act erecting 
the town was passed authorizing the appointment of 
a Str^t Supervisor, and directing that all monies 
collected as taxes on the property on the west and 
east sides of Will's Creek should be expended on 
that side on which it was collected, except so much 
as might be necessary to pay an equal proportion of 
the salaries of the Clerk and Bailiff. 


The following is a sketch of the houses standing 
in 1813, from the most reliable data that can be 
obtained, taking the oldest streets in succession, and 
beginning with the west side of the Creek. 

On the south side of Green street, where it is 
intersected by Water street, stood a house and 
shop, which was used by a man named Glenn, 
who was a nail-maker; the brick building now used 
as the residence of the Chief Engineer of the Water 
Works, was erected by Roger Perry, in 1811; next 
was the Dent or Devecmon house ; opposite Glenn's 
nail-shop was the house of Captain Thomas Blair, 
who was a hatter; nearly opposite the Dent house 
was the house of Michael Kershner. These com- 
prised the houses east of Smallwood street. West 
of this street were, on the south side, William 
McMahon's dwelling and store, and Faw's tavern; 
on the north side were the houses of Rev. Mr. Ken- 
nedy, a minister; Mr. Glissan; the old guard quarters; 
George Hughes, and Andrew McCleary. 

On Rose Hill was the residence now occupied by 
J. G. Lynn, Esq., which was built by his father, in 
1810. The house now occupied by Dr. James M. 
Smith was built in 1810, by Upton Bruce, who 
resided there. 

Washington street was then a very steep and 
rough road. There were but four houses on the 
south side, one built by Mr. Deakins, and afterwards 
bought by John Hoye; the old Washington head- 
quarters; a frame house a few yards west of it, and 
a brick house on the site now occupied by Hon. 

William Walsh's residence. On the north side were 




the Court House and jail, the Clerks' office, and the 
house built by Roger Perry. 

On the ground north of Fayette street, near the 
present railroad line, were Hanson Briscoe's house, 
the Methodist Church, the Academy, and a small 
house in the rear of the ground now occupied by the 
residence of Mr. R. D. Johnson. 

These comprised all the houses on the west side of 
the Creek. 

On Bedford street, now Baltimore street, a black- 
smith shop stood near the banks of the Creek, and 
in close proximity to the bridge; on the southwest 
corner of Baltimore and Mechanic streets was a 
frame store house; on the ground now occupied by 
Mrs. S. Thress's store, was a log house, built by 
Robert McCleary. (This was torn down and re- 
placed by a brick house in 1830). On the north side 
Peter Gephart had a dwelling where McKaig s block 
stands, below Liberty street; near the corner was 
Dowden's house. Between Liberty and Mill (now 
Centre) streets the ground was occupied by John 
Shryer's tan yard, and on the northwest corner of 
Baltimore and Centre stood the old Lutheran Church. 

On Liberty street there were no houses, except 
those occupied by Captain Thomas Beall of Samuel, 
and John Miller. 

Mechanic street was at that time the main street, 
and the houses located there were as follows, taken 
in sequence from the south to the north: On the 
west side below Harrison street, Elnathan Russell's 
house and blacksmith shop, both still standing at the 
offset in the street; A. Rogers, butcher; Nicholas 


Koontz; Michael Fisher, cooper; Henry Wineow, 
brickmason ; Thomas Dowden, blacksmith. Between 
Creek and Baltimore streets: — ifirst, Slicer's tavern, 
the Cumberland Bank, Wyatt's drug store, comer 
Baltimore. Between Baltimore street and Bedford 
street: — Ree8ide's,or McKinley's, hotel, (old National) 
'John Scott, Dr. Reese, McGill's drug store, E. Vowell's 
store, Samuel Lowdermilk, Peter Lowdermilk, har- 
ness and saddlery shops; William Shryer's cabinet 
shop, George Hoblitzell's store. Between Bedford 
street and the Blue Spring: — The first house was 
where the gas works stand, and was occupied by a 
shoemaker named McDonald; then came Adam 
Zeigler's store; Jacob NeflTs pottery; W. Boyd, a 
Methodist Episcopal minister; James Simmons, 
butcher; Robert McCleary, and Jacob Koms, black- 
smith, just below the Blue Spring. Above the Spring 
were Samuel Smith, store and postK)fiice; Henry 
Korns, comb-maker; M. Soyster, tan yard; Jacob 
Soyster, saddler, and Wm. Beard. West side of 
Mechanic street : — First, Martin Rizer's house ; 
between Harrison and Baltimore streets, Michael 
Kershner's new house; Arthur Rose; John Bo ward; 
Christian Deetz; N. Bassnet; George Hoffman, and 
on the southeast corner of Baltimore, John MurrelVs 
store. Between Baltimore and Bedford: — Barton 
Carico's tavern; Justice's store; Ryan s tavern; C. F. 
Broadhag's store ; George Hoblitzell ; Jacob Saylor ; 
John Gephart, hatter; Solomon Davis, tailor, and 
Jacob Hoblitzeirs store. Between Bedford street and 
Little Valley Road : — John Scott's mill, (comer Bed- 
ford,) George Thistle; Peter Lowdermilk; Jacob 


Shuck; Dr. Murray; Henry Baker; Benjamin Wiley; 
Francis Madore, (corner of alley below Railroad 
viaduct); Michael Wire's drug store; Wolf; George 
Cox, Jonathan Cox, tanyard; James Hook, wheelright^ 
John Wickard, farmer; Jacob Sease; B. Howard; 
Henry Korns; Dickeson Simkins' "Three Butts 
Hotel." North of Little Valley street :— Thomas Clin-" 
ton ; Peterson ; Elias Hook ; Hector Mcintosh, comb- 
maker; Strieker, tailor; Crawford, shoemaker; David 
Shultz, wagon-maker; John Rowe; Jonathan Hen- 
drixon, carpenter; Peter Lichlider; and Stamer. 

Mill street, now Centre street, was then a narrow, 
crooked road through a commons, with but few 
houses scattered here and there. At the comer of 
Centre and Baltimore streets was Shryer's tan yard, 
on the north west, and the Lutheran Church on the 
northeast.. At the corner of Bedford street, where 
the City Hall now stands was the house of John 
Clise. On the northwest corner of Bedford and 
Centre was Startzman's tan yard, and on the north- 
east comer was Thomas Thistle's house, a tavern. 
The Catholic Church stood on the ground now 
occupied by the Carroll Hall school building, adjoin- 
ing the present Church grounds. Immediately south 
of it was James White's house, and across the street 
lived Peter Louderbaugh. James Bean occupied a 
house a few hundred yards north, and above Little 
Valley road were two other houses, one of which wa^ 
the house of Mrs. Waugh, a midwife. 

Bedford street, or, as it was then called, Blocher 
street, boasted a very limited number of buildings. 
On the south side, near the corner of Centre, lived 


Mrs. Willison and James Moore; on the ground now 
occupied by Mrs. Henry Korns' residence was the 
house of Francis Deems; in a field, (corner of 
Decatur street) lived Abraham Simkins. On the 
north side of the street, where Jesse Korns now lives, 
was a block of small houses known as " Berry's 
Row." A short distance above were James P. 
Carleton's and John Lingo's, and next Eckles' 
Pottery, George Blocher's, (house still standing,) 
Jacob Shuck's and John McMahon's. 

A grist mill stood at the mouth of the race, where 
the wharf of the Consolidation Coal Company is 
located. This mill was built somewhere about 1800, 
by Peter Devecmon, at a cost of $8,000, and was 
regarded as one of the finest mills in the State. It 
was bought by Patrick Murdoch, but payments not 
being made a law suit resulted after Murdoch's death. 

These embraced all the houses in the town, with 

the exception, possibly of three or four. The whole 

number of houses was one hundred and thirty-eight. 

The taxable property amounted to $22,829, according 

to the assessment, which was put at very low figures. 

The following is a list of the names of property 

holders, and the amount with which each was 
assessed : 

John Anderson $1,080 

Hannenns Alricks 25 

Robert Armstrong 25 

Christian Albright 100 

Charles F. Broadhag 290 

John L. Bogh * 15 

Mary Ann Boyd's heirs 330 

Nehemiah Basnet t*s heirs 450 

Peter Bamwart 200 

Margaret k Elizabeth Beard. 30 

George Blocher 252 

John Bridenhart 60 

Daniel C. Brant*s heirs $ 115 

Jacob Blocher 360 

John C. BeattyXheirs 225 

Andrew Bruce 12 

Upton Brace and J Cox 60 

Jeremiah Berry 80 

C. F. Broad hag and George 

Magruder 15 

Robert Beaver 100 

Upton Bruce 700 

Thomas Beall, of Samuel 1,815 

Hanson Briscoe 175 




Jonathan Cox $ 134 

Dennis Corbet 20 

George Clark's heirs 40 

Absalom Chambers. 50 

David Cox 235 

George Clice's heirs 100 

Zadock Clark 40 

Frederick Christman 80 

David Cook 15 

Christian Deetz's heirs 125 

Frederick Deems 60 

Mary Davis' heirs 37 

Francis Deakins 30 

Grafton Duvall 25 

Solomon Davis 80 

Hannah Entler's heirs 40 

Leonard Extine's heirs 50 

Michael Fisher 100 

George Funke 175 

Abrahan Fawn 205 

John Folk 240 

Jacob Fair 75 

James Glenn 25 

John Graham 7^ 

Peter Gephart Ill 

Peter Geary 70 

J&mes Hook 75 

George Hebb 230 

Jacob Holitzell 465 

George Hoffman 230 

David Hoffman, Sr 817 

James Hendrixson 90 

John L. Hook 71 

John Hunter 30 

John Hoblitzell 200 

Daniel Haner 80 

George M. Houx 15 

Beall Howard 115 

John Hoye 485 

George Hoblitzell 80 

Jonathan Hendrixson 40 

Clement Engle 15 

Michael Kershner 65 

Nicholas Koontz 105 

Lawrence Klemmer's heirs... 50 

Joseph Kelley's heirs 40 

Christian Kealhoover 10 

John Kim e's heirs 56 

Jacob Roms 180 

H. Kornsand J. Witt 80 

James Kinkead 200 

Samuel Lowdermilk's heirs... 6 

Robert Larimere 15 

John Lynn's heirs 55 

Peter Lowdermilk .$ 125 

William Lamar 240 

David Lynn 30 

Patrick Murdoch 205 

John McCleary's heirs 40 

George Murrow 140 

Mary Myers 30 

Jacob Myers' heirs 96 

William Moore 70 

Robert McCleary,Sr 75 

William McMahon 699 

Henry Mattingly 65 

Henry McCleary 15 

Nancy Mcintosh 35 

John Myers 50 

Andrew McCleary's heirs 50 

John McKim, Jr 80 

Clement Masters 45 

John Milbourn 50 

Isaac Mantz 25 

Robert McCleary, Jr 120 

Francis Madore 50 

Henry McKinley 210 

Mary Murdoch 285 

Jane Mcintosh 10 

Jacob Neff. 598 

William Osborn 97 

Richard J. Orms 15 

John Patterson 85 

Joseph Poison 65 

George Payne's heirs 75 

Thomas Price's heirs 10 

Edward Pannell 15 

Roger Perry 600 

John Peter.". 80 

Martin Rizer, Jr 135 

Anthony Reintzell 15 

Elnathan Russell 60 

Thomas Reid's heirs 75 

John Ryan 75 

William Roberts 40 

Martin Rizer's Sr., heirs 155 

George Rizer, of Martin 200 

James Robardent's heirs 30 

Martin Rizer of Mathiaa 15 

Jacob Shuck 70 

George Shuck 120 

John J. Seiss 90 

Robert Selby's heirs 10 

Gilbert Strong 35 

Henry Startzman 208 

Michael Soyster 151 

John Shryer 210 

James Scott 270 




Bickeson Simkins $ 175 

Patrick Sullivan 195 

Walter Slicer / 1,025 

John Scott 200 

James Searight 40 

Joseph Sbnmate 40 

John Seariirht 120 

Samuel Smith's heirs 230 

John Shuck 50 

Benjamin Stoddert's heirs 30 

George Thistle 270 

James Timmons 140 

John Tumlinson 10 

Josiah Thompson 15 

Samuel Thomas 15 

Ebenezer Vowell $ 474 

Benjamin G. Vaughn 75 

John B. Wright 65 

Henry Wineow 170 

John Walls 60 

Samuel Walls 40 

Sarah Willison's heirs 30 

Michael Wire 125 

Charles Worthington 20 

Benjamin Wiley 70 

. H. and Eli Williams 20 

John Wickard 50 

Geor*fe W. Yantz 10 

Total $22,829 

The progress of the war of 1812-14, and the 
arrival off our coasts of a large number of British, 
who threatened the National Capital, as well as 
Baltimore, led the President to issue a proclamation 
on the 4th of July, 1814, calling upon the Governors 
of the various States for militia. Maryland was 
required to furnish one Major-General, three Brigadier 
Generals; one Deputy Quartermaster-General, one 
Assistant Adjutant-General, and six regiments, to 
consist of 600 artillerists, and 5,400 infantry. The 
Democrats and Federalists in the State were divided 
upon the war question, the Federalists calling them- 
selves the " Friends of Peace," and demanding that 
the government should confine itself to a defensive 
war, and make no pretense of war upon Canada. In 
the fall of 1814, they elected their candidates in this 
county, to the Legislature, their ticket being made 
up of Jesse Tomlinson, William McMahon, William 
Hilleary, and Jacob Lantz. The Democrats, or "war 
hawks," as they were called, nominated Thomas 
Cresap, Thomas Greenwell, Benjamin Tomlinson and 
Upton Bruce. 

Allegany's quota towards filling the State requisi- 




tion was filled, there being a considerable degree of 
enthusiasm manifested. Two companies of infantry 
were formed in the county, one under Captain 
William McLaughlin, and the other under Captain 
Thomas Blair. The first was made up in the lower 
part of the county, while Captain Blair's company 
was composed largely of citizens of the town. 

Captain McLaughlin's company went to Baltimore 
in August, and joined the First Regiment of Maryland 
Militia, under Colonel John Ragan, on the 11th of 
August, 1814, and served until October 13th, when 
it was mustered out, returned to the county, and 
was disbanded. The following is a list of the names 
of members of 



Wm. McLaiij(hlin.... 

James Hook , 

George Shuck 

Frederick Rice , 

Robert Little 

Frederick Deems 

John Porter 

James M. White 

Jacob Waggoner 

Rezio Hook. 

Daniel Poland 

John Waltz 

William Street 

Joseph S. Stafford.... , 

John North 

Busej John....'. , 

Brown Benjamin.... 

Bryan James 

Barr David 

Barnes Nathaniel.... 

Bevans Michael 

Bevans James 

Banks Samuel 

Beeman Thomas 

Bryan Nathaniel 

Broadwater William. 
Boyer James 


Ist Lieut 
2d Lieut. 






















Busey Charles 

Burrows Elias 

Clabaugh Martin; 

Connelly Bernard 

Clemmer Lewis 

jCox David 

Chapman Samuel 

Creamer John 

Clark Jacob 

jConnelly Edward 

.Crawford Samuel 

'Davis Isaiah 

jDeverbaugh Benjamin.... 

JEntler Michael 

Erb Joseph 

Garey Frederick 

Gowar Nicolas 

Hoblitzell Samuel 

Hager George 

Isenhart Jacob 

'Jadwin Thomas 

Jolley Beniamin 

Johnson William 

'Johnson John 

'Jolley William 

Kennedy Robert R 

Kemptnn James 








Kinsey David 

Lanlz John 

Lace? Benjamin H. 

Letters Daniel 

Loar George 

Lee James 

Lee Jacob 

Lee John 

Love Archibald 

Laughridge John.... 

Lee Frederick 

Morrow James 

Martin John 

Mclntire John 

Markee John 

Mjers Peter 

Moore James 

Miller George , 

Michaels Abraham. 

Madore Francis 

NefiT John, Jr 

Northcraft M.... 

Perrin Joseph 

Pax ton Joseph 

Pazton William 


- do 



Porter Henry , 

Elice George 

Elesoner Arjalon 

Rhodes Daniel 

Russell John 

Rice Frederick 

Robinette Elizophr. 

Riley Thomas , 

Sterner Jacob 

Shellhorn Henry..... 

Spencer Moses 

Sherry James 

Spill man Peter 

Saylor Jacob 

Schnpper Jacob.... 

Shuck John 

Stoyer Absalom.... 
Tumbuster Jacob... 
Willson Jonathan.. 

Willson Isaac 

White Samuel 

Willson Joshua 

Whalley Levi 

Willison Amos. ..... 

Zumbuly Jacob 



The Company formed in Cumberland was made 
up of excellent material^ the organization having 
been effected some months before. By frequent 
drills, and the most friendly rivalry amongst the 
members, a state of discipline and proficiency had 
been arrived at, which put them upon a footing with 
veterans, and Captain Blair was justly proud of his 
command. The following is a list of the ofl&cers 
and men of the company, which marched to 
Baltimore in the latter part of August, and was in 
the service of the government as part of the 
national army from September 2d to November 6, 
1814, which time was spent at Camp Diehl, near 

Baltimore : 







Blair Thomas 

McAtee Walter 

^jowdermilk Samuel. 

Shaw Wm 

Hinkle Alpheus 

Shock Jacob 

Houx George M 

Delouhrey John 

Strahan Robert 

Keath James 

Taney James 

McKinsey* Moses.... 
Clinton* Thomas.... 

Allen John 

Bernard James 

Bowlie Jacob 

Backer John 

Burns James 

Britton Nathaniel.... 

Bruce Francis 

Beall Alpheus B 

Burgess Alfred 

Bumsby William B.. 

Broadwater Charles. 

Britt Robert 

Cox John 

Coddington Robert.., 

Case John 

Clark Zadock 

Conrade Michael 

Dart John 

Devore Aaron 

Deaking John 

Drain Thomas 

Drain James 

Elbin Reuben 

Fisher John 

Fling John 

Foley John 

Forsyth Joseph 

Fryer George 

Frazee Elisha 

Gross Adam 

Griffy John 

Golding Wm 

Gordon William 

Hoffman Jacob 

Hoff Frederick 


1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
1st Sergt. 
2d Sergt. 
3d Sergt. 
4th Sergt 
2d Corpl. 
3d Corpl. 
4th Corpl 


































Humphrey John Private- 

Harding John do 

Hoffman John J do 

Hall Solomon do 

Hendrixon Thomas • do 

Irons James do 

Irons Thomas do 

Knott Wm do 

Kight Cornelius do 

Kennedy James do 

Kelly William do 

Kelly Joseph do 

Korns Charles do 

Kelly Moses do 

Kelly Samuel do 

Layfoot John do 

Lowery John do 

Long George do 

Milhollaud Stephen do 

Moor John do 

Moore Gabriel M do 

Martin Joseph do 

Massor John do 

Martz Henry do 

Murphy James 1st do 

Murphy James 2d do 

Morrison Arthur do 

Miller Godfrey do 

McKinsey Jesse do 

Mumau David do 

McCartney James do 

Majors William do 

Morrison George W do 

Morris Elisha do 

Neptune William do 

Newman John C do 

Newman George A do 

^orth craft Edward do 

Newton Athanias i do 

PotterJohn do 

Porter Joseph do 

Poland John do 

Potter David do 

Plummer Thomas do 

Parkenson William do 

Peters George do 

Peterman John do 

Riland Thomas ....j do 

*MoM0 McEineej »nd Thomas Clinton bad both served in the Bevoltttionary ^nny. They 
lived in Cumberland, and on all public demonstrations were aecttstomed to eome oat on tl»e 
otreets and play the drum and flfe. 









Ravenscraft James 


Shockej John 


Riley Elisha 

Shelhouse John 


Roads Jacob 

Tasker Elisha 


Rizer John 

Thrasher Peter 


Stephen William 

Tomlinson Jesse 


Siford David 

Trull Abner A 

N do 

Savatre Samuel 

Tavlor Mai 


Sapp Adam 

Vansickle Zachariah 

Wolfe Jacob 

White James T 

Wilson William 


Shepherd John 


Spiker Adam 


Snimer Jacob 


Smith Henry 

Woodroujrh Samuel 

Winzett William 


Sbirdiff Lewis 


Stanton Joshua 

The officers of the First Regiment Maryland Militia, were as 
follows : 

The officer in command at Gamp Diehl was Major General Samuel 
Smith. John Ragan, Jr., Colonel. Stephen Steiner, Lieutenant-Colonel. 
John Blackford, Major 1st. Benjamin G. Cole, Major 2d. Nathan 
Cromwell, Adjutant. John Markle, Quarter-Master. George W. Boerstler, 
Paymaster. William Hillearj, Sergeant Arthur Nelson, 1st Mate. 
Daniel Fitzhugh, 2d Mate. Christian C. Fechtig, Adjutant. Joab 
Doggett, Hospital Steward. Christian Baker, Sergeant Major. Adam 
Fisher, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

At the January session of the Legislature an act 
was passed authorizing George Thistle, Samuel 
Smith, John Scott, Jacob Lantz, John Folck, Peter 
Lowdermilk, and William Lamar, Sr., to hold a 
lottery for the purpose of raising $2,000 to be applied 
to the purchase of a fire engine for the town. 

In addition to the names of residents heretofore 
given, in 1814, the following persons were engaged 
in business in the town, viz : — James M. White, 
saddles and harness; John Gephart, auctioneer; W. 
T. A. Pollock, saddles, &c.; Dr. Beadj^ drugs, &c.; 
Wm. Houx, chairmaker ; John Milbum, auctioneer ; 
John Folck, warehouse ; Zadoc Clark, hat factory ; 


Robert M'Guire, watchmaker ; Dr. Veirs, physician ; 
Miss Bradley, teacher. 

The Perry House, just across the river, in West 
Virginia, was built by Greorge Calmes, in 1816, and 
afterwards passed into possession of Roger Perry. 

In 1811 the Legislature had established " The 
Cumberland Bank of Allegany," to be located in 
Cumberland, the capital stock to be $200,000, and 
to be divided into four thousand shares of fifty dollars 
each, and the stockholders to be exempt from any 
liability beyond their stock. The bank was to be 
managed by eight directors and a president. 

When the bank issued its notes, by some misun- 
derstanding as to the orthography of that much 
abused word "Allegany," the engraver spelled it 
^'Alleghany," and as the notes had been put in 
circulation before the error was discovered, in order 
to avoid the expense of new plates, as well as the 
inconvenience of calling in the circulation, an act 
was secured at the June session of the Legislature, 
in 1812, changing the name to " The Cumberland 
Bank of Alleghany." 

The ofl&cers of the bank, chosen at its first election 
were, Upton Bruce, President; and M. Wallace, 

In 1814, in consequence of the war, the Eastern 
banks suspended specie payments, and on the 17th 
of September, 1814, the Cumberland Bank followed 
their example. 

About lgl2, the first newspaper in Cumberland 
was established, by Samuel Magill, and was called 
the '^Allegany Freeman." It was Democratic in 


politicB, and was edited in a very vigorous manner. 

On the 13th of January, 1814, William Brown 
established the "Cumberland Gazette," a sixteen- 
column Federalist paper, published every Thursday. 

The oflSces of these two papers were located on 
Mechanic street, near Baltimore street. Their 
columns were given up entirely to war news, politics 
and advertisements. Local matters were wholly 
ignored, and the most ojQfensive personalities freely 
indulged in, together with a great many high-flown 
patriotic sentences. 

In the organization of the Maryland Militia, the 
50th regiment was ordered by the Council to be 
organized in Allegany County, and the following 
officers were appointed : Thomas Greenwell, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ; John Folck, Major ; Captains, John 
McElfish, Dennis Beall, Conrad Corbus, Joseph 
France, and Thomas Porter; Adjutant, Levi Hil- 
leary. It does not appear that they acquired any 
great proficiency, or that they ever held even so much 
as the annual "cornstalk" drill. 

September 27th, the town was brilliantly illumi- 
nated in honor of the gallant victory won by Captain 
MacDonough, on Lake Champlain, wherein he 
vanquished a British fleet greatly his superior. 
Processions paraded the streets, singing and shouting, 
and the entire population took part in the celebra- 

The town was incorporated in January, 1815, at 
which time the Legislature passed an "Act to provide 
for the appointment of Commissioners, for the regula- 
tion and improvement of the Town of Cumberland, 


in Allegany County, and to incorporate the same/' 
This act provided that five judicious and discreet 
persons residing in the town, and holding real prop- 
erty therein should be elected by ballot on the first 
Monday of June, 1816, and on the same day everj- 
year thereafter, at the Court House, by the free white 
male citizens of the age of twenty-one years, who had 
resided in the town one whole year next preceding 
the election, and that the five persons having the 
highest number of votes should be declared elected. 
These Commissioners were ordered at the first 
election to choose one of their own number as Chief 
Burgess for that year. They were required to meet 
at least four times each year, on the first Monday of 
May, July, October and December, and oftener if 
necessary, to attend to the business of the town. 
They were incorporated under the name of "The 
Chief Burgess and the other Commissioners of the 
Town of Cumberland." The limit of taxation for 
town purposes was fixed at one dollar for every one 
hundred dollars' worth of property. They were 
authorized to employ a clerk and a bailifi*, who were 
to receive a reasonable compensation. 

In 1816 an additional act was passed by the Legis- 
lature, appointing Roger Perry, William McMahon 
and John Scott commissioners to lay off, locate, mark, 
bound and number into lots, streets, lanes and alleys, 
the land lying between Flat street and the Potomac 
river, and between Smallwood and Chase streets, but 
exempted from city taxation all the lots thus laid off 
until they should be improved. 

At the January session of the Legislature, in 1816, 

1816.-] THE GLASS FACTORY. 303 

a petition was granted for the incorporation of the 
Cumberland Water Company, the object being to 
introduce soft water into the town. The Company 
was authorized to raise a capital of f 10,000, by the 
issue of 500 shares of stock at f 20 per share. The 
subscription books were to be opened under the care 
of John Scott, Peter Lowdermilk, Samuel Smith, 
George Thistle, David Schriver and Michael C. 
Sprigg, who were to have ample powers and privi- 
leges. The project was never carried into eflfect. 

On the first Monday in June, 1816, the first elec- 
tion in the town was held for Commissioners, and 
the following persons were chosen : David Shriver, 
Jr., George Thistle, Henry McKinley, John Hoye 
and John Scott. These Commissioners met at once, 
and elected from their own number John Scott to be 
Chief Burgess. Thomas Pollard was then appointed 
Clerk to the body. 

Early in 1816, Messrs. Roger and Thomas Perry 
erected a glass factory, on a lot of ground near the 
site of the residence of Mr. John B. Widener. They 
found sand suitable for their purposes on Will's 
Mountain, in the vicinity of the Narrows. The 
first glass they produced was from a coal fire, and 
proved to be very green. This blast was worked up 
into green bottles. Wood was then used for fuel, 
and some very excellent glass turned out. The 
manufactured article was sold in the towns East- 
ward, as well as in Pittsburgh. Mrs. Grace Neill 
has in her possession at present several pieces of 
glass made at this factory, which she carefully 
preserves as interesting relics. The management of 


this enterprise did not yield the expected results^ and 
after the lapse of a few years, about 1819, the Messrs. 
Perry felt compelled to abandon it, they having 
sustained heavy losses, and feeling unable to make 
any further ventures. Some portions of the old 
building are still standing. 

The projected establishment of slack water naviga- 
tion on the Potomac river, between tidewater and 
Cumberland, led to the most extravagant expectations 
of commercial progress in Cumberland, and owners 
of lots bordering on the river expected to realize 
fortunes in the sale of their property. Several 
persons, anticipating heavy trade by the new water 
route to be opened up by the Potomac Company, 
erected warehouses for storing goods, intending to 
engage in the forwarding business. Amongst others. 
John Folck built a large brick warehouse on the 
river, bank, near where Mr. A. L. Miller's residence 
now stands. The failure of the project rendered the 
speculation unprofitable, but the warehouse was used 
some years afterwards as a warehouse and store 
room at a time when a considerable business was 
done on the river in transporting coal and merchandise 
by means of flat boats. 

By an act of the Legislature of 1812 a considerable 
sum of money had been appropriated for the improve- 
ment of the road from Cumberland to Winding Ridge, 
and the old pike leading from the mouth of Will's 
Creek through Sandy Gap to the old Braddock Road 
was built. The ford at the foot of Creek street was 
passable and frequently used, as repeated disaster 
overtook the bridge over the stream. In 1820 the 


bridge was carried away by a freshet, and the county 
authorities, determined to provide against any proba- 
ble contingency of the kind in the future, after 
examining the bridge architecture of the period, con- 
cluded to erect a suspension bridge of iron chains, 
upon a plan invented by James Finley, of Fayette 
County, Pa, in 1796. Mr. Finley's were the first 
suspension bridges introduced into the United States, 
and he had already built several spans of 200 feet.* 
The County Commissioners contracted with Valentine 
Shockey to construct one of these bridges over the 
Creek, and in 1820 the Chain Bridge was built. The 
piers were single locust posts, there being two at 
each end, braced together at the top. The span was 
115i feet clear. Two chains stretched from one side 
of the Creek to the other; the deflection was one- 
sixth of the span. "The double links, of li inch 
square iron, were ten feet long. The centre link was 
horizontal, and at the level of the floor; and at its 
ends were stirruped the two central transverse 
girders. From the ends of this central link the 
chains were carried in straight lines to the tops of 
the posts, 25 feet high, which served as piers or 
towers. The back stays were carried away straight, 
at the same angle as the cables; and each end was 
confined to four buried stones of about half a cubic 
yard each. The floor was only wide enough for a 
single line of vehicles. All the transverse girders 
were ten feet apart, and supported longitudinal joists, 
to which the floor was spiked. There were no 
restrictions as to travel; but lines of carts and wagons, 

*Tr»atwiD«'« Clnl Eogincen' Pocket Book. 



in close succession, and heavily loaded with coal, 
stone, iron, &c., crossed it almost daily, together with 
droves of cattle in full run. The slight hand-railing 
of iron was hinged, so as not to be bent by the 
undulations of the bridge. Six-horse wagons were 
frequently driven across in a trot. The iron was of 
the old-fashioned charcoal, of full thirty tons per 
square inch ultimate strength. The united cross- 
section of the two double links was 7.56 square inches, 
which at thirty tons per square inch, gives 227 tons 
for their ultimate strength, or say 76 tons with a 
safety of 3." The work was all done by Mr. Shockey 
in his own shop, and was of the most durable and 
satisfactory character. Amongst the several work- 
men who were engaged with Mr. Shockey in building 
the bridge was Godfrey Richards, father of Mr. Isaac 
Richards, one of the old citizens of the town. In 1831, 
several of the posts or piers gave way, and Jonathan 
Witt was employed by the Commissioners to replace 
them. This was done by the substitution of new 
and heavier locust posts, the work when completed 
being declared more permanent than ever before. 

In 1822 George Bruce was SheriflFof the county. 

In September of 1823 the "Maryland Advocate," 
a Democratic paper, was established by John M. 
Buchanan, the "Allegany Freeman" having been dis- 

In October, at the town election, Samuel Magill was 
chosen Chief Burgess, and John McNeill, Jr., was 
appointed Clerk. An ordinance was passed by the 
Commissioners requiring all property owners on 
Mechanic street to pave their sidewalks. 

1824.] r.OCAL INCIDENTS. 307 

At the county election on October 1st, the follow- 
ing persons were elected to represent the county in 
the Legislature, viz: George Bruce, Michael C. 
Sprigg, John McMahon and John McHenry. The 
whole vote polled was 3,777. 

November 30. — Captain Thomas Beall, of Samuel, 
proprietor of the town, and an old revolutionary 
soldier, died at an advanced age, highly respected. 

February 24, 1824. — The Legislature passed an act 
limiting the levy of taxes in Cumberland, for town 
purposes, to fifty cents on each one hundred dollars 
of assesBable property. 

April 1. — James Black refitted and opened the 
tavern on south Mechanic street, near Creek street, 
and called it the "Columbian Inn." 

The Judges of the Orphans' Court were Thomas 
Cresap, John McNeill, and William McMahon. 

The Levy Court was composed of Benjamin Tom- 
linson, Samuel Coddington, John Burbridge, George 
W. Glaze, William Price, (of Westemport,) Meshack 
Frost and Walter McAtee. 

The town officers chosen were. Chief Burgess, 
Roger Perry; Commissioners, Peter Garey, John 
Boose, John Gephart, Jr., and Gustavus Beall; Clerk, 
C. Heck. Tax levied, 20 cents on each $100. 

May 26. — General Andrew Jackson, arrived in 
Cumberland, on his way from Washington to his 
home, and while here visited the site of old Fort 
Cumberland, and walked over the ground. 

A remarkable accident occurred in the summer of 
1824, the result of which was little less than 
miraculous. At the time of the building of the Jail 


and Court House, about the beginning of the century, 
the want of good drinking water led the Commis- 
sioners to determine upon sinking a well. Accordingly, 
in 1805, they appropriated the sum of £200 for that 
purpose, and Upton Bruce and Roger Perry were 
appointed a commission to have the work done. 
They selected a spot just in front of the Court House 
yard, on Prospect street, and sunk a well ninety feet 
in depth, which was walled up with stone, and 
furnished with a large wheel and two buckets. The 
water obtained was excellent. At the time above 
indicated, Belle McMahon, a little daughter of 
William McMahon, about five years of age, was play- 
ing about the mouth of the well, when suddenly she 
lost her balance and fell headlong into it. A number 
of persons at once ran to the spot. The light 
clothing of the child could be seen on the surface of 
the water, but every one was convinced that she 
must have been instantly killed. Her mother, 
frantic with grief, could with difficulty be restrained 
from plunging in after her child. Dr. 8. P. Smith 
was amongst the first to come to the rescue. He 
procured from the jail a long rope, with grappling 
hooks, which was used for recovering the buckets 
when they were lost, and with this he caught the 
little girl, and drew her to the surface. She was 
apparently lifeless, but the prompt use of restoratives 
soon brought her to ccTnsciousness, and it was then 
discovered that she had sustained no injuries what- 
ever, beyond a slight abrasion of the skin on the 
forehead. The diameter of the well is not greater 
than four feet, and she must have fallen like a plum- 

1824.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 309 

met to have escaped being dashed to pieces against the 
rocky sides, in her fearful descent. This well was 
covered over and converted into a pit for draining 
the Academy, in 1876. 

During the summer a military company was 
formed under the name of "Allegany Blues." The 
officers chosen were, H. B. Tomlinson, Captain; 
Thomas Dowden, First Lieutenant, and S. M. Keene, 

August 26. — Hon. John C. Calhoun, Secretary of 
War, and Major Roberdeau, of the Topographical 
Engineers, arrived, and after tarrying a few hours, 
and dining, went west along Will's Creek, to view 
the summit level of the contemplated route of the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

A line of coaches to run between Baltimore, 
Washington and Wheeling was established during 
the summer, by Reeside, Moore, Stockton & Co. 
Stages left the two Eastern cities named at 2 A. m., 
Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays, and made the 
trip to Wheeling in 3i days. An accommodation 
stage left every Monday, Wednesday, Friday and 
Saturday, and went through by daylight, in four 

At the election for Congressmen in October, 
Thomas C. Worthington was elected over John 
Lee. The vote was as follows: Allegany County, 
Worthington, 669; Lee, 510. Washington County, 
Worthington, 2,095; Lee, 1,446. Frederick County, 
Worthington, 1,558; Lee, 1,533. Total, Worthing- 
ton, 4,322; Lee, 3,489. 

The candidates for the General Assembly were 


John A. Hofiman, John McMahon, Jacob Lantz, 
Lewis F. Klipstine, John McNeill, Thomas Cresap, 
and Samuel Thomas. The first four named were 

William McMahon was Sheriff. 

Samuel McGill, the Postmaster, resigned, and 
James Whitehead was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

December 1. — ^A post office was established at 
Flintstone, and Walter Slicer appointed Postmaster. 

Robert Kennedy was at this time principal of the 
Allegany County Academy. 

February 2, 1825. — An act was passed by the 
Legislature, repealing previous acts, and giving 
the Commissioners of the town enlarged police 

February 5. — ^The following persons were appointed 
Justices of the Orphans' Court: Thomas Cresap, 
John McNeill and Robert Swann. 

Justices of the Levy Court: Benjamin Tomlinson, 
Samuel Coddington, John Burbridge, William Price, 
Walter McAtee, Valentine Hoffman, Benjamin 
Robinson, Archibald Thistle, and George Rhinehart. 

March 10. — A stage bound West, when four miles 
east of Cumberland, upset, and John S. Dugan, 
proprietor of a line of stages between Wheeling and 
Zanesville, was so badly hurt that he died in a few 

The mail stages during this summer left Cumber- 
land on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays at 6 a. 
m,, for the East; and Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays at 4 p. m., for the West. The through rates 
of fare were as follows : 


From Wheeling to Washington, Pa $ 2.00 

'* Washington to Union town, Pa 2.25 

'^ Uniontown to Gamberland 4.00 

** Cumberland to Hagerstown ... 5.00 

*^ Hagerstown to Frederick 2.00 

" Frederick to Baltimore 3.50 

Distance 267 miles. Throutrb $18.75 

Sunday, May 8. — George H. Drake and Dennis 
M. Athey went hunting, eight miles north of 
Cumberland, and after a day of amusement were 
returning home, when a dispute arose as to who 
should carry the gun, Drake threatened to shoot 
Athey, and drew the gun up to his side, when it was 
discharged, the load entering Athey 's body and 
killing him instantly. Drake reported the facts, but 
avowed the killing was wholly accidental, and that 
he was jesting when he made the threat. He was 
arrested, but, on the 6th of July, made his escape 
from jail. A reward of $50 was offered for his 

At this time a considerable amount of business 
was done on the Potomac River, in the way of 
transporting coal, flour, &c., by means of suitable 
boats. Coal was loaded on flat boats at Cumberland, 
and whenever the stage of water would permit they 
were floated down to Georgetown. The place 
o( loading was the ground now occupied by the City 
Water Works. When the trade was first established 
these flat boats were only capable of transporting 300 
bushels of coal, but as the river became known, and 
experience was gained, their size was gradually 
increased until they were given a capacity of 1,500 


"Keel" boats were also built, sharp at either end, 
Mrith keel and stem posts. Their greatest length 
was 70 feet, and their average width 10 feet, their 
freightage being from 100 to 125 barrels of flour. 

These boats were manned by a crew of four: 
steersman, head oarsman and two side oarsmen. 
The boat was floated into the current, and when 
necessary was propelled by the side oarsmen, by 
means of long sweep oars, the steersman and head 
oarsman being required to guide it through the 
difficult channel. The season for boating generally 
opened in February, and continued usually until 
the first of May. The boats occasionally ran during 
the fall freshets. The round trip (from Cumberland 
to Georgetown and return) occupied from twelve 
to eighteen days. The down trip occupied only 
three days, but the return was both laborious and 
painful, as most of the distance the boat was 
propelled by means of poles, which the men placed 
against their shoulders; and on their arrival in 
Cumberland, frequently their shoulders would be raw 
and sore. 

This enterprise was attended with many difficulties 
and risks, and the wreck of a boat and the loss of its 
cargo was a common occurrence. The devious 
channel, hidden rocks, and frequent islands were 
serious obstacles. One of the most disastrous places 
on the river was "Cumberland Falls," just where the 
dam now is. Many boats were lost here, and several 
men drowned. The Potomac Company had done 
something towards lessening the dangers by planting 
signal posts to mark the channel, and had also 

1826.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 313 

erected stone walls as courses, some of which may yet 
be seen a short distance below Cumberland. Most of 
the flat boats taken below, loaded with coal, were not 
returned, but were broken up, at Georgetown, and 
the lumber sold. 

On the 2d of March, John Oglebay, who went 
down as steersman on a coal boat, was drowned five 
miles below, by the capsizing of the boat. He left a 
wife and eight children. 

July 1. — Judges Orphans' Court: Thomas Cresap, 
John McNeill and Robert Swann. 

Justices of Levy Court: Benjamin Tomlinson, 
Samuel Coddington, William Price, Upton Bruce, 
Martin Rizer, Benjamin Robinson, Archibald Thistle, 
William McLaughlin, Valentine Hofiman and Walter 

July 29. — Between 9 and 10 p. M. a fire broke out 
in Gustavus Beall's large grist mill; the small mill, 
distillery, two store houses, two stables, and several 
smaller buildings, as well as a frame store house on 
the opposite side of the street, belonging to Hoblitzell 
& Payne, and several other houses, were destroyed. 
Beall's loss was $10,000; Hoblitzell & Payne's loss 
$3,000. Beall saved the goods in his store, and 
opened again in John Scott's house, next to Searight's 

Suspicions were entertained that James Palmer, a 

sort of desperado, living some distance from town, on 

the Virginia side of the river, had set fire to the 

mills, as he had been heard to make threats that he 

would bum the town. A party of citizens went 

quietly to Palmer's house and arrested him. A lot 


of stolen goods was found in his possession, and he 
was indicted for arson and theft, on which charges he 
was tried and found guilty, and sentenced to fifteen 
years in the penitentiary, fifteen months of which 
time was to be passed in solitary confinement. 

At the election for Congressmen, in October, the 
candidates were Michael C. Sprigg, John Lee, 
Thomas Kennedy and Samuel Hughes. The vote 
in the county was as follow^: Sprigg, 1,030; Lee, 
282; Kennedy, 41; Hughes, 12. Total vote of the 
county, 1,365; in Cumberland, 388; in Frostburg, 
205; Flintstone, 137. The vote in the Congressional 
District footed up 3,085 for Sprigg; 2,675 for Lee; 
671 for Kennedy, and 667 for Hughes. 

A vote was taken at the same time upon the 
proposition to establish primary schools in the county, 
which was defeated by a vote of 1,031 against 249. 

The delegates chosen to the Assembly were Wm. 
Ridgely, Jacob Hoblitzell, Robert Armstrong and 
Wm. Shaw. 

In June, 1827, the following justices of the 
Orphan's Court were appointed: Thomas Cresap, 
John McNeill and Robert Armstrong. 

Justices of Levy Court: Benjamin Tomlinson, 
Samuel Coddington, William Price, Valentine HoflF- 
man, Archibald Thistle, William McLaughlin, Walter 
McAtee and Francis Reid. 

July 27. — A fire broke out in "Berry's Row," on 
Bedford street, and three houses were destroyed, two 
of which were occupied by Rev. N. B. Little and 
Samuel Magill. J. P. Carleton's house took fire 
several times, but was saved. 

1828.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 315 

October 2. — An election held, at which Richard 
Beall was elected Sheriff, and John McNeill, Jr., 
John A. Hoffman, Jacob Holitzell and George 
McCuUoh, Delegates to the General Assembly. 

In the spring of 1828, an eccentric character, by 
the name of Harris, made his appearance in the 
town, and began to preach on the street comers, 
prophesying a terrible calamity to fall upon the 
people. Harris was a middle aged man, and a 
Quaker, of good physical proportions, quiet demeanor, 
and humble manners. His home was somewhere 
in the neighborhood of Leesburg, Va., and he was 
evidently of unsound mind. After sojourning for a 
while he took his departure, but year after year he 
made his reappearance, and began disrobing himself 
and parading the streets in a nude state. On one 
occasion he suddenly made his appearance in one of 
the churches, in this condition, and walked up the 
aisle almost to the pulpit, before the congregation 
recovered from its surprise suflBciently to eject him. 
For this exploit he was sent to jail, but was shortly 
afterwards released. His propensity for walking the 
streets naked led to his chastisement on several 
occasions, and this infliction he bore without a mur- 
mur, saying his mission was to suffer and to warn 
the people. It was finally resolved that he should 
be permitted to have his walk out, the hope being 
entertained that he would then regard his mission 
as fulfilled, and cease to annoy the public. He then 
paraded Mechanic street from Bedford to the southern 
end of the thoroughfare, loudly proclaiming a great 
evil near at hand, and in earnest tones invoking the 


inhabitants to prepare for it. Upon undertaking to 
repeat this journey, shortly afterwards, he was 
arrested and sent home to his friends who thereafter 
guarded him carefully. The visits of this singular 
man extended over a period of nearly five years, and 
shortly after their cessation the great fire of 1833 
took place, which is said to have consumed all the 
houses along the route he so persistently paraded. 

In 1828, the Cumberland Hotel and Stage Office 
were kept by Jacob Fechtig. 

February 8. — "The Civilian" was established 
by Samuel Charles, as the organ of the firiends of 
Henry Clay, and was given its name of " The Civilian " 
to indicate the sentiment of its originators and 
supporters, in favor of a civilian for the Presidency as 
against Andrew Jackson, a military man. 

During the spring of this year business on the 
river was very brisk, over fifty boats leaving in a 
single week, loaded with coal, flour, bacon, butter, 
&c., for Harpers Ferry and Georgetown. Some 
2,500 barrels of flour were shipped. 

May 29. — The town was brilliantly illuminated in 
honor of the passage of the bill by Congress appro- 
priating $1,000,000 towards the construction of the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. A handsome arch was 
thrown across Mechanic street, at the comer of 
Bedford street, and in the windows were displayed 
the motto, "Gratitude to Charles Fenton Mercer, 
and Andrew Stuart," both of whom were indefati- 
gable workers in the cause. 

June 3. — A dinner was given at Black's Hotel to 
Hon. Andrew Stuart, as a testimonial to his services 

1828-29.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 317 

in behalf of the public interests, on which occasion 
Mr. Stuart made a speech which was enthusiastically 

September 8. — George Swearingen, Sheriff of 
Washington county, murdered his wife, one mile 
above Cresaptown in the woods. Suspicion of foul 
play being aroused, the body of the murdered 
woman was disinterred on the 11th, and the coroner s 
jury, which sat upon the case returned the following 

'* After a careful and fall exaiDinatien of numerous witnesses we are 
of opinion that Mary C. Swearingen came to her death by the hands of 
her husband, George Swearingen." 

Before the body was taken up for examination 
Swearingen fled, taking with him Rachael Cunning- 
ham, with whom he was known to have been on 
unduly intimate terms. 

Mrs. Swearingen was the daughter of James Scott, 
one of the most prominent citizens of Cumberland. 
Her remains were brought to town and placed in the 
family burying ground. She was a most estimable 
and lovable lady, and left an interesting little 

October 3. — ^William V. Buskirk, William Price, 
Joseph Dilly and William McMahon were elected to 
the Assembly. 

January 12, 1829. — Justices of the Orphans' Court: 
Thomas Cresap, John Scott and John McNeill. 

Justices Levy Court: Benj. Tomlinson, Samuel 
Coddington, Walter McAtee, Valentine Hoffman, 
Francis Reed, Arch. Thistle, William McLaughlin, 
Upton Bruce, Martin Rizer, and John Miller. 

March 25 — Henry Clay arrived and stopped at 



Slicer 8 Hotel. He was given a hearty welcome, and 
an enthusiastic entertainment, which was largely 
attended. In the evening he made a speech to the 
iissembled crowd, and on the following day pursued 
his journey. 

March 27. — News was received of the arrest of 
George Swearingen, which took place in New 
Orleans, on the 17th of February. On his escape 
the Governor of Maryland had oflfered $300 for his 
capture. Swearingen had disguised himself and 
changed his name to Thomas Martin. He made his 
way to the Ohio river, and there got aboard a flat 
boat bound for New Orleans. He was armed with a 
rifle, pocket pistols, and a large dagger. He had 
been in New Orleans several days before he was 
discovered. One day he walked into a store kept by 
a man named Sloo, for the purpose of making some 
purchases, and it happened that John V. L. Ramsay, 
a Marylander, who knew him, was in the store at 
the time. Ramsey at once recognized Swearingen, 
in spite of his disguise, and without delay lodged 
information with the Mayor. OflScers were at once 
put upon his track, and followed him to a flat boat 
where they saw him go through a hole in the roof, to 
the com, with which the boat was laden. The 
oflScers quickly followed him in, whereupon Swear- 
ingen started up and drew his dirk, but pistols being 
leveled at him, he surrendered, and was bound. At 
first he denied his identity, but when faced by 
Ramsay, he no longer attempted concealment, 

Swearingen was taken to Baltimore, on the brig 
Arctic, arriving there April 23d. He had a hearing 

1829-30.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 319 

before a city magistrate, and was committed to jail 
to await removal to Allegany county, the scene of 
his crime. 

A special term of Court was convened in August, 
for the purpose of trying Swearingen. On the 13th 
of August a jury was obtained, and the trial com- 
menced. The Prosecuting Attorney was Mr. Dixon ; 
Counsel for the defense, William Van Buskirk, 
William McMahon, and William Price, all able 
lawyers. On the bench were Chief Judge J. Buch- 
anan, and Associate Judges T. Buchanan and A. 
Shriver. The case was not concluded until the 22d, 
when the jury retired and returned in fifteen minutes, 
with a verdict of "guilty of murder in the first 
degree." The Court sentenced the prisoner to be 
hanged on the 2d of October. 

October 2, — An immense crowd of people came 
into the town, from every direction, to witness the 
terrible vengeance of the law. The place of execu- 
tion was on the flat ground on the West side of the 
Creek. Swearingen was perfectly calm and collected, 
and said he had no fear of death. Rev. Mr. Miller, of 
Westernport, was with him, administering spiritual 
comfort. Volunteer militia companies were present 
from Bedford and Somerset, Pa., as also the Wash- 
ington Guards, of Cumberland. The number of 
people assembled was estimated at 4,000. The 
execAtion was speedily accomplished, and the body 
given to its friends. 

On New Year's Day, 1830, the people of this 
section of country had a "grand circular hunt." 
The first brigade embraced the country from Cum- 


berland to the mouth of Jenning's Run. The second 
brigade, from Jenning's Run up the road to Cornelius 
Devore's Mill, on Will's Creek. Third brigade, from 
Devore's Mill across to Frederick Rice's in Cash 
Valley. Fourth brigade from Frederick Rice's along 
the Bedford Road to Cumberland. About one 
hundred persons participated in the hunt, and a 
large amount of game was taken. 

Justices Orphan's Court: Thomap Cresap, John 
Scott and George Hoblitzell. 

Justices Levy Court: Joshua O. Robinson, Joseph 
Frantz, George Blocher, William McLaughlin, Jacob 
Holeman, John Mattingly, Thomas D. Beall, Walter 
Bevans, Henry Myers, and Jasper Robinette. 

Surveyor: Benjamin Brown. 

At the census taken in 1830, William McMahon 
Deputy Marshal, the population of the town of 
Cumberland was as follows: 

Males. Females. Total. 


5 years 
^ears o 






Of 6^ 

f age 

and under 10 ' 





Of 10 










Of 15 










Of 20 










Of 30 










Of 40 










Of 60 










Of 60 










Of 70 










Of 80 














Free c 

olored. . 


A a \tf^# ** 

• • • 

683 679 1162 

The* population of Allegany County was 10,590. 
February 28. — A little son of George Reams, four 

1830-31.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 321 

years of age, fell into the well at the jail, a depth of 
ninety feet,' and was instantly killed. 

March 18. — The Western stage while leaving town 
ran oflf the road and upset. Bishop Chase, of Ohio, 
a passenger, was badly injured, having three of his ribs 
broken, and his left arm dislocated. He remained 
here until his recovery, and preached at the Church 
on Fort Hill. 

April 20. — The new Episcopal Church, on Fort 
Hill, was consecrated by Bishop Meade, of Virginia. 

At the election in October, William McMahon, 
William Ridgely, William Shaw, and William Reid, 
were elected to the General Assembly, and Mr. 
Rawlings Sheriff. 

October 23. — The "Advocate" was sold by John 
M. Buchanan to Richard P. Bailey and Daniel 

November 22. — George Jacobs, of Hampshire 
County, Va., aged 50 years, was found dead on the 
Cresaptown Road, the result of an accident. 

December 10 — The Cumberland Fire Engine 
Company was organized, at Newnam's Hotel. 

December 17. — ^.lohn Custer was found frozen to 
death, on the Cresaptown road. 

January 14, 1 831. — Snow fell to a depth of twenty- 
four inches, and travel was almost suspended, as the 
roads were blocked. 

January 20. — A public meeting was held, and Dr. 
S. P. Smith, James Everstine, David Shriver, Jacob 
Snyder and John Hays were appointed a committee 
to petition Congress fur an appropriation to improve 
the Cumberland Road. 



Justices of the Orphans' Court: Thomas Cresap, 
John McNeill and John Scott. 

The population of the county was at this time 

A fire company was formed, in February, and sup- 
plied with ladders for use in case of fire. Two ladders 
were kept against Hook's fence, comer Centre and 
Frederick streets, and two against Shriver's shed, 
over the mill race, on the turnpike. 

August 2. —Two railroads were put in operation 
in Allegany County, one at the coal mine of William 
Ward, and the other at the mine of John Porter, 
both within ten miles of Cumberland. They were 
about one hundred yards in length, the rails being 
of wood, and the wheels of the cars of cast iron. 
The cars were drawn by horse power. 

Bene S. Pigman was elected to the Senate, in the 
fall, and William Armstrong and Thomas Blair (anti- 
Jackson) and George M. Swann and Jacob Lantz, 
(Jackson) elected Delegates to the Legislature. 

Francis Thomas was elected to Congress by a 
majority of 601 over Michael C. Sprigg. 

October 15. — The Synod of the Lutheran Church 
of Maryland assembled in Cumberland. 

George Smith was appointed Collector of Taxes, 
and Aza Beall, Clerk of the Court. 

November 24. — Public notice was given that the 
proprietors of coal mines in Allegany Coimty, and all 
other persons interested in procuring a charter for a 
railroad from the coal mines to Cumberland would 
meet in Frostburg, to consider the project, and agree 
upon a route. 

1831-32.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 323 

December 1. — Henry Clay arrived, en route 
to Washington, and had a reception during his 

February 6, 1832. — A good stage of water in the 
river, and forty loaded boats left. 

February 22. — This being the centennial anni- 
versary of Washington's birth-day, the event was 
celebrated with unusual enthusiasm. 

February 4. — Justices of Orphans' Court: Thomas 
Cresap, John McNeill, Sr., and John Scott. 

October 2. — ^Andrew Bruce, Jacob Lantz, Moses 
H. Louthan and John Slicer were elected to the 

October 14. — The stable and carriage house of 
Elnathan Russell were destroyed by fire, and several 
dwellings in the neighborhood were with difficulty 
saved. The fire was caused by a burning cigar being 
thrown into the stable. 

October 18. — A meeting was held at Jacob Fechtig's 
tavern in Cumberland, with a view to securing the 
construction of a turnpike from Cumberland to inter- 
sect the Cumberland and Somerset Road at the 
Pennsylvania line. A number of persons from 
Somerset were present, and a committee was appointed 
to draft a petition to the Legislature asking authority 
for the construction of the road. 

October 22. — Great fears were entertained that 
the cholera, which prevailed elsewhere, might visit 
the town, in consequence of which a meeting was 
held at the Union Hotel, when it was resolved to at 
once prepare a building to be used as a hospital, and 
to procure contributions for the purpose of supplying 


food, medicine, &c. Fortunately the epidemic did 
not make its appearance. 

February 6, 1833. — Justices Orphans' Court; 
Thomas Cresap, John McNeill and George Hebb. 

March 22. — A new assessment of the real and 
personal property having been determined upon, 
Thomas Wilson, John Slicer, Stephen MulhoUan, 
James Totten, John Neff, Jr., Joseph Everstine, 
George P. Hinkle, Israel Mayberry, Leonard Shir- 
cliff, and Amos Robinette, were appointed assessors. 

April 14. — A terrible calamity befell the town, on 
this date, whereby the greater part of the inhabitants 
were in a few short hours rendered homeless. It 
was Sunday, and the bells were calling the people to 
church, at 10 o'clock in the morning, when the start- 
ling cry of "fire" was given. A volume of smoke 
was seen issuing from the cabinet shop of William 
Shryer, on Mechanic street. An excited multitude 
of people quickly gathered at the scene of the fire, 
and endeavored to stay it, but in vain, as the dry 
wooden building, and its highly inflammable contents 
furnished rich food for the eager flames. The wind 
blew quite strong from the west, and the means for 
suppressing fires being of the most inadequate 
character, in a short while the houses adjoining 
became ignited, and the roaring flames went leaping, 
flashing and surging down the street, enveloping 
house after house, in quick succession, until every 
building from the place of the origin of the fire to 
Russell's carriage shop, near Harrison street, a 
distance of more than a quarter of a mile, was involved 
in the general ruin. When it became apparent that 

1833.] THE GKEAT FIRE. 325 

nothing could be done to check the conflagration, the 
people at once went to work to save the contents of the 
stores and houses, but even in this they were able to 
do but little, owing to the great rapidity with which 
the flames spread. 

The destruction of both the newspapers of the 
town prevented any detailed account of the disaster 
from being published here at the time, and when the 
papers had been re-established it did not occur to 
the publishers to give a minute history of it. The 
following letter appeared in the Hagerstown " Herald 
and Torch Light," several days after the misfortune : 

Cumberland, April 15, 1833. 
Seventj-five houses comprisiDg the heart of our town now lie in 
ruins. The fire originated in a cabinet maker's shop, three doors north 
of the '^Civilian" printing office. Many citizens have nothing lelY. The 
**GiviUan" office is burnt, except its account books. All the stores but 
one are burnt — Bruce & Beairs. Mr. Shriver's large S-story tavern. 
Mr. Fechtig's tavern and the Bank. The fire commenced at 10 o'clock, 
and the wind being high, the flames soon spread, leaving little time to 
move goods. Nothing now remains but parts of walls and chimneys, 
where once the principal part of the town stood. The "Advocate" office 
also burnt, saving only the cast iron press (badly damaged) and a few 
type. The ruins commence at Mr. Gustavus BeaH's mill, and extend 
down to Mr. Elnathan RaMell's carriage shop; the mill and Russell's 
house are saved, but on both sides of the street, between these there is 
not one house standing— distance about \ mile. The principal sufferers 

George Hoblitzell, 3 or 4 houses, 

James Everstine, 3 houses, 

Dr. Lawrence, 1 house, 

George Wineow, 1 house, 

B. S. Pigman 2 houses, 

Lowndes 1 store, 

John T. Sigler, 2 honses, 

Late John Scott, 1 housp, 

Dr. S. P. Smith k R. Worthington, 

3 houses. 
Bank property, 3 or 4 houses, 
Henry Wineow, 1 house and $1,500 


J. M. Buchanan, 1 house, 
George Hoffman, 2 houses, 
Shriver, 3 houses, 
Mrs. Gephart, 1 house, 
Dr. J. M. Smith, 2 houses, 
Samuel Hoblitzell, 1 house, 
George Hebb, 2 houses. 
Thomas Dowden 2 houses, 
George Deetz, 1 house, 
S. Bowden, 1 house, 
John G. Hoffman, 2 houses, 
Butler's store, 2 houses, 
Robert McGleary 3 or 4 houses, 


Robert SwaoD, 2 houses, 
Mrs. Sajlor, I house. 

Adam Fisher, 1 or 2 houses. 
Captain Lynn, 1 house, 
Martin Rizer of M., 1 house, 

Besides others, mostly brick houses, and two story log building. 

At a meeting at the Court House, in Cumberland, composed of the 

citizens of the town, the Court, the Bar and Juries, assembled on the 

45th of April, for the purpose of instituting an inquiry into the extent of 

the calamity occasioned by the late destructive fire, and of devising 

means for the relief of the sufferers, the following proceedings were had : 

Upon motion of Wm. Pricey Esq., the Hon. John Buchanan, Chief 
Justice of Maryland, was appointed Chairman, who in a feeling and 
appropriate address explained the object of the meeting. Upon motion 
of John Hoye, Esq., Wm. Price was appointed Secretary. Upon motion 
of Bene S. Pigman, the chair appointed the following Committee, to 
enquire into the extent of the calamity occasioned by the late fire, 
together with the number and description of the sufferers, and report 
thereon to the meeting, viz: John McHenry, Thomas I McKaig, A. 
W. McDonald, Wm. Price, B. S. Pigman, David Shriver, George Hebb, 
Dr. Samuel P. Smith, John Hoye, Dr. John M. Lawrence, Dr. James 
Smith, David Lynn, Robert Swann, and Richard Beall, who having 
retired for the purpose, afterwards returned and submitted the following 
report : 

The committee appointed to ascertain the calamity by which the town 
has been visited, together with the number and description of the sufferers 
have in the execution of the melancholly duty assigned them, ascertained 
the following particulars for the information of the meeting: 

It is ascertained that the entire business portion of Cumberland has 
been destroyed. All the taverns, and all the stores in the place, but one, 
are now in ashes; about thirty flourishing mechanics, all in prosperous 
business, have been reduced to ruin, and their families left without a 
shelter to cover them. The three physicians of the town have lost nearly 
all their property and medicines. It is believed that two thirds of the 
inhabitants are houseless. 

The value of property destroyed and the descriotion of citizens to 
whom it belonged, the committee have estimated and classed as follows : 
7 Merchants, whose loss in real and personal property 

and goods is estimated at $94,000 

3 Physicians 12,000 ' 

3 Hotels, including the losses of the owners 50,000 

.30 Mechanics, (real and personal property, stock, ice).. 71,000 

Citizens not included in above description 31,000 

Citizens not residing in the town 14,000 

Total loss ; $262,000 

Upon motion of Mr. Pigman, a committee was appointed to draft 

an address to the people of the United States, inviting their aid in behalf 

of the Cumberland sufferers. Upon motion of Mr. Pigman, it was 

Resolvedf That the Chairman of the present meeting be the Chairman 
of said committee. The following gentlemen compose the committee: 
Hon. John Buchanan, Hon. Thomas Buchanan, Hon. Abraham Shriver 

1833.] THE GREAT FIRE. 327 

A* W. McDonald, John McHenry, Wm. Price, James Dixon, Frederick 
A. Schley, and John King, Esqs. 

Upon motion the following gentlemen, reaidenU of Cumberland, who 
are not sufferers by the Gre, were appointed a committee to receive 
donations, distribute them, and of correspondence, viz : John Hoye, 
Thomas LMcKaig, Richard Bell, Rev. L. H. Johns, Wm. McMahon and 
James P. Carleton. 

Upon motion of Thomas I. McKaig, Esq., it was unanimously 

Besohedj That the thanks of the meeting are due to the Hon. John 
Buchanan, for the dignified and able manner in which he presided over 
its deliberations. 

Upon motion of Mr. Buchanan, it was 

Resoloedf That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the 
Chairman and Secretary and published. 

JoHK Buchanan, Chairman, 
William Pbice, Secretary. 

N. B. — There being now no press in Cumberland the proceedings are 
forwarded to Hageratown for publication. 

The fact that the scope of the fire embraced that 
part of Mechanic street, along which the demented 
Quaker, Harris, had so often walked while predicting 
a terrible calamity to befall the town, led many 
persons to conclude that the old man really had 
possessed some powers as a prophet, and the super- 
stitious were thoroughly convinced that he had been 
sent by some supernatural power as a messenger to 
warn the people of "wrath to come." 

The following is a full list of the persons who 
sustained losses in the disastrous fire, 14th of April: 

Oeorge HobliUell, lost 6 houses, Jonathan Butler, store goods and 

store goods and house furniture. 
George Wineow 1 house, 
Wm. Shryer, stock and furniture, 
Joseph Everstine,3 houses, furniture, 

shoes and leather, 
Charles Howell, house furniture, 
John Gephart, 2 houses, 
Widow Saylor, 1 house, 
A. King and family, clothing and 

Widow Anders, furniture, &c.. 
Dr. J. Smith,2 hou8e8,medicines, Ac, 
John Rutter, house furniture and 



Edward Johnson, household furni- 

J. G\ Hoffman, 2 houses, tinware 
and furniture. 

Dr. S. P. Smith, 2 houses, medicines 
and furniture, 

Geo. Hoffman, 3 houses and furni- 

J. M. Buchanan, 1 house, 

G. S. Evans, furuiture and $800 in 

Widow Frithey,! house and furniture 

S. Bowden, 1 house. 




Robert SwanD, 2 hoases, 

David Shriver, 6 houses, 

John Murrell's heirs, 2 houses, 

£. Moblev, furniture, tools and 
wagon stuff, 

M. Rizer, of M., 1 house and furni- 

Eershner's heirs, 1 bouse, 

Geo. Deetz, 1 house and furniture, 

Geo. Lowdermilk, house furniture, 

John Deetz, house furniture, 

Widow Gephart, 1 house and furni- 

Widow Oglebay, furniture, 

R. McCIearj, 7 houses, tools, stock 
and furniture, 

Blocher & Harry, 1 printing press, 
type and office furniture. 

John Cress, blacksmith tools and 

Post office, furniture and papers, 

David Lynn, 1 house, 

James Sires, furniture and tools, 

Widow Koontz, 2 houses, 

Sarah Koontz, furniture, 

M. Fisher, 2 houses, furniture and 

John Fisher, $500 in money, 

Wm. Fisher, $100 in money, 

H. Wineow, 1 house, grain, furni- 
ture and $1,500. 

Thos. Dowden, 1 house, shop, fur- 
niture and tools, 

Jas. Black, grain and furniture. 

The Bank, 6 houses, 

Jacob Fechtig, furniture, &c., 

S. Slicer, furniture, Ac., 

Widow Scott, furniture, Ac; 

John Scotfs heirs. 2 houses, 

George Uebb, 2 houses, with furni- 
ture and goods, 

A. McNeill, tools and jewelry, 
John Wright, tools, jewelry and fur- 

B. Mattingly, furniture and cloth, 

R. Worthington, 1 house, furniture 

and goods. 
Smith, Worthington k Co., 1 house, 
J. F. Sigler, 1 house, saddlery and 

Dr. Lawrence, 1 house, medicine. 

and furniture, 
Messrs. Lowndes, 1 house and store. 

goods, furniture and $700, 
S. Hoblitzell, furniture, kc, 
B. S. Pigman, 3 houses, 
P. A. S. rigman, furniture, 
S. Pritchard, tools and clothing, 
L. W.Stockton, 2 mail coaches, 
J. W. Weaver, 1 mail coach, 
H. D. Carleton, furniture, &c., 
Eleanor Merryman, clothing, 
John Beall, clothing, 
John P. Lowdermilk, clothing, 
Sophia Johnson, clothing, 
Elizabeth Bevans, clothing, 
U. B. Wolfe, tools, books and furni- 
Samuel Charles, The Civilian office 

J. Wolf, tools, leather and shoes, 
J. Marr, tools, &c.j 
H. Smouse, 1 carryall, 
T. Adams, furniture, &c., 
B. W. Howard, furniture, &c., 
W. V. Buskirk,furnitnre, law library 

and papers, 
Bruce & beall,part of stock of goods, 
Krebs &, Falls, store goods and fur- 
S. & G. Shockey, hats, fur and tools, 
John M. Carleton, clothing, Ac, 
Nancy Davis, clothing, &c., 
Edmund Hoffman, furniture, &c., 
W. W. Weaver, furniture, &c^ 
Wm. Hoblitzell, clothing, &c., 
M. Rizer, Jr., a lot of bacon. &c., 
J. B. Wright, money and clothing, 
Louthan & Offutt, stock of goodfi,ftc. 

James Reeside, who was for a number of years 
largely engaged in the stage-coach business on the 
Cumberland Road, upon hearing of the disaster, 
caused his son to write the following letter to the 
Postmaster here: 

1833.] THE GREAT FIRE. 329 

Philadelphia, April 18, 1833. 

J. P. CarletoUf Esq,, P. if., Cumberland, Md. 

Dear Sir : It is with regret that we have this day heard the sad 
news of the conflagration at Cumberland, that once flourishing town, and 
the loss and condition of its inhabitants, among whom we lived so long. 
My father is confined to his bed, and not able to write, but requests to say 
to you that one half of all his property, in the town of Cumberland situated 
on the west side of WilPs Creek, shall be sold for the benefit of the 
sufferers^ he also requests me to say to you, as soon as a committee is 
appointed for their relief, he will immediately transfer the property by 
deed or otherwise for that purpose. Yours with respect, 

James Rebside, Jr. 

Immediate steps were taken for the relief of the 
sufferers, and from all parts of the country contribu- 
tions were received. Up to June, f 15,000, had been 
distributed amongst them. Those who could afford 
to do so, set about rebuilding, and the new houses 
were generally of a much better character than those 

July 4. — The celebration of Independence Day 
was marked by a feast in McCleary's Hollow, when 
James P. Carleton, Jr., delivered the oration. 
Workmen were at this time engaged in building the 
National Road, and those employed at the " Narrows," 
placed a flag on the top of the tallest tree on Will's 
Mountain, from which it floated for many days. 

In July "The Civilian" office was located in the 
new building on Mechanic street below the Cumber- 
land Bank, which hiid also been rebuilt, (the old brick 
walls being used,) and its publication recommenced 
by Samuel Charles, who then called his paper "The 
Phoenix Civilian." 

July 13. — Messrs. Ducatel, Tyson, and Alexander, 
of Baltimore, who had been appointed by the 
Governor to collect information, plats, and reports of 
siurveys, with a view of publishing an accurate map 


of Maryland, and to make geological researches, 
arrived here. They went to the western part of the 
county, and on their return explored the coal region 
about Frostburg. 

July 25. — The work on that portion of the new 
location of the National Road, from the town of 
Cumberland to the site chosen for the bridge over 
Will's Creek at the ^'Narrows," was suspended, in 
consequence of its supposed interference with the 
route of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

The following is the report made by the Assessors 
of the real and personal property in Allegany county, 
assessed under the act of 1832: 

Real. Personal. Total. 

District No. I $120,628 58 $35,179 30 $155,807 88 

"* '• 2 64,891 62 44,047 75 108,939 37 

** " 3 107,891 38 28,681 50 136,572 88 

" ** 4 115.540 36 49,291 00 161,831 36 

" *• 5 105,344 62 44,579 00 149,923 62 

" " *6 170,652 17 48,066 00 218,718 17 

Cumberland Town* 136,952 44 36,830 00 173,782 44 

District No. 7 77,822 75 33,962 00 111,784 75 

" " 8 65,187 73 18,527 50 83,715 23 

" " 9 98,457 90 37.411 50 1.^5,869 40 

$1,063,369 55 $373,575 55 $1,436,945 10 

Mechanic street, from the mill race, at the Rail- 
road viaduct, was paved by the Government, under 
the direction of Lieutenant Pickett, the engineer in 
charge of the work on the National Road at this 

October 4. — At the election for Congress, Francis 
Thomas and James Dixon were the candidates, the 
former receiving 4,012 votes, and the latter 3,421 
votes, in the District. 

October 8. — A town meeting was held at the Court 

•District No. 6 and Cumberland Town wore both tneladed to Camberland. 


1833.] ' LOCAL INCIDENTS. 331 

House, to raise funds for the relief of James Stoddard^ 
whose house, near Grantsville, was destroyed by 
fire, on the 4th, together with its contents. 

October 13. — Henry Smith, an aged and respected 
citizen, was found dead near his home, seven miles 
east of Cumberland. 

Delegates to the Legislature: Norman Bruce, 
William Ridgely, Jeremiah Berry, Jr., and JaxK)b 

October 19. — ^A new two-story log house, belonging 
to Martin Rizer, Jr., on South Mechanic street, was 
burned out, but the logs were not destroyed. 

October 20 — ^A public meeting was held to devise 
means for aiding the people of Somerset, Pa., who 
had suflfered by a destructive fire in the town, which 
involved a loss of $100,000. More than thirty 
families had been rendered homeless. The sum of 
$200 was collected and donated. 

October 26. — All the prisoners in the jail escaped, 
by digging a hole through the wall, near a window. 

November 19. — The entire population was in a 
high state of excitement, consequent upon the falling 
of a shower of meteorites. 

November 22. — A public meeting to hear the final 
report as to the action of the Committee of Distribu- 
tion, for the relief of the sufferers by the fire of 
14th of April, was held at the Court House. 
The Committee reported that it had received in 
money $20,684.93. From the people of Maryland 
$9,972.66. From Pennsylvania $7,239.89. District 
of Columbia $870.76. Virginia $1,075.50. Miscel- 
laneous $1,526.12. Also a quantity of clothing, 


flour, bacon, &c. That all had been distributed to 
the best advantage. The accounts were examined, 
and the action of the committee endorsed. 

The rebuilding of the town progressed stead ily, 
and before the close of the year there were thirteen 
stores on Mechanic street, where there had been only 
six previous to the fire. 

During all of the year 1833, a party of engineers 
and workmen in the employ of the Grovernment^ had 
been engaged in changing the course of that part of 
the National Road extending from Cumberland to 
the Six Mile House. The original road, as surveyed 
and built, lay along Green street, and across Will's 
Mountain, through Sandy Gap. The new location 
abandoned that route, and lay along Will's Creek, 
through the Narrows, and thence along Braddock's 
Run, exactly as it remains to-day. In the winter of 
1833 General Gratiot, the Chief Engineer, submitted 
his report to the War Department, showing how he 
had repaired a large part of the Cumberland Road; 
that the new location had been opened, and that the 
bridge over Will's Creek was in course of construc- 
tion. He recommended still further repairs and 
estimated the total cost to be $645,000. 

January 2, 1834. — The tavern house of Mrs. Bruce, 
widow of Francis Bruce, five miles abovfe town, on 
the National Road, was destroyed by fire, with all its 
contents. The inmates saved themselves by jumping 
from the second story, not even saving their clothing. 

January 7. — Notice was given that the Cumberland 
Bank of Allegany would resume business, on the 
13th inst., with Joseph Shriver as Cashier. 

1834.] LOCAL INCIDENTS, 333 

January 19. — Four boats loaded with coal went 
down the river; two of them belonging to John J. 
Hoffman, sunk ten miles below, each loaded with 
1,000 bushels. 

Justices of the Orphans' Court: Thomas Cresap, 
John McNeill and George Hebb. 

March 4. — Mr. Lantz presented a petition to the 
Legislature praying that body not to pass a bill 
incorporating the town. The bill was passed, how- 
ever, amending the act of 1815, and providing that 
seven Councilmen should be elected each year, and 
that they should elect one of their number as Mayor. 
The town was incorporated under the name and title 
of the "Mayor and Councilmen of the Town of 
Cumberland." The limits were fixed at "half-a- 
mile all round the town, to be computed and measured 
from the town lots on the outer edge or confines of 
the town proper, as located and settled by law, and 
by the plat already recorded among the land 

April 14. — Many of the houses draped in black, 
in commemoration of the fire, one year previous. 

June 24. — Notice received that Congress had 
appropriated $300,000 to repair the Cumberland 
Road. Work then went on, under care of Lieutenant 
Pickell, and the stone bridge of two arches, each 
sixty feet span, was completed. 

Contracts for work were given as follows in the 
repairs of the Cumberland Road : 

1st Culvert Section. — Jonathan Witt; 2d Culvert 
Section, R. A. Clements. 

New Location. — Section No. 2, Gustavus Beall; 



No. 3, Mattingly & Mulhollan; No. 4^ Edmund 
Bulger; No. 5, Cahoone & Moore; No. 6, Miller, 
Baker & Co.; No. 7, Lonogan, O'Neill & Kennedy; 
No. 8, Thomas Feely. 

Old Road. — Section No. 9, R. A. Clements; No. 10, 
Hewes, Stewart & Howard; No. 11, John Neff; No. 
12, Josiah Porter; No. 13, Hews, Stewart & Co.; No. 
14, Meshack Frost; No. 15, Joseph Dilley; No. 16^ 
Josiah Frost; No. 17, T. Beall & Coombs; No. 18, M. 
Meneer; No. 19, Adam Shooltze; No. 20, Michael 

The U. S. Mail Stage from Wheeling for Baltimore, 
was attacked near the top of Savage Mountain, 17 
miles from Cumberland, not far from a gloomy place 
known as the " Shades of Death/' on the night of 
Wednesday, August 6th, about 10 o'clock, by two 
highwaymen. They had cut a quantity of brush 
which they threw on the road so as to obstruct it, 
and as the stage was ascending the mountain, one of 
the robbers sprang out from the shrubbery on the 
side of the road, seized the bridle of a lead horse and 
stopping the team, ordered the driver to dismount. 
The highwayman had mistaken his man, however, 
and had met more than his match in the person of 
the driver, Samuel Luman, a young man of splendid 
physique and perfectly fearless. He declined to 
dismount, and put the whip to his horses with a will. 
The team being spirited horses bounded forward, 
dragging the robber with them. A second highway- 
man appeared at the door of the stage, and to him 
the first robber called out, ^^ shoot the driver, you 
d d coward, why don't you fire at him?" The 

1834.] HIGHWAYMEN. 336 

robber at the side of the stage called out, " how many 
passengers have you?" and the driver replied "a full 
load." The "gentleman of the road" then looked at 
the baggage, and seeing an unusual number of trunks 
on, concluded to keep clear of a shot from the door, 
so he took a position behind the stage. The first 
robber was a desperate fellow, however, and he 
succeeded in turning the lead horses square around 
and stopping the stage. He then undertook to 
unhitch the traces, but tlie brave driver lashed him 
about the face with his whip so mercilessly that the 
fellow was compelled to abandon his purpose, but 
he leveled a pistol at the driver's head, and 
pulled the trigger. The pistol was a flint lock, 
and the priming having become damp from the 
dew and fog, it missed fire, and the horses were 
soon in full gallop up the hill, broke through 
the brush fence on the road, and never let up 
their pace until they went into Frostburg. The 
highwaymen wore masks, and gowns of tow linen, by 
which their identity was destroyed. In the stage 
were five men and one woman, and not one of the 
passengers was armed. They had a large sum of 
money with them, besides which a heavy U. S. mail 
was on the stage, and had the robbers succeeded 
they would have obtained valuable booty. After 
having been safely landed at Frostburg the passen- 
gers gave a vote of thanks to the valiant young 

August 13. — Patrick Mahon was found dead on 
the side of the Cumberland Road, six miles above 
the town, his horse standing near by hitched to a 


tree. He was on his road to Frostburg, and becoming 
overheated he drank freely of cold water, which was 
undoubtedly the cause of his death. 

August 24. — ^A man named B. Risly, a stranger, 
who arrived in Cumberland some days previously, 
was missed on Sunday, 17th, and on the following 
Saturday his body was fyund in the woods, about 
one mile from town. Coroner's jury returned verdict, 
death caused by himself in a fit of derangement from 

Delegates to Assembly : Alpheus Beall, Normand 
Bruce, G. W. Devecmon, William McMahon. 

County Commissioners: Jonathan Wilson, John 
Slicer, John Wiley, John Poland, Peter Preston, 
Thomas Dowden, Martin Rizer. William Newman, 
Daniel Folck, Daniel Woolford. 

November 11. — Travel began on new location of 
National Road through Will's Creek. The occasion 
was celebrated in a very enthusiastic way, by the 
citizens of Cumberland and Frostbuig, and others. 
Early in the morning a large number of the citizens 
of Cumberland assembled in the public square, and 
forming into companies marched up the new road to 
Percy's tavern, where they were met by another 
company from Frostburg. A grand procession, a 
mile in length, was then formed, under command of 
John J. Hofiman, Alpheus Beall, James P. Carleton 
and Richard Lamar of R., as marshals, and marched, 
with a band, in advance to Cumberland, the line 
being formed of stages, carriages, barouches, gigs, 
wagons and horsemen. With flags flying, and the 
band plajring, the procession passed through the 

1835.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 337 

Narrows, and paraded the main streets of the town to 
the public square, where Thomas I. McKaig delivered 
a brief addres^ and was followed by Lieutenant 
Pickell, who in a lengthy and eloquent speech con- 
gratulated the people upon the completion of this 

February 21. — A meeting of mechanics was held 
at the Court House, when a committee of five was 
appointed to prepare an address to the citizens of 
Cumberland and Allegany, setting forth the greviances 
under which the mechanics of Cumberland labor, 
and the best means of remedying them. The com- 
mittee afterwards reported at great length, to the 
efiect that it was wrong and unwise for the merchants 
of Cumberland to send East for such articles as were 
manufactured at home; that they ought to encourage 
home manufactures, and build up the town, &c., and 
finally submitted the following pledge, which was 
signed by 42 persons: 

We, the anderaigned members of tbe Farmere* & Mechanics' Union 

Society of Cumberland, mutaallj pledge ourselves to support each other 

by using, and causing to be used in our families, by ourselves and our 

servants, the manufactures of the mechanics of this community, and will 

give our undivided support to those who encourage us in like manner. To 

the faithful performance of which we individually pledge our sacred 

Justices Orphans' Court: — ^Thomas Cresap, George 
Hebb and John McNeill. 

April 2. — Grand jubilee meeting in commemora- 
tion of the passage of the $2,000,000 Canal Loan Law 
of Maryland, for the purpose of completing the Canal. 

April 11. — Captain David Lynn, a soldier of the 

Revolution, died at " Rose Hill," in the 78th year of 

his age. 



Mayor, John Gephart; Councilmen, Peter Hoffman, 
Emanuel Easter, Jacob Snyder, Richard Beall and 
John M. Lawrence. Clerk, William* McMahon. 

Thomas Shriver appointed Superintendent of that 
part of the National Road lying in Maryland. 

June 20. — Elijah Curtis fell from the cliff in the 
Narrows and was killed. 

There were at this time five Churches in Cumber- 
land, viz: Catholic, Father M. Marshal; Lutheran^ 
Rev. Kehler; Presbyterian, Rev. McDonald; Metho- 
dist, Rev. Lipsicomb; Episcopal, Rev. Leavenworth. 

September 29. — A town meeting was held with a 
view to petitioning against the location of the Canal 
.along the ''high level," as it was feared the work 
would be located along the base of the hills, near the 
present line of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania 
Railroad to the Narrows. A portion of the population 
favored this route. 

At the election October 13, William McMahon, 
Joseph Frantz, Jeremiah Berry, Jr., and William 
Matthews were elected to the Legislature, over 
Robert Bruce, Wm. Shaw, A. Bruce and H. Shircliff. 

November 20. — Captain (jeorge Calmes died, at his 
home, on the bluff across the river, at the age of 80 
years. He was an officer of the Revolution. His 
wife, Mary, died December 17th, following, aged 82 
years. She was a daughter of Captain Thomas 
Price, of Frederick. 

At this time there seemed to be a prospect of the 
completion of the Canal, and in consequence thereof 
real estate advanced in price, the population increased, 
and many new buildings were erected. 

1836.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 339 

In January, 1836, it was announced that the 
appropriation for the Canal had been exhausted, and 
work was stopped, whereupon a panic occurred, and 
town lots were offered at insignificant prices. 

A town meeting was held and resolutions passed 
urging the Legislature to appropriate $2,500,000 to 
continue the work. David Shriver, John Hoye, 
George McCuUoh, Robert Bruce, and James Smith 
were appointed a committee to go to Annapolis, and 
present the petition. 

In April a company of Boston capitalists purchased 
some coal lands, and secured a charter to build a 
railroad along Braddock's Run, and their operations 
caused some improvement in afiairs. 

May 2. — At the town election John Wright was 
chosen Mayor, the Councilmen being Peter Hoffman, 
E. Easter, Baptist Mattingly, R. Worthington, and 
George Blocher. 

In November George Smith, Robert Bruce. Thomas 
Perry, and John M. Buchanan were elected to the 
Legislature, and Thomas Dowden, Sheriff*. 

The County Commissioners were James D. Arm- 
strong, John Slicer, Henry Brown, Cornelius Kight, 
Peter Preston, Burgess Magruder, John Cress, Wm. 
Newman, Daniel Folck and Robert Lashley. 

In December the stone bridge over Will's Creek, 
at the Narrows, was completed, under the superin- 
tendence of U. S. Engineers Page and Turner, the 
contractors being Lane & Sumner. This work had 
been much delayed by freshets. Upon its completion 
the National Road was opened by this route for 

340 HISTORY or CUMBERLAND. [1836-37. 

In 1833 the Legislature bad authorized the erection 
of a new Court House in Cumberland, and John 
Hoye, Martin Rizer, John G. HoflFman and Bene S. 
Pigman had been appointed Commissioners to super- 
intend the work. A levy of $5,000 was to be made, 
$1,000 to be collected each year until the amount was 
secured. Some effort was made to have the building 
located on the east side of the Creek, but it did not 
amount to anything. The excavation for the founda- 
tions was commenced in the fall of 1836. 

Andrew Bruce and Richard Beall were elected 
members of the electoral college and were of the 
"immortal twenty-one" whig electors who prevented 
the subversion of the State government. 

January 3, 1837. — The Mineral Bank commenced 
business, with George E. Dyson, cashier. 

Justices of Orphans' Court : Thomas Cresap, John 
McNeill and George Hebb. Surveyor, Benjamin 

Mayor, Gustavus Beall; Councilmen, Thomas I. 
McKaig, Moore N. Falls, J. P. Carleton, John Hoye, 
B. Simkins, M. Rizer of M. 

A forcing engine was purchased for fire protection, 
and a special tax of 30 cents on each $100 levied to 
pay for it. This engine was known as the ^^Groose 
Neck," and was about the size of a No. 1 store box. 
. May 13. — The Cumberland Bank suspended specie 
payment, and the Mineral Bank followed, three days 

The receipts and expenditures of the town for the 
fiscal year, ending May 30, amounted to $614.97. 

The vote for Congress in the County was, Merrick, 

1837.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 341 

(whig) 851; Thomas, (Democrat) 732. Francis 
Thomas had a majority in the District of 296 votes. 

Michael C. Sprigg, John Neff, Daniel Blocher, and 
Jonathan Huddleson were elected to the Legislature. 

By the close of the year, 1837, the burnt district 
had been almost entirely rebuilt, and many of the 
houses were large and substantial. The Cumberland 
Bank, the National Hotel, the buildings on each of the 
<5orners of Baltimore and Mechanic streets, and several 
others further up street, having been reconstructed. 
A large hotel building was erected on the North side 
of Baltimore street, where the St. Nicholas now 
Htands, known as Slicer's Tavern, which was kept at 
this time by Joshua Johnson. The ground on this 
corner was bought several years previous to this date, 
by Peter Lowdermilk, who gave in payment therefor 
one lady's saddle. A frame house was erected just 
below the hotel, and another on the Southeast corner 
of Baltimore and Liberty streets. A row of two- 
story frame buildings, lathed and plastered outside, 
were built on Baltimore street, South side, just below 
Liberty street, and on the Southwest comer of 
Liberty a residence by Levi Hilleary. On the South- 
east comer of Centre and Baltimore Edward Sullivan 
placed a blacksmith shop. A stable was built on 
Shryer's tan-yard property, on Centre street^ and a 
double brick house on Baltimore street, a short 
distance East of the Lutheran Church. A number 
of residences had been also erected on Bedford street. 

Commerce between the East and West rapidly 
increased, and the Cumberland Road became the 
great highway of traffic. The heavy passenger travel, 


and the transportation of goods, led to the establish- 
ment of hundreds of houses of entertainment along 
the road, and Cumberland reaped her full share 
of patronage, being the principal point between 
Baltimore and Wheeling. 

In the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal thousands of Irish laborers were employed, 
and as bad feeling existed between the clans, riots 
were of frequent occurrence. On New Year s Day, 
1838, a number of men employed at the tunnel 
marched up to Oldtown, and made a raid on the 
place, almost demolishing Nicholas Ryan's tavern. 
Thomas Dowden, the Sheriff, summoned the Cum- 
berland Guards, and other citizens, as a posse^ and 
went down to quell the riot, but the disturbers ha4 

In view of these troubles a company of riflemen 
was organized, and the Governor sent to Cumberland 
189 muskets and 120 rifles to arm the Militia. 

The following officers of the 50th regiment, 
Maryland Militia were appointed: C. M. Thruston, 
Colonel; Thomas I. McKaig, Lieutenant Colonel; 
Normand Bruce, Major; Dr. H. G. Grieves, Surgeon; 
Alexander King, Captain; George M. Reid, Ist 
Lieutenant, and John M. Carleton, 2d Lieutenant. 

April 25. — The chain bridge over Will's Creek 
gave way at the Western abutment, and the structure 
fell into the stream. At the time of the accident 
two men and a boy were on the bridge, and all went 
down with it. The men saved themselves by 
swimming to the shore, and the boy clambered over 
the wreck to a point of safety. The Creek at the 

1838.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 343 

time was much swollen. Court was in session, and 
the accident occurred only about half hour before the 
time for persons to attend 

Gustavus Beall, George Blocher and George Hob- 
litzell were appointed Commissioners to rebuild the 
bridge, and on the 4th of May advertised for proposals. 
The construction of a wooden bridge was shortly 
after commenced, the plan being two wooden arches 
reaching from shore to shore, with a carriage way in 
the centre, and a foot walk on either side. This 
bridge was covered, and closed in, with heavy lattice 
work on the sides, and the floor covered with tan 

May 31 . — George E. Dyson, Cashier of the Mineral 
Bank was thrown from his buggy and killed. C. M. 
Thruston was then President of the bank, and 
Jonathan W. Magruder was elected Cashier. 

Mayor, Frederick Deems; Councilmen, Greorge 
Hoblitssell, J. Witt, Robert McCleary, Henry Wright, 
Peter Hoffman, and Henry Wineow. Clerk, Daniel 

October 3. — State Senator: William Matthews. 
Delegates to Assembly: John Neff, Jonathan Hud- 
dleson and Daniel Blocher. 

County Commissioners : Jno. Slicer, Henry Brown, 
Cornelius Kight, George M. Blocher, Martin Rizer, 
Burgess Magruder, John W. Mountz, Walter Be vans 
and George H. A. Kunst. 

Cfctober 13. — Ordinance to grade and pave Wash- 
ington street from Will's Creek bridge to Spruce Alley. 

October 17. — Evangelical Synod of Maryland met 
in Cumberland. 


October 28. — Methodist Protestant Church, Bed- 
ford street, dedicated, Rev. Isaac Webster, President 
of Maryland Conference, officiating. 

October 30. — John Burbridge, living five milesi 
below town, on line of canal, beaten nearly to death 
by a lot of Irish laborers, on that work. Colonel 
Thruston took the militia companies of Captains 
King and Haller to the section on which the guilty 
parties were at work, and arrested thirteen who 
were suspected, and brought them to town for a 

The first semi-annnal report of the Superintendent 
of the National Road, showed the receipts for the 
half year ending Noven^ber 20, to be $3,980.56. 

December 15. — The Mountaineer Hose Company 
was organized, the following officers being chosen: 
President, John Beall; Treasurer, J. G Hoffman: 
Secretary, John M. Carleton. The town supplied 
them with a suction engine at a cost of $750. 

During the greater part of the year the scarcity of 
small money led the merchants generally to issue 
"shinplasters," for the accommodation of the public. 
On the 22d of December a meeting of the merchants 
and traders was held at the National Hotel, when it 
was resolved that the necessity for such currency no 
longer existed, and that they should not thereafter 
be circulated. 

January 18, 1839. — The Presbyterian Church on 
Liberty street was opened for worship, and on the 
20th it was dedicated. Rev. Samuel H. McDonald 

The progress of the work on the new Court House 

1839.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 345 

was very slow, and in January a petition was sent 
to the Legislature praying that the location of the 
building might be changed to the East side of the 
Creek, and alleging that such a change would be just 
and wise, since the hotels, business and population 
were there; also, that the petitioners would con- 
tribute a lot and pay for the removal of the material. 
Another petition was presented protesting against 
such removal, and setting forth the advantages of the 
location which had been selected by the proprietor of 
the town in 1785. The petition asking the change 
had 143 signers; the other 390. The Legislature 
declined to order any change, and the Court House 
was Enished during the year/proving a large, roomy, 
and comfortable building. 

February 12. — Ellen J. Albright, a young lady, 
fifteen years of age, was burned to death, her clothing 
having taken fire from a stove. 

February 24. — A fire broke out in a frame building 
on North Mechanic street, just above Bedford street, 
occupied by John Hoffman as a cabinet-maker's shop. 
That and six adjoining buildings were destroyed. 

March 25. — The town council passed an ordinance 
requiring every person owning a house or store inside 
the corporate limits to provide a leathern bucket, of 
at least two and a half gallons capacity, for every 
building such person owned, and to have his name 
plainly marked thereon. 

The "Gooseneck" fire engine was given in charge 

of the "Cumberland," or "Canada," Hose Company, 

by the town, together with four axes, three hooks 

and four ladders,, and $30 was appropriated to build a 


house for them. The hose were carried on a wagon. 

Mayor, Samuel Charles; Councilmen, Baptist Mat- 
tingly, George Shuck, Daniel Wineow, Archibald 
McNeill, Martin Rizer, and Robert A. Robinson. 
Clerk, Charles Heck. 

August 27. — In consequence of a number of serious 
riots on the canal, at the tunnel, Colonel Thruston 
went with the military companies of Cumberland to 
that point, where he was joined by Colonel Boilings^ 
worth's troops from Washington county, and a 
company of cavalry from Clearspring, Md., under 
Major Barnes. Colonel Thruston took command, and 
arrested twenty-five of the ring-leaders, captured and 
destroyed about two hundred fire arms, and sixty 
barrels of whisky, and pulled down fifty shanties. * 
The prisoners were brought to Cumberland, and put 
in jail, and most of them afterwards sent to the 
penitentiary, for terms ranging from one to eighteen 

May 17, 1840. — Mayor, Samuel Charles; .Council- 
men, Thomas Perry, Greorge Shuck, Daniel Wineow, 
Archibald McNeill, and E. Easter. Clerk, Charles 

The political campaign of 1840 was probably one 
of the most enthusiastic ever known in Allegany 
county. The Harrison men were particularly active, 
and two interesting events occurred in the town of 
Cumberland during the spring. On the 28th of 
April delegations from the Pennsylvania counties of 
Greene and Fayette arrived here, on their way to the 
Young Men's Harrison Convention, at Baltimore. 
A large number of citizens left Cumberland at 2 p. 

1840.] THE CAMPAIGN OF '40. 347 

m. to meet the delegations and escort them to town. 
They went out on horseback, in carriages, and in 
coaches, under command of Wm. Lynn, marshal of 
the day. Three miles from town they met the 
delegations, which were marching with a band, flags 
and banners, and a log cabin on four wheels. As 
the procession marched into town there was great 
enthusiasm, the band playing and the people shouts 
ing, the streets and houses being crowded with the 
multitude. The log cabin w€ts the feature of the 
demonstration ; it was drawn by six gray horses, and 
was decorated with coon skins, buck horns, &c. The 
Pennsylvanians stayed over night, and an immense 
meeting was held in the new Court House. On the 
following day they were escorted out of town and 
went on their way. One day later, the Allegany 
delegation, consisting of about fifty young men, 
also left for Baltimore. They were clad in the 
blue hunting shirts of the mountaineers, and made a 
fine appearance. Under the energetic direction of 
Thomas Shriver, Allegany had prepared the most 
novel and striking feature of the campaign. A large 
wooden ball, some twelve feet in diameter, was built 
in the bam of Mr. Shriver, for the occasion. It was 
made of light timber, firmly joined, and a wooden bar 
passed through its centre, protruding some two feet 
on each side; to this was attached ropes, and at 
intervals of three or four feet short hand bars were 
fastened in the ropes, by means of which the delega- 
tion dragged it forward, and the ball, once set in 
motion, was kept rolling till the election gave the 
"Hard Cider and Log Cabin" Boys a victory. Upon 


the completion of the ball it was found that it was 
larger than the opening in the bam, and it became 
necessary to tear out parts of the walls to increase 
the means of egress. The ball was covered with red, 
white and blue cloth, in alternate stripes, and at the 
polls were stars on a blue ground. It was covered 
with various inscriptions, amongst them being the 


With heart and soul, thia ball we roll; 
May times improve, as on we move. 

This Democratic ball first set rolling by Benton 
Is on another track from that it first was sent on. 

Farewell, dear Van; you^re not the man 
To guide the Ship; we'll try old Tip. 

"stop that ball.*' 

The gathering bnll is rolling Mill: 
And still gathers as it rolls. 

The delegation from Allegany started off in high 
spirits for Baltimore. The ball was rolled through 
the streets and along the Baltimore pike for some 
distance, and was then placed on a wagon prepared for 
the purpose. When a town was approached on the 
route the ball was unloaded and rolled through, with 
shouts and songs. At the great procession in Balti- 
more it was greeted with cheer after cheer, and Henry 
Clay declared it to be the " Lion of the Day." It was 
regarded as so great a novelty that the New York 
delegation asked and secured permission to take it 
with them, to their celebration of the battle of Fort 
Meigs, on the 8th of May. They took it through 
Philadelphia and New York City, and everywhere it 
attracted great attention, of which, of course, the 
Allegany boys were very proud. 

1840.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 349 

On the 22d of September the Whigs had a grand 
procession in Cumberland, and on this occasion rolled 
another ball, about twenty feet in diameter, through 
the streets, while the town was literally packed with 

February 9. — ^A disastrous freshet occurred. The 
river and creek had been frozen over, and a sudden 
thaw took place, causing both streams to rise to a 
great height, doing much damage and badly injuring 
the work on the canal. 

February 12. — ^A public meeting was held at the 
Court House, and resolutions passed, urging the 
Legislature to give additional aid towards the com- 
pletion of the Canal. The meeting was very large, 
and a memorial setting forth the sentiments of 
the people was adopted, and sent to Annapolis in 
charge of C. M. Thruston, Thomas Perry and Samuel 
M. Semmes. The committee discharged its duty, 
but the Legislature failed to make a further appro- 
priation, and the people of Cumberland became K}uite 
despondent in consequence thereof 

April 1. — Another pubUc meeting was held for the 
purpose of determining upon the best means to be 
taken to secure the completion of the work« It was 
determined to petition the Governor to call an extra 
session of the Legislature in order that the matter of 
a further appropriation might be again considered. 

April 30. — Beall's Bow, consisting of nine small 
houses, on the west side of North Mechanic street 
above Bedford, was destroyed by fire. 

July 11.— Population of the town 2,384. In 1830 
it was 1,162. 

350 HISTORY OF C7UMBERLAND. [1841-42. 

May 18, 1841. — Mayor, James Smith ; Councilmen, 
E. Easter, Benjamin Simkins, J. G. Hofiinan, George 
Shuck, Martin Rizer of M., George Blocher. Clerk, 
S. A. Swartzwelder. 

January 15, 1842. — A little daughter of Theophilus 
Beall, 4 years of age, was accidentally burned to 
death, her clothing having taken fire from an open 
fire place. 

February 28. — The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company, during the construction of its road in the 
vicinity of Cumberland, paid its employees in its 
notes. For some months they passed current at their 
face value, but on this date the merchants of the 
town held a meeting and determined that thencefor- 
ward they would accept them only at a discount of 
20 per cent. In Baltimore they were subject to a 
discount of 25 per cent. The Good Intent Stage 
Company were then issuing "shinpla^ters" which 
commanded their full value, and were redeemable on 

May 18. — Mayor, John Grephart; Councilmen, 
George Mattingly, Martin Rizer of M., Samuel 
Eckles, James A. Annan, George Shuck, and Arch. 
McNeill. Clerk, S. A. Swartzwelder. 

The new Council contracted with Nelson Beall, 
for the construction of a market house, which was 
finished in 1843, at a cost of $1,700. 

October 5. — Sheriff, Normand Bruce. Delegates, 
W. V. Buskirk, John Neff and John Pickell. 

County Commissioners: John Brobst, Henry 
Bruce, Peter Yeast, G. Fazenbaker, H. Kreigbaum, 
Alexander King, George M. Reid, L. M. Jamison, 

1842.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 351 

Henry Bevans, Robert Lashly, and John Frantz. 
The following was the assessment of property in 
Cumberland in January: 

Lands and tenements $452,229 

Slaves 40,100 

Stock in trade 105,985 

Bsnk and other stocks 61,877 

Private secarities 200,273 

Live stock 23,327 

Household furniture 32,440 

Plate 2,488 

Gold and silver watches 3,661 

Other property 8,738 

Total 4931,118 

November 1. — ^The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
was on this date opened to Cumberland, and the 
wonderful locomotive made its first appearance here. 
No other event has ever transpired in the history of 
the place which created so much pleasurable excite- 
ment. Business was entirely suspended, and men, 
women and children gathered about the terminus of 
the road to witness the arrival of the trains. From 
the mountain tops, and valleys, throughout the 
adjoining country, the people came in crowds, and 
the town was in a fever of excitement for many 

The opening of this road proved the inauguration 
of a new era in the history of the town. This was 
made the point of exchange for passengers and 
merchandize between the East and West. Hotels 
were erected for the accommodation of travelers, and 
large ware houses, along the railroad tracks, for the 
storing of goods which were to be transhipped from 
cars to wagons for the West, and from wagons to 
cars for the East. The facilities thus furnished for 


rapid transportation induced many persons to make 
the journey across the mountains, and the stage 
companies were compelled to build new coaches and 
to erect large stables Every morning and evening 
upon the arrival of the cars long lines of stages drew 
up in front of the hotels. Inside they carried nine 
passengers, and outside one on the seat with the 
driver. In the "boot" and on the roof was placed 
the baggage. When all were loaded, at a given 
signal, a dozen whips would crack, a dozen four-horse 
teams would take the road, and dash through the 
streets at a brisk trot, which would be kept up until 
Frostburg was reached, in less than two hours. 
Here horses were exchanged, and up the mountain 
grade they went, on their way to Wheeling. 

In a little while after the completion of the railroad 
to Cumberland, the National Road became a thorough- 
fare such as the country has never before or since seen, 
for a like distance. On every mile of the road were 
to be seen stages, carriages, and heavy freight wagons, 
carrying tons of merchandize piled up under their 
canvaehcovered bows, drawn by six powerful horses. 
In addition to these, great droves of cattle, hogs, 
sheep, &c., were daily on the road. Taverns were 
to be found every few miles, with jolly landlords, who 
knew all the teamsters, drivers and guards. Those 
were "good old times," and the "pike boys" still 
living look back to them with many a sigh of regret. 

May 19, 1843. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Council- 
men, A. McNeill, Greorge Shuck, A. L. Withers, 
Samuel Eckles, Benjamin Simkins, and John Gephart. 
Clerk, S. A. Swartzwelder. 

1843.] LOCAL INCIDENTS, 353 

This Council, under the energetic inspiration of 
Mayor Shriver, made great improvements in the 
town. Grades were established on all the principal 
streets, and sidewalks laid on Mechanic street almost 
its entire length. Baltimore, Liberty, Bedford and 
George streets were paved, and new bridges built 
over the mill race, and paved with stone. The Blue 
Spring was improved and walled up, and protected 
by ordinance. Late in the fall Washington street 
was paved to Smallwood street. 

The steadily increasing tide of passengers passing 
to the East and West, over this route, led to still 
greater enterprise in the supply of stages as a means 
of conveyance. "The National Road Stage Com- 
pany," owned by Stockton & Stokes, found an active 
competitor in the "Good Intent Stage Company," the 
owners of which were Wra. H. Still, John A. Woert, 
Alpheus Beall and Thomas Shriver. In the summer 
of 1843 Reesides & Sons started the "June Bug Line," 
and a short time afterwards the keepers of the 
taverns along the line of the National Road, put on 
a splendidly equipped set of stages and horses, and 
established the "Landlord's Line." This company 
had many advantages, as the active, energetic men 
who fed the passengers were the owners, and 
constantly exerted themselves to make it popular. 
Amongst them were John W. Weaver, Joseph Dilley, 
Samuel Luman and William Willis. Still another 
line was put on the road^ between Hagerstown and 
Wheeling, by Peters, Moore & Co., and known as 
the "Pioneer Line." The competition became so 

great that the June Bug Line was driven off the 


road^ and the Baltimore and Ohio Rairoad Company 
entered into a new agreement with the two old 
companies by which they were to have an advantage 
of $2 per passenger over the "Landlords' Line." This 
created great excitement along the entire route, and 
it was liberally discussed in the newspapers, until 
the railroad company took alarm, and advised the 
old companies to buy out the Landlords. This was 
done, and the "National" and the "Good Intent" were 
then left to all the honors and profits, and accumu- 
lated large sums of money, in the ten years follow- 

July 22. — -Abraham Frey, living near Selbysport, 
was murdered by William S. Chrise, a short distance 
from the murdered man's house. Chrise was a large, 
rugged man, and for some time had been on undue 
terms of intimacy with Mrs. Frey, which led her 
husband to express his desire that Chrise should 
not come to his house. Chrise resented this, and 
threatened to kill Frey, and take his wife for himself; 
and did on one occasion endeavor to take her off. 
On the 22d of July, Chrise met Frey near his house, 
in the the woods, and struck him with a hoe, the blow 
falling on the back of his head and crushing the 
skull. The murderer then concealed the body of his 
victim behind a fallen tree, where it was found some 
days later. Chrise was then arrested and brought to 
Cumberland, where he was confined in jail until the 
16th of October, when his trial came up. On the 
17th a jury wa« obtained. Hanson B. Pigman and 
Wm. V. Buskirk were counsel for the prosecution. 
George A. Pearre, then a young lawyer at the bar. 


was counsel for the prisoner, and at his request the 
Court appointed William Price as additional counsel. 
The trial was concluded on the fourth day, and in 
twenty minutes the jury returned a verdict of 
"guilty of murder in the first degree." On the 20th 
the Court passed sentence upon the prisoner. 

The execution of Chrise took place in November. 
He was utterly unmoved throughout the trying 
ordeal, and was apparently the least interested of 
all the great crowd assembled on the occasion. He 
walked from the jail to the scaffold, which had been 
erected on the commons, at a point now lying very 
near Fayette street where it is crossed by the rail- 
road. On the route to the scaffold he was guarded 
by the "Cumberland Guards," commanded by Captain 
Alexander King, with a drum and fife in advance. 
The services at the place of execution were quite 
lengthy and impressive, several hymns being sung, 
in all of which the prisoner joined. During the 
intervals Chrise sat calmly chewing tobacco, occa- 
sionally rising from his seat to spit beyond the fatal 
trap, as though fearing to soil it. Just before the 
last moment he sang in a clear, loud and unbroken 
voice, a hymn of which the following couplet is a 

''This 18 the way I long have sought. 
And mourned because I found it not.*! 

The Sheriff, Normand Bruce, was deeply affected 
by the unpleasant duty he was called on to perform, 
and it was doubtless the most painful act of his 
life. When the rope was cut, several witnesses of 
the scene fainted, and much excitement prevailed 

356 HISTORY OF (CUMBERLAND. [1843-44. 

Amongst those who looked on, was a brother of the 
doomed man, who seemed to be but little affected, 
but remarked, "It is a pretty hard sight." When 
life became extinct the body was taken down, and 
conveyed to the old Court House, where the physi- 
cians made some experiments with it. It was 
afterwards dissected, and "old Joe Shumate," an 
eccentric man, and one regarded as very wicked, 
secured a portion of the skin and tanned it, the 
leather proving soft and pliable. 

November 6. — The Maryland and New York C!oal 
and Iron Company asked permission to build a rail- 
road track through the town, but the Council 
declined to grant it, unless the sense of the citizens 
should first be taken upon the question. 

May 19, 1844. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Council- 
men, John Gephart, George Shuck, A. McNeill* 
Benj. Simkins, A. L. Withers and Samuel Eckles. 
Clerk, Wm. R. McCulley. 

The Presidential campaign of this year was in 
many respects similar to that of 1840. The Whigs 
carried out a most enthusiastic campaign, reproducing 
the big ball, which a large delegation, clad in hunting 
shirts, took to Baltimore, and rolled through the 
streets of that city. Under the guidance of Thomas 
Shriver they erected on Fort Hill, just where the 
Episcopal Church now stands, a magnificent flag 
staff, rigged like the mast of a vessel, and at an 
elevation of 250 feet from the water of the creek 
floated a flag seventy feet in length. 

In October Howard Shriver and Upton R. 
Lowdermilk were appointed a commission to ascertain 

1845-47.] LOCAL INCIDENTS- 357 

the lines of such streets as were closed, and to 
require the owners thereof to open them and free 
them from obstruction. They opened Centre street 
through to the National Hoad, at the North end of 
the town. 

May 5, 1845,-r— Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Council^ 
men, John Grephart, George Shuck, A. McNeill, 
Samuel Eckles, Benj. Simkins, and A. L. Withers. 
Clerk, George F. Shryer. 

May 6, 1846. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Council- 
men, John Gephart, B. Simkins, Samuel Eckles, A. 
L. Withers, George Shuck, and A. McNeill. Clerk, 
George F. Shryer. 

November 6. — Archibald Carey purchased the 
Civilian, and took charge of it. 

December 31. — "The Mountaineer," anew weekly 
paper, established by Callan & Cherry. 

January 1, 1847. — Lieutenant W. H. Fowler, of 
the Artillery which served at Palo Alto, arrived for 
the purpose of opening an office to enlist recruits to 
till up the ranks of the First Artillery. A number 
of young men enlisted. 

The assessed value of the property of the county, 
at this date, was $4,234,720; levy, $10,586.80. 

April 4. — A general celebration of our army's 
victories in Mexico was had. 

May 7. — A fire broke out at 4 p. M., in a small 
stable belonging to Joseph Dilley, corner George and 
Union streets. The large stable of the National 
Road Stage Company, near by, caught, and was 
burned to the ground. Two horses, four stages, and 
a large lot of grain were destroyed. W. F. Triplett's 

358 iiisTORV or (tumbeki^ind. [1847-48. 

dwelling took fire, and was partially consumed. The 
loss was about $5,000. 

May 11. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Councilmen, 
John Beall, Peter Gephart, J. M. Maguire, Joseph 
Hughes, John Humbird and J. W. Jones. Clerk, 
George F. Shryer. 

June 21. — George W. Clark, a young man 
living on Bedford street, stuck a pick-ax in the 
ground and sat down on a shingle, which he had placed 
on the point of the pick. The shingle split, and the 
sharp point of the implement penetrated his body, 
causing injuries from which he died in a few hours. 

June 24. — John Siders fired three shots from a 
revolver at a dancing master named Martin. The 
first shot passed through Martin s hat, and the third 
struck him in the shoulder. Martin lived in 
Frederick, and Siders alleged that he had caused a 
separation between him and his wife. Siders was 
tried and acquitted. 

During the summer of this year the Lena Furnace 
was built and put in operation. The iron ore was 
obtained from the Rose Hill estate. The venture 
proved unprofitable, and was abandoned. 

December 1. — William 0. Sprigg, cashier of the 
Mineral Bank, resigned, and Joseph H. Tucker, of 
New York, was elected to the office. 

Fulton and Polk streets were graded and paved; 
Frederick street was extended beyond Decatur, and 
the sidewalks on Decatur street were paved. 

April 2, 1848. — An alarm of fire, about 11 o'clock 
at night, aroused the inhabitants, and the sky was 
illumined by a brilliant light, caused by the burning 

1848.] LOCAL IXCIDKXTS. 359 

of a small frame shanty at the base of Shriver s Hill, 
where Independence street now lies. This building 
was used for storing powder, as the merchants were 
allowed to keep only small quantities in their stores. 
About 1,600 pounds of powder was stored in the 
house, and in a short while a terrific explosion 
occurred, which shook every house in the town, and 
made a report which was heard for a distance of 
twenty mile?. Fortunately no person was injured, 
though the windows throughout the town were shat- 
tered. The large and handsome brick residence of 
Mrs. M. C. Sprigg, in the grove (now occupied by 
Judge John Coulehan), was much damaged, some 
of the walls being cracked, and the structure being 
jarred from the foundations to the roof. The fire was 
the malicious work of incendiaries, and, although a 
reward of $250 was offered for their discovery, they 
were never detected. 

The Mineral Bank building (now occupied by the 
First National Bank) was built and occupied early 
in 1848. 

March 30. — The Mineral Bank closed its doors, 
and the officers issued a card, stating that the sus- 
pension was due to the failure of Joseph S. Lake & 
Co., of New York, who had a large amount of the 
bank's notes, drafts and bills in their hands for col- 

April 10. -The Mineral Bank opened its doors, 
and resumed operations, the indebtedness of Lake & 
Co., having been secured. 

May 12. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Councilmen, 
•Tohn Gephart, Georgi* M. Reid, James Anderson, 


Peter Gephart, W. W. McKaig and George Shuck. 
Clerk, George F. Shryer. 

This Council divided the town into two districts, 
the first comprising all that part lying South of 
Baltimore street and all West of Will's Creek; the 
second embracing the remainder of the town. It 
was ordered that the taxes levied should be expended 
in the respective districts in which collected. 

June 5. — The Cumberland Savings Bank was 
organized and went into operation. J. R. Annan, 
President; Robert Bruce, Cashier. 

In 1847 the Belvidere Hall Association had been 
organized, the officers being: President, Thomas I. 
McKaig; Directors, A. Cowton, G. W. Clabaugh 
and Joseph Shriver; Secretary, William O. Sprigg; 
Treasurer, E. T. Shriver. They erected Belvidere 
Hall, and thus furnished the public a very creditable 
place for public amusements. 

July 10th, Belvidere Hall was opened for the first 
time, by Edmund Peale, of Philadelphia, lesse, with 
the Virginia Serenaders. 

The first telegraph line erected here was com- 
pleted in August, and extended from Cumberland to 
Bedford. The builder was Henry O'Reily. 

Another line between Cumberland and Baltimore 
was opened a few weeks later, and the office wa8 
located in a frame building, about where Mr. Alpheus 
BealVs residence now stands. 

The principal hotels at this time were the " United 
States," (now "St. Nicholas") kept by A. Cowton; 
the "Barnum," kept by Barnum & Stephens; the 
"Virginia Hotel," kept by Washington Evans; the 

1848-49.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 361 

"National" kept by James Searight, and afterwards 
by James Black. 

October 4. — ^County Commissioners: John Hoye, 
Wm. Fear, Robert Ross, Francis Mattingly, Daniel 
Wineow, Peter Smouse^ James Twigg, L. Benton, 
George Robinette and Isaac Thompson ; Sheriff, John 

November 3. — At the Presidential election the 
vote for Cumberland was 713 for Cass, and 517 for 
Taylor; in the County 1,619 for Cass and 1,579 for 

The Whig miners at Eckhart had a cannon cast at 
the foundry of A. B. Tower in Cumberland. It was 
made of iron from ore mined in Allegany County, 
fused by Allegany coal, and was named "Allegany." 
They fired fifteen guns as a salute to "old Zack/' 
one gun for each vote of Frostburg s majority. 

In November the Maryland Mining Company was 
engaged in building its railroad through the Narrows, 
and across the Creek to the basin, near Washington 

December 30. — Under the weight of a heavy fall 
of snow, the shed of the Good Intent Stage Com- 
pany fell. Mr. Thomas Reid was caught under it> 
and had his leg broken. 

January 12, 1849. — ^The Town Council passed a 
resolution giving the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
the privilege of using steam power on the line of their 
road within the limits of the corporation, in per- 
petuity, on condition that the speed of trains should 
be limited to six miles per hour, inside the corporate 




Jauuary 16. — Miles Alwine, a stage driver, was 
shot and killed by William G. Mitchell, at a house 
of ill-repute, on North Centre street. 

February 4. — Samuel Jenkins, a colored man, died 
at Lancaster Ohio, aged 115 years. He was bom a 
slave, and was the property of Captain Broadwater, 
of Fairfax county, Va., and drove a provision train 
over the mountains, in the Braddock campaign. 
He was doubtless the last of the men who took 
part in that disastrous affair. 

February 22. -General Taylor arrived here finom 
the West, and stopped at Bamum's Hotel. In the 
evening he had an enthusiastic reception, and made 
a speech from a window, though feeble and suffering 
from a fall he had at Madison, Indiana. 

March 5. — On this evening the United States 
Hotel was the scene of great excitement. The pro- 
prietor of the hotel was A. Cowton, a highly esteemed 
gentleman, who had some years before married Mrs. 
Quantrel, the former wife of Jesse D. E. Quantrel. 
Quantrel was a finely formed, handsome man, with a 
soft voice, and polished manners. He was possessed 
of a naturally fine mind, and had read and studied 
much. While quite a young man he wooed and won 
an estimable young lady, of good family, and they 
lived together in Williamsport, Washington county, 
Md. For a year after marriage their wedded life was 
happy. Becoming embarrassed, he made application 
for the benefit of the bankrupt laws, and was ailer- 
wards arrested on a charge of fraudulent insolvency^ 
and was confined in the jail for six months, whither 
his faithful wife followed him, sharing his confinement. 

1849.] JESSE D. E. QUANTREL. 363 

Upon trial, he was acquitted, and set at liberty, after 
which he removed to St. Louis. He was there 
guilty of fraudulent practices, and was thrown into 
prison, but was released through a compromise 
effected by his wife, on condition that he would 
return with her to Maryland. They came as far East 
as Cincinnati, and then went to New Orleans, where 
he shamefully neglected his much abused wife, and 
plunged into dissipation. Her health gave way 
under the mental suffering she endured, and, stung 
with temporary remorse, he abandoned his haunts, 
and they started again for Maryland. While on the 
river, however, a few days after leaving New Orleans, 
he committed a forgery on a Cincinnati bank, for 
which he was arrested, and sent to the Cincinnati 
jail. After seven months, she secured his release on 
bail, which he forfeited, and made his way to 
Hagerstown. True to his evil instincts, he committed 
another forgery before reaching that place, and was 
again imprisoned, but soon escaped. Other crimes of 
a similar nature followed, until finally he was sent to 
the Pennsylvania penitentiary for forgery, and served 
a term of three years. His wife, at the solicitation 
of her friends, finally determined to free herself from 
so bad a man, and the Maryland Legislature annulled 
the marriage. This made Quantrel furious, and he 
threatened to wreak a fearful revenge upon her and 
her friends. Upon his release from prison, however, 
he quickly married a Philadelphia woman, and in a 
few weeks was again arrested for forgery, and sent to 
the penitentiary for seven years. Mrs. Quantrel then 
married Mr. A. Cowton, and they took up their 


residence in Cumberland, where they were highly 
esteemed. Quantrel's imprisonment came to an end 
in the summer of 1848; but nothing was heard of 
him here until on the 5th of March, 1849, he arrived 
in Cumberland, on the evening train. He at once 
inquired for Mrs. Cowton, at the hotel, (learning that 
Mr. Cowton was absent,) and was shown to her 
room by the unsuspecting servant. Entering the 
room, where the lady was seated alone, he locked the 
door, and seized her, with a threat to kill her. The 
lady cried for help, when Quantrel caught her by the 
throat, threw her to the floor, placed his knee on her 
breast, and attempted to shoot her, but for some reason 
his pistol missed fire. While he was in the act of 
drawing a knife, a number of gentlemen came to her 
rescue, and Quantrel was securely bound with a rope 
and committed to jail. On the 19th of April he was 
tried, convicted and sentenced to five years imprison- 
ment in the county jail, and a fine of $500. He 
soon became a favorite at the prison, and was per- 
mitted to walk about the grounds, becoming in fact a 
a sort of assistant jailor. 

On the 20th of November, 1851, he was pardoned 
by the Governor, on condition that he should leave 
the State and never return. 

Quantrel afterwards led a life of criminal romance, 
a portion of the time under the name of Dr. Hayne, 
and is said to have married no less than six ladies, 
some of whom were of high social standing. During 
the civil war between the States, he became a noto- 
rious bushwhacker and robber, and finally died about 
the time of the close of hostilities. 

1849.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 365 

The extent of the passenger travel, over the 
National Road during 1849 was immense, and the 
report of the agents showed that from the 1st to the 
20th of March, the number of persons carried was 

The Post Office was on this date removed to a one- 
story frame building, which stood back some forty 
feet from the curb, on Baltimore street, adjoining the 
Savings Ba^k, where Reynold's block now stands. 
James C. Magraw was the Postmaster. 

May 14. — Mayor, Thos. P. White; Councilmen, 
A Gronder, Baptist Mattingly, Samuel Soyster, John 
B. Widener, Gerrard S. Watts, and Francis Madore. 
Clerk, John T. Hoblitzell. 

Liberty street was extended from Baltimore to 

June 2. — Thomas Shriver, who had been for so 
many years Mayor, and under whose administration 
so many important improvements had been made, 
delivered his farewell address to the Council. It is 
not probable that Cumberland will ever again have 
a Mayor who will so generously devote his time to 
the public good or leave so many monuments to his 
energy, zeal, good judgment and selfHBacrifice. 

In the summer of 1849 the Council ordered 
the destruction of the old tavern building near 
Baltimore street, as it had become a nuisance. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company was 
engaged at this time in extending its road to the 
Ohio River. Surveys had been made for a line on 
the Virginia side of the river, and the citizens fearing 
that route might be adopted, presented to the Com- 

366 HISTORY or Cumberland. [1849. 

pany many reasons why the road should be 
taken through Cumberland. Eventually the Virginia 
project was abandoned, and the route through 
Cumberland detennined upon. During this year the 
construction of the splendid viaduct across the town 
was commenced. 

June 18. — Hugh Walker, a watchman of the 
railroad company at the depot, was run over by the 
cars at the crossing at Baltimore street, and wan 

June 27. — A convention of the Presidents and 
Directors of coal companies, individual proprietorei 
and lessees of lands, engaged in coal mining in the 
county, was held at the Court House, and resolutions 
adopted for the organization of a Board of Trade, 
which should have the power of regulating the rates 
of mining, and the prices at which coal should be 
sold at different points. 

For several years James C. Magraw had been 
principal of the Academy, but upon his appointment 
as Postmaster he resigned, and Allen P. Weld, of 
Boston, was made principal. He had for his assist- 
ant W. H. Boardman, and Captain De Hass was 
engaged as Military Instructor. The new principal 
declared the Academy building insufficient for the 
acconmiodation of the pupils, and the Trustees at 
once secured from the citizens subscriptions for the 
erection of a suitable structure. The County Com- 
missioners appropriated for the purpose the lot 
occupied by the old Clerk's offices, adjoining the 
jail. On this site was built the present Academy 
building, which has a frontage of 45 feet and a depth 

1849,] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 367 

of 60 feet; it is two stories high, with a Grecian 
portico, eight feet wide, sustained by Doric columns. 
The principal room on the second floor, is 42 feet 
square, and has recitation rooms adjoining. The 
lower floor has a wide hall and two large school 
rooms. The new building was occupied June 8, 1850. 

At the election in the fall Thomas I. McKaig 
received 1,682 votes for Congress, and William T. 
Hamilton 1,720. Hamilton was elected, receiving 
in the District 7,274 votes, against 7,158 for McKaig. 

The Delegates to the Legislature were J. Sands 
Fell, George B. M. Price, Jacob Reel and George 
Kildow . 

October 10. — The old engine house at the Balti- 
more street bridge was removed to the Bedford Boad, 
and the warehouses of Clabaugh and Bruce erected. 

October 28. — A riot occurred on Bedford street, 
near the Market house, between the Far-Downs and 
Connaught men, who had been spending the Sabbath 
in drinking and carousing, and numerous ^^shilalehs'* 
were freely used,* to the great detriment of sundry 

November 7. — Henry Clay arrived from the 
West, on his way to Washington. He came from 
Wheeling in one of the coaches of the ^^Good Intent" 
line, and while passing through Uniontown it was 
upset by the carelessness of the driver. Mr. Clay 
was smoking a cigar at the time of the accident, 
and preserved such a degree of self-possession that 
he continued to puff* away very cooly, even when 
going over. 

February 18, 1850. — John J. Hickman, a destitute 


fellow, hanged himself under the platform of one 
of the warehouses of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 

At the January session of the Legislature the 
following acts were passed: Providing for the pur- 
chase of land and erection of an Alms House ; incor- 
porating the town of Frostburg; enlarging the powers 
and authority of the Councilmen of the town of 
Cumberland; authorizing the rebuilding of the jail, 
incorporating the Cumberland and Pennsylvania 

April 24. — Joseph Mumma was shot and killed by 
August Beerman and Joseph Stick, both of whom 
fired upon him at the same instant. Mumma endeav- 
ored to enter the house of Mrs. Betzall, on the North 
end of Mechanic street, when the two men named ^ 
who were inside, shot him. They were arrested and 
sent to jail on a charge of murder. 

May 5. — Mayor, Thomas Shriver; Councilmen, 
Frederick Shipley, John Beall, John B. Widener, 
Jesse Korns, George Hughes, and F. B. Tower. 

County Commissioners : John T. Edwards, Nor- 
mand Bruce, Gustavus Beall, George Rizer, and John 
J. Hoffinan. 

June 11. — For years the completion of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal had been looked forward to by 
the people of Maryland with the greatest anxiety 
and brightest anticipations Cumberland, more than 
all others, was interested, as her future depended upon 
it. And now the long looked for hour was near at 
hand. On this date the western level was declared 
ready for the current. At 5 o'clock p. m., Charles 

1850,] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 369 

B. Fisk, the Chief Engineer, opened the wickets in 
the feed-gates, and the waters of the Potomac rushed 
gladly into the new channel, which was soon to prove 
an artery of vital import to the interests of the 
County. Great crowds of people gathered at the 
locks to witness the ceremony. When the level was 
filled, a party went to the boat yard of J. H. Clark, 
on the Creek, above the bridge, and were furnished 
with a new canal boat, on which several hundred 
persons embarked, and floated down to the locks. 
Here Major Thomas 6. Harris was requested to 
name the boat, which was to be the first to go into 
the canal. Major Harris promptly responded in a 
brief speech, concluding by christening the boat the 
"Cumberland." Amidst great enthusiasm the "Cum- 
berland" was then passed through the lock into the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and floated calmly on 
the bosom of the great water-way. A more complete 
account of this important work will be given in future 

June 27. — During the prevalence of a severe 
thunder storm, the stage stable of the National Road 
Stage Company was struck by lightning, and burned 
to the ground, together with James Sprigg's livery 

July 4. — A daily line of stages was established 
between Cumberland and Bedford. An efibrt was 
made to organize a company to build a plank road 
to Bedford, but proved unsuccessful. 

During the summer of this year there was great 
rivalry between the fire companies, which led to 

nightly acts of incendiarism, and riots. The Council 



finally adopted severe measures, whereby the evil 
was checked. 

The small-pox broke out with considerable viru- 
lence, and was not eradicated for several months. 

A plank road was built from Cumberland to West 
Newton, Pa., at the head of steamboat navigation 
on the Youghiogany, The o£Bcers were Thomas 
Shriver, of Cumberland, President; James C. Atchi- 
son, William H. Steele, Alpheus Beall, A. M. 
Shoemaker and John A. Woart, managers; and Dr. 
Howard Kennedy, Treasurer. 

In September, Thomas McLaughlin, an Irishman^ 
employed on the works of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, near Oldtown, killed his wife, and buried 
her body under the earth at a point that was being 
filled up to grade, expecting the carts to be dumped 
there in the morning, whereby she would be entirely 
hidden. The body was discovered, however, and the 
murderer was arrested, tried and convicted. Judge 
Weisel sat in the case, and John M. Brewer was the 
Prosecuting Attorney, assisted by Henry W. Hofi- 
man, then a young and rising lawyer. On the 7th of 
March, 1851, McLaughlin waa hanged, in a hollow 
on the old pike, a short distance beyond the termina- 
tion of Green street. The weather was cool, and a 
slight snow fell. There was a great crowd of people 
at the scene of execution, embracing men, women and 
children, many of whom came from adjoining States. 

September 6. — William Mitchell, who shot and 
killed Michael AUwine, a stage driver, in January, 
was arrested at LaFayette, Ind., and was released 
on a writ of habeas corpus. He was afterward 

1850-51.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 371 

brought back, and tried. The jury rendered a ver- 
dict of " not guilty," on the ground of self-defense. 

At the same term of Court, November, 1850, 
August Beerman was tried for the murder of Joseph 
Mumma, and acquitted. 

The population of Cumberland at this time was 
6,105, Frostburg, 790, and of the County, 22,799. 

January 2, 1851. — James Evans and George W. 
Hoover, commenced the publication of a new paper 
called "The Unionist." 

The Mount Savage Iron Company, in conjunction 
with the Messrs. Lynn, had constructed the Potomac 
Wharf, for loading boats with coal, and extended its 
railroad from the main line, at the Narrows, to the 
river, passing down the west side of the Creek, and 
through the deep cut of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad to the river. This company also engaged 
largely in the manufacture of ^^ continuous" railroad 
iron, and fire brick, at Mount Savage, giving employ- 
ment to hundreds of men. 

It also extended its railroad from Mount Savage, 
to the foot of the hill at Frostburg, where it received 
the coal from the mines opened at that point. 

The Gerge's Creek Coal and Iron Company, whose 
coal lands are located at Lonaconing, during this 
year constructed a railroad from that point to Pied- 
mont, where it connected with the Baltimore and 
Ohio Road, and thus prepared for the transportation 
of its own coal. These improvements led to the 
rapid development of the coal fields, and largely 
enhanced the value of all the property lying along 
the lines of the new roads. 


Mayor, Daniel Saylor; Councilmen, John B. Wide- 
uer, Ephraim Shipley, G. S. Watts, B. M. Bloche'r, 
S. A. Vrooman, and D. W. McCleary. 

County Commissioners : R. Fairall, John Frantz, 
T. W. Dawson, H. Brotemarkle, H. D. Carleton, 
Jesse Wilson, E. R. Engle, A. Chisholm, Leonidas 
Be vans, George McCuUoh, F. L. Friend and U. R. 

April 30. — Richard W. Clark, a shoemaker, at 
Flintstone, was arrested on a charge of murdering his 
wife, by strangulation, and sent to the penitentiary 
for eighteen years. He afterwards confessed the 

October 1. — The election for Congressmen resulted 
in the county in 1,566 votes for Wm. T. Hamilton, 
Democrat, and 1,542 for J. Philip Roman, Whig. 
Hamilton's majority in the District was 232. 

State Senator, Wm. Weber; Delegates to General 
Assembly, John Everett, Richard Fairall, Jefferson 
M. Price, and John Frantz, of Joseph. 

Register of Wills, Wm. R. McCulley; State's Attor- 
ney, Josiah H. Gordon; Sheriff, George M. Blocher. 

Orphans' Court : Jacob Fechtig, Edward Mullen, 
and Jasper Robinett. 

County Commissioners: J. W. Browning, George 
Matthews, Eli Engle, G. W. Dawson, C. A. Scott, N. 
D. Smith, A. Willisim, Elza McElfish, James Watson, 
Jesse Wilson, J. McC. Mason, and Perry Schultz. 
Clerk of the Court, Horace Resiey. 

A passenger packet was placed on the canal and 
made regular trips, between Cumberland and Geoi^e- 
town, carrying a full list of passengers. 

1851-52.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 373 

November 2. — The Mountaineer and Pioneer Hose 
Companies visited Baltimore, and took part in the 
Firemen's Parade there, the former as the guests of 
the New Market Company, and the latter as guests 
of the Vigilant Company. Our firemen made a fine 
display, and were highly complimented. The 
Mountaineers had their apparatus surmounted with 
a splendid buck, which was afterwards served up for 

February 11, 1852 . — A distressing tragedy occurred 
on the evening of this day, which plunged a large 
number of persons into the deepest distress, and 
created the most intense excitement. About 7 o'clock 
in the evening Robert Swann, stepped into the large 
room used as an office and bar-room, of the Bamum 
Hotel, armed with a double-barrelled shot gun, with 
which he instantly fired at William O. Sprigg, of 
Joseph, who was seated near the stove. Imme- 
diately upon seeing Swann raise the gun, Sprigg 
sprite V door opining int. . ride yrf, .hedJS 
was fastened, however, and being unable to open it 
he turned to escape through another door, some 
twelve feet distant, opening into the dining room. 
The first shot fired by Swann pasf^ed through the 
woodwork of the door, a few stray shots taking effect 
in the object of his aim. Sprigg had hardly taken 
half a dozen steps when Swann fired again, with 
deadly aim, the charge entering the back of Sprigg's 
neck at the base of the skull, and lodging in the 
pupil of his right eye, causing instant death. Swann, 
who made no effort to escape, was arrested and con- 
signed to jail. This tragedy was the result of a 


quarrel which occurred between the two young men 
some month{^ previous. Both were of high social 
standing^ and the consequence was a great bitterness 
of feeling between their respective friends. On the 
6th of May, Swann's trial was begun. His Honor. 
Judge Perry, declined to sit in the case, being a near 
relative of the prisoner, and Judge J. J. Merrick, of 
Washington county, took his place on the bench. The 
prosecuting attorney. J. H. Gordon, before the jury 
had been fully impanelled, applied for a removal of 
the case, on the ground that an impartial trial could 
not be had here. The motion was argued at great 
length, and finally granted. Swann's counsel then 
asked that he be admitted to bail ; after hours of 
argument, this too was granted, bail being fixed at 
$20,000. The greatest excitement now prevailed 
amongst the friends of all parties, and on the one 
side this resulted in an indignation meeting, and the 
passage of resolutions condemning Judge Merrick's 
action, after which a crowd of men carried an effigj- 
of the Judge through the streets on a scaffold, and 
burned it in front of the Revere House. Eventu- 
ally Swann was tried in Washington County and 

April 1. — Washington Evans left the Virginia 
House, and took the United States Hotel, the 
former proprietor, A. Cowton, having removed to 
Baltimore. On the 1st of June, J. A. Heffelfinger 
left Bamum's Hotel and opened the Revere House, 
which had just been finished in the most attractive 

March 9. — The annual Conference of the Metho 

1852.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 375 

dist Episcopal Church was held here, remaining in 
session one week. 

April 18. — A great freshet occurred, the river and 
creek both overflowing their banks. The water 
broke through the wall between Bruoe*s and Brengle s 
warehouses, on Canal street, and a considerable 
portion of the town was overflowed. Both the railroad 
and the canal were badly damaged, the latter suffer- 
ing to the extent of $80,000. 

April 18, — David Shriver died, in the 84 th year of 
his age. He had been engineer in charge of the 
construction of that portion of the National Road lying 
between Cumberland and Washington, Pa., and was 
at the time of his death President of the Cumberland 

March 1.— The City Council concluded that it was 

necessary to establish a night watch, and passed an 

ordinance for that purpose, laying off the town into 

districts, and appointing a captain and six watch- 

May 12. — Mayor, John Hayes; Councilmen, H, 
D. Carleton, Jesse Koms, James Duff, Samuel Ma- 
guire, F. M. Gramlich, and D. W. McCleary. 

The corporation tax was fixed at 50 cents on each 
$100, and $1,000 was appropriated towards building 
an engine house for the Mountaineer Hose Company, 
the building being located on South Liberty street, 
comer of Hay street. 

May 21. — H. W. Hoffman purchased a half interest 
in "The Civilian," and became associate editor with 
Archibald Carey. 

October 7. — In order to furnish better facilities for 


protection against fire, the authorities had large 
cisterns built in the streets in various sections of the 
town. These proved very useful on many occasions^ 
and were relied upon until the establishment of the 
Holly system of water works, in 1871, when they 
became useless. 

January 10. — The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
was opened for travel between Cumberland and 
Wheeling, and two great excursion trains passed over 
the road, from Baltimore to the Western terminus. 
The effect was soon felt in Cumberland, as most of 
the stage lines were taken off, and the great business 
of transferring merchandise at this point was largely 

February 7, 1853.— D. W. McCleary, James Duff 
and H. D. Carleton were appointed a committee to 
have the town surveyed, with a view to the exten- 
sion of the corporate limits. 

February 14. — ^^ Hoffman's Row," the three story 
block of buildings extending from Liberty to Centre 
streets, on Baltimore street, was set on fire by an 
incendiary, and a great conflagration resulted. The 
upper story of the block was burned from one street to 
the other, as well as four or five houses adjoining. The 
losses by fire, water, breakage, theft, &c., were very 
heavy. On the same day several other houses were 
set on fire, amongst them Belvidere Hall, the United 
States Hotel, and Semmes' block, corner Baltimore 
and Mechanic streets. Fortunately the fire was 
discovered in these buildings before any damc^ was 

March 7. — The Pioneer Hose Company having 

1853.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 377 

undertaken the construction of its new house, corner 
of Centre and Frederick streets, the city appropriated 
$1,000 towards paying for the same. 

March 7. — A great disaster occurred on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, one mile from the Cheat 
River bridge, on the heavy grade. While passing 
down the grade, the passenger train was thrown 
from the track, and several of the cars rolled down 
the mountain side. Seventeen persons were killed, 
and thirty-nine wounded badly. Almost every person 
on the train was more or less hurt. The killed and 
wounded were brought to Cumberland, and cared for 
at the Revere House. 

April 1. — Washington Evans took charge of 
Barnum's Hotel. 

The United States Hotel was improved, remodeled 
and greatly enlarged, by M. P. O'Hern, and opened 
as the finest hotel in Western Maryland. 

April 28.— The "Cumberland Telegraph," a 
weekly newspaper, had been established in 1851, 
by Hilleary & Ogden. On the above date T. E. 
Ogden sold his one-half interest to Aza Beall, who 
shortly afterward purchased Hilleary's share, and 
became sole editor and proprietor. 

Messrs T. I. McKaig, William W. McKaig, 
Alpheus Beall, J. H. Tucker, M. P. O'Hern, S. M. 
Semmes, M. 0. Davidson and A. T. Roberts formed 
a joint stock company, and erected and put into 
operation a cotton factory, which was located at the 
extreme north end of Centre street. The mill was 
managed by Ira Stanbrough. 

May 6. — Mayor, F. B. Tower; Councilmen, D. W. 



McCleary, John E. Russell, Jesse Koms, Joseph 
Hughes, Henrj Shuck and J. B. H. Campbell. 

Davidson street was graded and paved in June. 

The bridge over Will's Creek became unsafe, many 
of the timbers having rotted and given way, and 
in August it was propped up with heavy timbers. 
Steps were at once taken towards having it replaced 
by an iron structure. 

July 27. — The Postoffice was removed to No. 93 
Baltimore street, by W. A. Taylor, P. M., where it 
remained until November, 1869, when it was 
removed to a new building, erected for the purpose, 
on Centre street, between Baltimore and Frederick 
streets, Will H. Lowdermilk being the Postmaster. 

August 12. — Thomas Conner, jailor, was killed 
while engaged in coupling cars at the Cumberland 
Coal and Iron Company's wharf. 

A little daughter of U. Stineman, aged 8 years, 
fell into the race near Beall's mill, and was drovmed. 

August 13. — A son of Thomas Sheridan, aged 8 
years, fell into the canal, and was drowned. 

August 16. — A heavy rain of several days' duration 
caused the river and creek to overflow their banks 
and a great part of the town was inundated. Bedford, 
Centre, Liberty, Mechanic, Frederick and Baltimore 
streets were covered with water, and a great mass of 
filth and ooze was deposited in the streets, cellars, 
&c., on which the hot sun poured down for several 
days, generating disease. On the 17th a case of 
cholera occurred, and this was followed by others, the 
scourge soon becoming epidemic, and producing a 
panic. Thousands of people fled to the country, and 

1853-54.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 379 

to distant cities. For two weeks the town was 
almost depopulated, business having been abandoned. 
Those who remained, and escaped the disease, devoted 
themselves heroically to the care of the suflferers. 
At the expiration of two weeks frost came, fortunately 
somewhat earlier than usual, and the epidemic ter- 
minated. During that time there were fifty-five 
deaths from cholera. 

Prominent among those who gave themselves 
unremittingly to the relief of the sick, were J. H. 
C Morrison, W. H. Billmire, Asbury Simkins, 
Maria Shuck, Mrs. McGirr and Mrs. Bacon. The 
City Council in September, appropriated sums of 
money to each of these persons, in recognition of their 

May 1, 1854. — Stone arches were built over the 
race on South Liberty and Harrison streets, each 
costing about S700. 

The necessity for the immediate construction of a 
new bridge over Will's Creek became so apparent 
that active steps were at once taken by the County 
Commissioners. The board proposed to the City 
Council that the cost of the improvement should be 
divided between the County and the City^ the former 
to pay four-fifths of the cost, and the latter one-fiiflh. 
The proposition was promptly accepted, and a con- 
tract made with a Baltimore firm for the erection of 
an iron bridge of the Bollman pattern. The new 
structure was erected before the close of the year. 

May 7. — Mayor, A. L. Withers; Councilmen, 
Joseph Hughes, John B, Keller, John T, Peterman, 
B. M. Blocher, Joseph McCuUoh and James Sullivan. 


At this time the ground now occupied by Butler 8 
furniture rooms and factory, and the lots adjoining, 
were vacant, and poorly drained^ and constituted an 
unsightly marsh. The authorities caused a brick 
sewer to be constructed, crossing Centre and Balti- 
more streets, and running thence to the race on 
South Liberty street, by means of which tolerable 
drainage was secured. During heavy rains, however, 
this sewer now gets choked up and bursts, as its 
capacity is not equal to the volume of water flowing 
into it. 

November 10. — The city was, on this date, lighted 
^y S^j for the first time. The Cumberland Gas 
Light Company was organized in May, 1854, Messrs. 
Pericardus & Hoye, of New York, Joseph Shriver, E. 
T. Shriver and Alpheus Beall, of Cumberland, being 
the stockholders. The officers of the corporation 
first chosen were : Joseph Shriver, President; E. T. 
Shriver, Treasurer, and C. A. Seay, Superintendent. 
These gentlemen still occupy the positions to which 
they were then chosen. 

December 21. — The Council passed an order 
authorizing the erection of twenty iron lamp posts, 
on the principal streets, at a cost of $25 each, and 
contracted with the Gas Light Company to light them 
with gas at $30 each per annum. 

February 15, 1855. — The City Council entered 
into contract with Connor & Brant, for cleaning the 
streets, for one year, at $995. 

April 23. — Columbia street was graded and paved 
from Bedford street to the alley north of the viaduct. 

May 8. — Mayor, W. W. McKaig; Councilmen, 

1856.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 381 

John Beall, Wm. Gephart, Jesse Korns, Francis 
Madore, D. W. McCleary and H. Startzman. 

August 25. — An ordinance was passed for grading 
and paving Baltimore street, between Mechanic 
street and the new iron bridge. 

October 14. — This day marked the brutal murder 
of two citizens of Cumberland, by a Grerman adven- 
turer known as Frederick Miller. Miller's antece- 
dents were unknown, but he had been in Cumberland 
some weeks, and formed the acquaintance of Dr. J. 
F. C. Hadel, a practicing physician, and a popular 
gentleman. Miller, from some cause, became im- 
pressed with the belief that Dr. Hadel carried on his 
person a considerable sum of money, and with a view 
to securing it, he determined upon the Doctor's 
murder. On Sunday morning, October 14, he called 
on Dr. Hadel, and by some means induced him to go 
with him into the woods, on foot, taking him along 
the old turnpike, through Sandy Gap, to a point 
within sight of the National Road. When they 
arrived at the old school house, near the Eckhart 
Railroad, Miller deliberately shot Dr. Hadel in the 
back, with a heavily loaded shot gun. The wound 
must have produced death in a few minutes. The 
wretch then stripped the body, hid the clothes under 
the floor of the school house, and then proceeded to 
sever the head from the body . After this he secreted 
the head in the crevices of some rocks, and dragged 
the mutilated remains into the woods and concealed 
them among the bushes. Miller then returned to the 
Doctor's office, evidently intending to rob it; but he 
found there Henry Graff, a young German, who was 


a carver of wood, in the employ of K. H. Butler, and 
who was a friend of Hadel's and a student of medicine 
in his leisure hours. Miller induced Graflf to accom- 
pany him, also, and they took the same route the 
unfortunate Hadel had taken in the morning. At 
Steel's house, the murderer stopped to get his shot 
gun, which he had left there after killing Hadel. 
They then went a short distance further, when they 
reached the culvert on the old pike. Here the 
monster emptied the contents of his gun into the 
back of Graflf, and taking the body dragged it into 
the culvert and covered it with stones. Again he 
returned to Dr. Hadel's ofl&ce, which he robbed of 
jewelry, clothing, books, medicines, &c., all of which 
he packed in a box; this he had removed, next 
morning, to his boarding house, on north Mechanic 

The disappearance of the murdered men led to 
much anxiety on the part of their friends, and when 
it became known that they were last seen on the 
pike with Miller, foul play was suspected. On 
Tuesday the fire bells were rung, and hundreds of 
persons went in search of the missing men. GraTs 
body wa^ found first, and a few hours later the muti- 
lated remains of Dr. Hadel. Miller was arrested in 
his bed, at midnight, and taken to jail. Court being in 
session, he was immediately indicted, tried and con- 
victed of murder in the first degree. Judge Perry 
passed sentence upon him, and the doomed man was 
the most unconcerned of all in the court room. 

On the 4th of January, 1856, he was hanged. The 
execution took place near the almshouse, and although 

1855.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 383 

the day was bitterly cold, thousands upon thousands 
of persons flocked through the deep snow to witness 
the horrible sight. The prisoner was wholly 
unmoved, and when his spiritual advisers, Rev. M. 
Mair and Rev. W. T. D, Clemm, told him he was 
about to die, and that he might say anything he 
desired, he raised his right hand, and said : "With 
my last breath, and in the full knowledge of the 
judgment awaiting me, I deny all knowledge of the 
death of Dr. Hadel and Henry Graff. I am pre- 
pared to meet their spirits, in the presence of God, 
as witnesses of my innocence." 

The execution then immediately took place, Dr. 
John Everett, the Sheriflf, performing that unpleasant 

The evidence against Miller was undeniable. He 
even went so far as to wear Dr. Hadel's studs after 
the murder, and when arrested had them in his 

November, 10, — The candidates for Congress were 
Wm. T. Hamilton, Democrat, and Henry W. Hoff- 
man, American. Hofiman was elected by a majority 
of 732. Hamilton carried Allegany by 38 majority, 
and Hoffman carried Frederick by 716, and Washing- 
ton by 54 majority. 

December 3.— The Council passed an order appro- 
priating $100 to Captain James M. Schley, of the 
"Cumberland Guards," and Captain J. H. Tucker, of 
the "Cumberland Continentals," towards fitting up 
an armory. The old ten pin alley on Greorge street, 
opposite the Mineral Bank, was rented, and used for 
this purpose. These companies became wonderfully 


proficient in the drill, and attracted a great deal 
of attention on their visits to other cities. 

December 14. — The extension of the Pittsburgh 
and Connellsville Railroad to Cumberland was 
undertaken in 1854, and Hon. Andrew Stewart and 
M. 0. Davidson appeared before the City Council, 
and submitted a proposition from the Company with 
a view to securing the city's aid in the matter. The 
Mayor called a public meeting at Belvidere Hall, 
which was largely attended, on which occasion Mr. 
Stewart addressed the citizens, explaining the inten- 
tions and desires of the Company. The meeting 
passed resolutions endorsing the projected improve- 
ment, and requesting the City Council to subscribe 
$200,000 towards the completion of the work, on 
condition that the company should establish its 
machine shops and other local improvements in 
Cumberland. This was agreed upon, and the city 
went so far as to have its bonds prepared, but they 
were never issued, some insurmountable difficulties 
having occurred in Pennsylvania. The extension 
to Cumberland was then delayed for nearly twenty 

May 12,1856. — Mayor, Joseph H. Tucker; Council- 
men, William R. Beall, Thomas Devecmon, Jesse 
Korns, Henry Koms, D. W. McCleary, and John 
B. Widener. 

October 6. — Small wood street, between Washing- 
ton and Cumberland streets, was graded and paved. 

An ordinance was passed forbidding burials inside 
of the corporate limits. 

May 11, 1857. — Mayor, Jas. W.Jones; Councilmen, 

1857-68.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 385 

Henry Hagan, Henry Korns, Hanson Willison, John 
Longabaugh, A. McEldowney, and F. M. Gramlich. 
H. McKeon, Clerk. 

June 22. — An order was passed in the Council for 
the construction of a brick arch bridge over the race, 
at the foot of Mechanic street. 

An appropriation of $50 was made towards the 
purchase of a town clock, to be placed in the tower 
of the German Lutheran Church, Bedford street. 

October 5. — The Mineral Bank closed its doors, 
and appointed Trustees to settle up its business. 
The Trustees were Messrs. John Beall and George A. 
Pearre; the total liabilities amounted to $199,681.33. 
The losses sustained by the creditors of the bank 
were small, since the Trustees paid them at 83^ 
cents on the dollar, besides defraying all the expenses 
incurred by this method of settlement. 

November 5. — Hon. Jacob M. Kunkel was elected 
to Congress over Hon. H. W. Hofiman, by a small 
majority. The vote in Allegany County stood, 
Kunkel, 2,236; Hoffman, 1,843. 

December 7. — The Council passed an order for the 
sale of Plum Alley to the German Catholic, or 
Redemptorist, Association, for the sum of $300. 
The sale was never effected, however, and the alley 
has never been closed up. 

January 4, 1858. — An order was passed by the 

Council for the extension of the City limits, the line 

to run from the north east comer of Rose Hill 

Cemetery to the iron railroad bridge ; thence north to 

Stony Battery; thence to Mullen's Lime Kiln; thence 

to top of Shriver's Hill; thence south-east to T. I. 


McKaig's lot, on the Baltimore turnpike; thence to 
the top of McKaig's Hill , and thence along the bsu^e 
of the hills to the river, below Mertens boat yard. 

April 12. — An effort was made to secure the 
location of a national foundry at this place, as such 
an enterprise was talked of in government circles. 
The project was never carried into effect. 

May 9. — Mayor, D. W. McCleary; Councilmen, 
C. B. Thruston, J. B. Walton, W. 0. Sprigg, C. H. 
Ohr, Geo. Clark, and Michael Treiber. H. McKeon, 
Clerk. The tax was reduced to 40 cents, this year. 

In June the Commissioners had the Court House 
grounds inclosed by an iron fence, to take the place 
of a dilapidated wooden fence. 

June 18. — A little daughter of John Blackhurst fell 
into the water in the gas-holder cistern, at the gas 
works, and was drowned. 

November 27. — ^The Cumberland City Bank closed 
its doors, and J. R. Annan was appointed Trustee. 

April 6, 1859. — The Allegany County Bank was 
established, with a capital of $50,000, the oflBcers 
• being Dr. George Lynn, President, and A. C. Whet- 
more, Cashier. 

March 17.— 'The Civilian" and "The Telegraph" 
were united, and published under the name of *' The 
Civilian and Telegraph," the new proprietors being 
Evans & Maupin. 

The steam canal boats "Bluebird" and "Cathcart^*' 
arrived, having in tow several canal boats, the trip 
being made as an experiment. The result did not 
justify any further experiments in that direction. 

May 9. — Mayor, D. W. McCleary; Councilmen, H. 

1859.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 387 

Resley, Samuel Luman, C. H. Ohr, Jesse Korns, A. 
J. Ryland J. T. Shuck. 

June 30. — The Lynn Cement Mill took fire, and 
was whoU}^ destroyed. The owners rebuilt at once, 
and had the mill running in less than two months 
from the date of the fire. 

July 18. — President Buchanan and suite arrived, 
enroute to the Bedford Springs, and remained over 
night at the Revere House. 

July 20. — George T. Percy, a young man, 24 years 
of age, son of Douglas Percy, of Frostburg, was acci- 
dentally drowned while fishing in the river, near 
Brady's Mills, with a party of friends. 

September 6. — Captain Thomas Blair, who com- 
manded a company in the war of 1812-14, died at 
Frostburg, at an advanced age. By his own request 
he was buried with military honors by the Cumber- 
land Continentals. 

September 30. — George H. Drake, who killed Bene- 
dict M. Athey, in 1825, and who escaped from jail 
after he had been indicted for murder, returned to 
this place, and was promptly arrested. Drake had 
been absent for thirty-four years, being an old man 
at the date of his return. He was under the im- 
pression that his crime had been forgotten, and that 
the law would not trouble him after so many years 
had elapsed, but he had scarcely arrived ere the 
memory of his crime was revived, and he was again 
consigned to jail. In October he was arraigned, and 
tried on the indictment found a third of a century 
bofore. The trial excited a great deal of interest, 
and he was ably defended by Messrs. Pearre 


and Semmes. Some sixteen witnesses were ex- 
amined. The case occupied a whole day, the prose- 
cuting attorney, J. M. Schley, making good use of 
what little real testimony was to be had. The jury 
returned a verdict of ^'not guilty." 

April 8, 1860. — A heavy rainfall produced a freshet, 
which caused the creek and river to overflow, whereby 
several of the streets were inundated, but no material 
damage was sustained. 

April 11. — The furniture factory of K. H. Butler 
was destroyed by fire. Loss about $8,000. 

May 4. — Mayor, John Humbird; Councilmen, H. 
Resley, T. A. Ogle, Charles H. Smith, C. H. Ohr, 
Casper Cassan and John Snyder. 

The population of Cumberland at this time was 
shown by the census to be 7,300, and the assessable 
property $2,124,400. 

September 20. — Meshack Browning, one of the old 
settlers of Allegany County, died at his home in the 
Glades. Mr. Browning was a great hunter, and was 
the hero of an interesting book entitled " Forty-four 
Years of the Life of a Hunter," written and illustra- 
ted by E. Stabler, of Montgomery County, a very 
remarkable man, and published by Lippincott, of 
Philadelphia. Mr. Browning left quite a family of 
children, one of whom, Richard T. Browning, was 
elected to the House of Delegates from Garrett County, 
in 1875. 

At the election for President in November, Allegany 
gave 980 votes for Breckenridge, 1,203 for Douglass, 
1,521 for Bell, and 522 for Lincoln. 

State Senator, Thomas I. McKaig; Delegates, J. H. 

1860-61.] LOCAL INCIDENTS. 389 

Gordon, W. H. Barnard, D. W. McCleary and Aza 

The vote for Congress was as follows : 

J. M. Ennkel. H. W. Hoffman. 

Washington Coonty 2,642 2,842 

Frederick County 3,718 3,673 

Allegany County 2,288 2,201 

8,849 8.716 

Sheriff, Henry R. Atkinson; Judges of Orphans' 
Court, Moses Rawlings, Alexander King and Francis 

Hon. H. W. Hoffman was elected Sergeant-at- Arras 
of the House of Representatives, and served in that 
capacity till April, 1861, when President Lincoln 
appointed him Collector of the Port of Baltimore. 

December 18. — George, a son of William Wickard, 
7 years of age, while plajnng on the ice, on the creek, 
near the cement mill, broke through, and was drowned. 

Much excitement prevailed during the winter, in 
consequence of the secession movements in the South, 
and on the 17th of January, 1861, a public meeting was 
called for the purpose of considering the critical con- 
dition of affairs in the country, the call being largely 
signed by men of all political parties. The following 
were the oflScers of the meeting: President, George 
A. Pearre; Vice Presidents, H. P. Tasker, Richard 
Fairall, John McLaughlin, H. B. Elbin, Hanson Wil- 
lison, John Douglas, A. Chamberlin, Robert Bruce, 
G. M. Blocher, Jesse Koms, Francis Mattingly. 
Thomas Whalen, John Callen and Moses Rawlings. 

Secretaries. — J. J. McHenry and C. Slack. 

Strong Union speeches were delivered by Mr. 


Pearre, ex-Governor Francis Thomas, and Mr. 

A committee was appointed^ consisting of J. Philip 
Roman, William Shaw, C. M. Thruston, John M. 
Buchanan, William Walsh, J. G. Lynn, Joseph 
Shriver, Nelson Beall, S. M. Semmes and C. Slack, 
to propose resolutions for the consideration of the 
meeting. The committee submitted the following, 
which were unanimouslj^ adopted : 

Whereas, South Carolina and others of the cotton growing States, 
have declared themselves ont of the Union, absolved their people from 
its allep^iance, set at defiance the Constitution of the United States, 
nullified the laws of Congress, have torn from their citadels our national 
flag, and marshalling armies in open rebellion against the government: 
and whereas this rebellious strife has been provoked by a growing senti- 
ment among the Northern people against the institution of slavery, and 
because various non-slavenolding States have passed enactments to 
impede the due execution of the fugitive slave law, and because a great 
sectional party proclaiming that there shall be no more slave States, 
have elected a President of the United States; And whereas it is proper 
that the people should meet together and take council with one another as 
to what course they should pursue in this painful crisis. We the people 
of Allegany county in general mass convention assembled, do there- 

Eesolvef That the present form of Government, the Constitution and 
Union of States, were the result of a war, which for the selfsacrificing 
patriotism of its heroes, has won the admiration of the civilized world, 
and under its wise provisions the American people have become the 
most free, prosperous and enlightened, on the face of the earth ; and as 
we believe the continuance of our prosperity and national greatness, 
depends on the preservation of the Union, we will continue to cherish our 
devotion for its maintenance, and feel it due to the past, present and 
future, that we should hold the same inviolate, and transmit it unbroken 
and undissevered, to our children as the palladium of their political 
safety . 

Eegolved, That while we feel that the Southern States of the Union have 
just right to complain of the growing hostility of the Northern people to 
their institutions, and of the enactment by various States of what is known 
as ^'personal liberty laws,'' which we believe to be in violation of the 
Constitution and of the sacred obligations which those States owe to 
our common country -, and, although Maryland, bordering on and sepa- 
rated only by an imaginary line from one of these States, which has thus 
violated one of her obligations, has more cause than any of her sister 
States to complain of this unfriendly legislation, yet we believe that the 
proper remedy for these evils and aggressions is within the Union and 
not outside of it. 

Resolvedt That while we denounce the course of the Northern people 
as unfriendly, and the action of those States which have passed ''person- 



al liberty laws^^ as unconstitutional and unjust, and while we believe 
them fraught with evil, and if persisted in, may prove disastrous to the 
country, yet we cannot endorse the course pursued by South Carolina 
and those States which have followed her lead, as either a proper or con- 
stitutional remedy, but regard the same as precipitate, unwise and 
unjust to the boroering slave States of the Union. That although we 
admit and claim the right of revolution to exist in the people to over- 
throw their Government when it becomes tyrannical and oppressive, yet 
this right should never be exercised until all other means of redress have 
been exhausted, and the government itself has become more destructive 
to the public welfare, than the evils necessarily attendant upon a 
revolution . 

Resohedj That whilst we condemn the hasty and precipitate action 
of those who would for existing causes dissolve this glorious Union, and 
plunge us into all the horrors of revolution and civil war, we at the 
same time avow our determination to demand all our rights in the Union 
under the Constitution of our country, and whenever those rights are 
invaded and denied to us, and no adequate remedy is afforded by the 
Federal Government to secure them, then we will be ready, as our fathers 
were, to take up arms, if need be in their defence. 

Resolvedf That the wise, firm, prudent and pacific course pursued by 
Major Anderson, the officer in command of Fort Sumpter, in South 
Carolina,' under the trying circumstances by which he is surrounded, 
meets with our earnest and cordial approval. 

Resolvedj That the aggressive spirit exhibited by a portion of the 
Northern people against the clear constitutional rights ot the South, and 
the incessant and violent abuse of Southern institutions, from the pulpit, 
the hustings and by the press, tending only to produce alienation, discord 
and bitterness between the different portions of the confederacy, deserve 
the severest reprobation of every conservative and Union loving citizen. 

Resolved, That we still have an abiding faith in the sober second 
thought of the Southern people, and that if an opportunity shall be 
afforded them they will return to a faithful execution of all their consti- 
tutional obligations and hurl from power and prominence the political 
demagogues who have misled them: and therefore we deplore the constant 
agitation of the slavery question among the Southern people, the attempts 
to reopen the African slave trade, and the threats of secession and dis- 
union in advance of any justifiable cause as productive of the most 
mischievous results, and tending only to furnish the agitators of the 
North, with a plausible pretext for their own unfriendly action. 

Resolcedj That in order to end all future agitation upon the exciting 
subject of slavery, which periodically convulses the country, it is emi- 
nently proper that some compromise and settlement should be made that 
would at once and forever withdraw the whole subject from Federal con- 
trol; that with this object in view, we accept and endorse the proposition, 
known as the "Crittenden Amendment," and earnestly hope that the same 
or some other compromise formed upon that basis, which will secure to 
the South her constitutional rights and preserve the Union, may be 
adopted by Congress or a convention, believing, as we do, that thereby 
Congress will thereafter be deprived of all power of legislation over the 

Similar meetings were held in other parts of the 


February 24. — The friends of the Union on this night 
had a great torch light procession, there being some 
five hundred persons in the line. The residences of 
Samuel M. Semmes, Thomas Devecmon and Greorge 
A. Pearre were visited, and each of these gentlemen 
made speeches full of patriotic inspiration. 

April 19. — The thrilling scenes in Baltimore, on 
the occasion of the passage of the Massachusetts 
troops through the city, and the inauguration of 
civil war by the attack on Fort Sumter, caused 
most intense excitement amongst the people of Cum- 
berland, and led to the open expression of sentiments 
which caused a separation between those who differed 
on the question of coercion. From this time forward 
the lines became more closely drawn, and friends and 
neighbors were unhappily arrayed one against the 

May 6. — The increasing excitement on account of 
the important events leading to civil war, aroused 
great feeling in the city, and the Union men held 
an immense mass meeting on the above date. They 
marched through the streets with banners and music, 
and cannon firing. The meeting was organized by 
the election of Gen. C. M. Thruston President, and 
the following Vice Presidents: John Gephart, B. 
Kegg, A. M. L. Bush, J. B. Widener, Joseph Shriver, 
John Everett, Alpheus Beall, Wm. Armbruster, S. 
M. Semmes, J. J. McHenry, Lewis Smith, Samuel 
Luman, John Kolb, J. W. Magruder, Andrew Gon- 
der, J. B. H. Campbell, Wm. Evans, Robert Bruce, 
J. H. Young, John Hays, Alex. King, R. D. Johnson, 
and Joseph Hughes. 

1861.] EARLY DAYS OF THE WAR. 393 

Strong speeches were made by George A. Pearre 
and Samuel M. Semmes, and lengthy and emphatic 
resolutions adopted, declaring for the preservation 
of the Union. 

The Conditional Union men held a meeting also, 
declaring that should the Govomment fail to give 
the South certain guarantees it would be Maryland's 
duty to leave the Union. Daniel Blocher introduced 
a resolution for the purpose of postponing such action 
until the Peace Conference should conclude its work. 
Violent discussion followed, and the meeting broke 
up in great confusion. 

It had been fondly hoped that Cumberland .would 
escape the scourge of war, but '^the winter of 1860- 
61 began to dispel our illusions. Latent feelings and 
sympathies, then developed, made it evident that 
Western Maryland, and particularly its central city, 
was deeply interested in the great question that 
agitated the public mind. A conflict seemed immi- 
nent and people found themselves with divided 
sentiments and sympathies. Secession and anti-se- 
cession. State sovereignty and the Union, coercion 
and anti-coercion were the general topics of conver- 
sation wherever men met together. Even at social 
parties in parlors, ladies were transformed into 
violent politicians, and in their wild enthusiasm 
seemed ready to grasp the rifle and the sword and 
leave the nursery and the distafi* to faint-hearted, 
cowardly men and old women. Looking back over 
the lapse of seventeen years we can now smile at the 
illusions, projects, prospects, hopes and fears of that 

memorable winter. After the secession of the cotton 


States, some declared the Union hopelessly dissolved^ 
and advocated the formation of a grand Middle 
Confederacy stretching from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, leaving New England and the seceded States, 
as troublesome members of the body politic, out in 
the cold to reap the. fruits of their fanatical notions 
and doings. Others expected some compromise to 
be made by which the Union might be restored and 
the Constitution so amended as to protect the rights 
of sovereign States against the encroachments of 
the Federal Government. Some again prophesied 
the speedy secession of all the Southern States, 
carrying the National capital with them, and form- 
ing a confederacy so large and strong as to compel 
a speedy recognition and in the end absorb into 
itself, under a pro-slavery constitution, all the 
States of the old Union that would be worth 

"Others declared that as soon as the Federal 
Government made a display of its authority and 
power the leaders of secession would become firight- 
ened, the conspiracy be broken up without bloodshed, 
and the Union restored. Unconditional Unionists 
and secessionists 'per se were rare among us . But 
among all classes there seemed to be a pretty general 
agreement that, in case of a final rupture between 
the Northern and Southern States, Maryland might 
assimie a kind of armed neutrality, until the ques- 
tion was decided, without compromising her honor 
or aiding in the subjugation of the seceding States. 
This was a fiction afterward very soon exploded by 
the irresistible logic of events. The effects of these 

1861.] EARLY DAYS OF THE WAR. 395 

wordy conflicts continually going on, were soon 
manifest in private intercourse. Old friends became 
alienated and began to treat each other coolly. 
Visits were curtailed and often ended disagreeably. 
Associations and churches felt the disturbing influ- 
ences. Ministers were interviewed, while their 
sermons and prayers were closely scrutinized for 
indications of political sentiments or sympathies. 
The moral atmosphere seemed filled with a subtle 
poison by which every one was afiected. 

"During this period, adding to the divided and 
disturbed condition of the popular mind, two remark- 
able characters appeared upon the scene of action. 
The first was the Hon. Roger A. Pryor, of Virginia, 
who was then "firing the Southern heart" with his 
fervid eloquence. With glowing tongue he portrayed 
the wrongs of the Southern States and plead with all 
the power of his masterly oratory for a united South 
to resist the aggressions of a common foe. The other 
was the Hon. Francis Thomas, ex-Governor of 
Maryland, and once the honored son and leader of 
the old State Democracy. Sufiering under a severe 
domestic calamity, and treated as insane, he had fled 
from public life, and for years had buried himself 
in his mountain hermitage, living closely the life of 
a recluse until he was almost forgotten. But when 
the news of his country's danger reached him all the 
slumbering statesman was aroused. The strong 
spirit of former years came upon him. Like some 
wierd, hoary prophet of old, he came down from his 
mountain retreat and, suddenly appearing in the 
streets of Cumberland, sounded the alarm of patriot- 


ism, and plead with the people to stand by the UnioDy 
the Constitution^ and the laws. It seemed as if one 
had arisen from the dead. 

"' But we cannot dwell longer on incidents like these 
which preceded the war. Events thickened and 
soon followed each other in quick succession like the 
echoes of our mountain thunder. Sumter fell. 
Seventy-five thousand men were summoned for the 
defense of the Union. Blood flowed in the streets of 
Baltimore. Virginia adopted an ordinance of seces- 
sion. Harper's Ferry passed into the hands of the 
Confederates, and Maryland was left hanging as a 
Southern shred upon the Northern portion of a 
disrupted Union. Nothing probably, saved Maryland 
from the ranks of secession but the delay of its 
friends and the presence of the Federal troops. What 
would have been the result had she promptly acted 
with Virginia before the opportunity was passed, 
cannot now be positively determined. With the 
Capital of the nation Ijnng in her bosom, the whole 
issue of the war might have been changed, and left 
us weak and divided instead of a united and prosper- 
ous people. We were now at war, and the events 
that inaugurated it had a most depressing efifect upon 
the interests of Western Maryland. Our city felt it 
most severely. Her great thoroughfare, the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, was interrupted and her 
Canal closed. Trade from Virginia was withdrawn. 
Every industry was stopped or curtailed ; stores were 
closed and marked "for rent;" real estate sank rapidly 
in value. Merchants without customers slept at 
their counters, or sat at the doors of their places 

1861.] EARLY DAYS OF THE WAR, 397 

of business. Tradesmen and laborers, out of em- 
ployment, lounged idly about the streets. The 
railroad workshops were silent and operations in the 
mining regions almost entirely ceased. Then com- 
menced a deep, painful feeling of insecurity and an 
undefined dread of the horrors of war. Panic makers 
multiplied and infested society, startling rumors were 
constantly floating about of secret plots and dark 
conspiracies against the peace of the community and 
private individuals. In the evening men congregated 
in the hotels, saloons, stores and streets, and then 
carried home to their families the mysterious 
suspicions which they heard whispered about — killing 
sleep and rendering every sound in the night 
portentous of arson, robbery or murder. As the 
bonds of government were loosened some imagined 
that a slave insurrrction might suddenly break out, 
followed by all the horrors of St. Domingo. Seces- 
sionists feared a descent of the Federal troops — 
bringing imprisonment, confiscation or death. Union- 
ists dreaded an irruption of their old neighbors 
beyond the river, forcing them into the Southern 
Confederacy or conscripting them for service in the 
rebel army. Anxiety and care were written on 
every countenance. There was no heart for business, 
and the grass of the advancing summer commenced 
growing upon our deserted streets. 

*'But the scene was unexpectedly and suddenly 
changed. On Monday morning, the 8th of June, 
our citizens were awakened by a confused sound of 
voices, and, looking out, saw the streets filled with 
strange, rough looking men, dressed in gi'ay and 


armed to the teeth with rifles, pistols and sword- 
bayonets. They seemed to have fallen from the 
clouds. Who are they? What will they do? were 
the eager questions that passed from lip to lip and 
from house to house. A new order of things had 
commenced. Our city was in possession of the Fed- 
eral troops. Some zealous Unionist had gained the 
ear of the Executive, and the Eleventh Regiment of 
Indiana Zouaves, under Colonel Lew Wallace, had 
entered the city quietly on Sunday night and pitched 
their camp on Rose Hill, over which now proudly 
floated the Stars and Stripes of the Union. 

" The presence of what was then regarded as a large 
military body naturally excited suspicion and alarm. 
As was usual in the early part of the war, to quiet the 
popular mind, a grandiloquent proclamation wiis soon 
issued, assuring the citizens that the gallant army 
now among them had come, not to oppress or to 
interfere in their domestic institutions, but to protect 
their lives and property and to preserve the peace of 
the community. Oflicers and soldiers associated 
freely with our citizens, and soon a pretty general 
feeling of confidence and good will began to prevail. 
Protection, whether from friend or foe, was deemed 
preferable to the uncertain and defenseless condition 
in which we had been living. The rule of the 
military had begun ; it did not end until the close of 
the war. 

"The camp of the Zouaves was beautifully located 
on Rose Hill, and soon became a place of popular 
resort. Around it towered the grand mountain 
ranges of the AUeghanies, dressed in their summer 

1861.] EARLY DAYS OF THE WAR. 399 

robes of forest foliage-— evergreens and flowering 
laurels. On the south rolled the Potomac; at the 
base of the hill on the north flowed Wills' Creek, 
and in full view of the camp, nestled in the valley 
extending over Fort Hill, lay the Queen City of the 
mountains. Colonel Lew Wallace and some of his 
stafi* were men of culture and refinement ; the rank 
and file were courteous and gentlemanly in their 
deportment. A fine band discoursed sweet music in 
the camp and through the city, and every day 
became festive with military pomp and display. 
Trade began to flourish. The people were assured 
that this was only a pleasant picnic excursion to the 
South ; there would be no fighting ; and many began 
to believe that the war was about over. But we 
were not permitted to enjoy this illusive dream long. 
Military occupation soon began to make itself felt. 
Free speech was no longer allowed. Secession senti- 
ments were banned. Informers became busy. 
Citizens were arrested and marched under guard 
to the camp, and having received a lecture on loyalty 
and the crime of secession, were tendered the oath 
of allegiance and then permitted to return to their 
homes. Some remained nursing their bitter feelings. 
Others fled to Virginia and entered the rebel army. 
Men learned afterward that the mere expression of 
opinion without overt acts did not constitute treason, 
and that a forced oath was no remedy for disloyalty."* 
Up to the first of May there had existed an 
undemonstrative armed neutrality, amongst the citi- 
zens, yet a great deal of emphatic language was used 

4BUnwrltt«u ChApterw of the Wm, bj R«t. A. J. Wttddell. 


by the men whose sympathies were either North or 
South. The first open act of determined sentiment 
was the display at this time of a large United States 
flag, which was hang overthe street between the St. 
Nicholas Hotel and the Belvidere Hall. This was 
done by Samuel Luman, Sr., Samuel Luman, Jr., 
Robert Shriver, John M. Resley, Frank Miller, and 
a few other determined Unionists. Although some 
trouble was anticipated, no attempt was made to 
interfere with the flag. 

On the 13th of May the following City officials had 
been elected : Mayor, C. M. Thruston ; Councilmen. 
J. J. McHenry, K. H. Butler, Joseph Hughes. 
Robert Bruce, D. Mahaney, and Samuel Luman. 
This was the "Unconditional Union" ticket, there 
being also an "Independent" ticket, and a "Citizens ' 

About the first of June it became painfully evident 
that the people of Western Maryland were destined 
to feel the direct effects of the war. The bridges 
over Patterson's Creek, and over the Canal, near the 
North Branch, were destroyed by a party of Vir- 
ginians, and communication with the East was cut 
off. On the morning of the 19th of June, a party of 
Confederate soldiery made a descent on New Creek, 
and burned the "21st bridge," of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, which spanned the Potomac River. 
A small guard had been placed there, consisting of 
some twenty -eight men of the Cumberland Continen- 
tals, under command of Lieutenants James C. Lynn 
and Theodore Luman. When news of the approach 
of the enemy reached Cumberland, Captain Horace 


Resley, with a few additional men, hastened to the 
scene. The enemy, however, was too strong for 
them ; and, to avoid capture, the entire command 
retreated over the mountains, and reached Cumber- 
land, by way of the National Road. This being the 
initial conflict of the war in this section, the greatest 
excitement prevailed, especially as wild rumors of 
the total destruction of the little command, and the 
marshaling of a strong force to attack Cumberland, 
were freely circulated . The entire population rushed 
into the streets, bells rung in every part of the town, 
and the women and children were in a state of terror. 
Colonel Wallace struck tents, and sent his baggage 
towards Bedford for safety, the Zouaves taking up a 
position of defense on the Bedford road, just beyond 
the city limits. The Continentals and Union Home 
Guards turned out under arms; a hundred men from 
Frostburg, under command of Major F. A. Mason, 
and a company from Wellersburg, with Captain 
Petrie, were on hand in a few hours. Other compa- 
nies arrived next morning from Grantsville, Bedford, 
Centreville and Pocahontas. Armed men, in small 
squads, continued to arrive all day, and not until 
nightfall did the panic subside. The Zouaves then 
marched back to their quarters, and next day the 
companies from abroad took their departure, leaving 
Cumberland to settle down to her usual quiet. 

June 13. — An election for a Congressman from this 
District took place, and Hon. Francis Thomas, the 
Unconditional Union candidate, was elected by an 
immense vote. The whole number of ballots cast was 

2,908, of which Governor Thomas received 2,751. 


June 20. — ^Joseph Romiser, one of the members of 
» volunteer company of citizens from Frostburg, was 
badly wounded by the accidental discharge of a gun. 
The ball entered his head back of the right ear and 
came out near the right eye. He eventually 

July 7. — Colonel Wallace, with his regiment, left, 
and went East, to Martinsburg. The Kane Rifle 
Regiment, under Colonel Charles J. Bidwell, and the 
Second Regiment, under Colonel S. G. Simmons, both 
from Pennsylvania, arrived, and encamped on the 
ground vacated by the Zouaves. These troops 
remained here until the 27th of July. 

In August, during the progress of a political 
meeting, on Baltimore street, one night, a disturbance 
arose by reason of Hon. Francis Thomas being 
interrupted in his speech, and a large crowd of men 
at once made a descent on the oflBce of "The 
Alleganian," which was Southern in its sympathies. 
The office was wholly destroyed, the material being 
thrown out of the windows. 

At this time Hon. Francis Thomas was authorized 
to provide for the organization of four regiments, to 
be composed of residents on both sides of the Potomac 
river, from Monocacy to the Western boundary of 
Maryland, who were to perform service in the vicinity 
of the Potomac river. Under this authority a full 
regiment of infantry was raised in Allegany county, 
and by the 1st of October was armed, equipped, 
and in camp, at Cumberland, as the Second 
Maryland Regiment Volunteer Infantry, Potomac 
Home Brigade. The organization of the regiment 


at the date of its muster into the United States 
service wiw as follows : 

Colonel, Thomas Johns.* 

Lieutenant Colonel, Robert Brace. 

Major, G. Ellis Porter. 

Adjutant, Orlando D. Robbins. 

Quarter-Master, Kennedy H. Butler. 

Sur^ireon, Dr. S. P. Smith. Assistant Surgeon, Dr. P. A. Healey. 

Chaplain, Rev. J. H. Symmes. 

Company A — Captain, Alexander Shawf; First Lieutenant, John 
Douglas : Second Lieutenant, Andrew Spier. 

Company B — Captain, J. D. Roberts ; First Lieutenant, James A . 
Morrow ; Second Lieutenant, A. S. GalHon. 

Company C — Captain, John H. Huntley ; First Lieu*«nant, John Wein 
Second Lieutenant, Richard C. Sansom. 

Company D — Captain, B. B. Shaw ; First Lieutenant, Robert Powell ; 
Second Lieutenant, Mark Powell, 

Company E — Captain, James C. Lynn ; First Lieutenant, Theodore 
Luman ; Second Lieutenant, George Couter. 

Company F — Captain, Lewis Dyke ; First Lieutenant, Norval Mc- 
Kinley ; Second Lieutenant, George D. Somers-t 

Company G — Captain, C. G. McClellan ; First Lieutenant, Robert 
Cowan ; Second Lieutenant, Lloyd Mahaney. 

Company H — Captain, George H. Bragonier; First Lieutenant, S. 
T. Little ; Second Lieutenant, George W. McCulloh. 

Company I — Captain, J. F. McCulloh ; First Lieutenant, James M. 
Shober; Second Lieutenant, John F. Troxell. 

Company K — ^Captain, P. B. Petrie; First Lieutenant, Jason G. 
Sawyer ; Second Lieutenant^ Moses Bickford. 

The promotions in this regiment during its three years' service were 
as follows : Robert Bruce to be Colonel ; G. Ellis Porter to be Lieutenant- 
Colonel ; Alexander Shaw and John H. Huntley to be Majors ; Theodore 
Luman to be Adjutant ; John Douglas, James A. Morrow, John Weir, 
and Norval McKinley to be Captains ; Andrew Spier, Alexander Tennant, 
Lloyd Mahaney, Richard C. Sansom, and George Couter to be First 
Lieutenants ; James Thompson, Emory W. Pelton, David C. Edwards, 
George Wigley, and Moses Bickford to be Second Lieutenants. 

At the expiration of the three years for which this regiment was 
enlisted, four companies of veterans were re-enlisted, and organized into 
a battalion, the oflScers being : Lieutenant-Colonel, James C. Lynn ; 
Captains, J. Floyd McCulloh, P. B. Petrie, H. H. Hartsock and Robert 
Cowan; First Lieutenants, Charles H. Thayer, James A. Howard, LouisN . 
Gondon and A. Brown Lynn ; Second Lieutenants, Levi Shaw, James A. 
McKee, Jacob H. Buckey and Richard T. Browning. 

At the general election in November, the candidates 
were run on "Union" and "Peace" tickets, the Union 
ticket being successful. Thomas G. McCulloh was 

*R«»ixn«d JftntMiT 1,1M2: saoMeded bT Golon«I Robert Brace; O. SUtii Porter wm et Mine 
lime promoted to Lieatenant Colonel. 

tOftptftin Shaw wm promoted to Mi^or, JaauAry 1862, ftod reeigiied Mftreh Si. 1882, his i^ncofn- 
M>T being Mi^or John H. Huntley. 

{Promoted to Oapteln; killed in Mstioo at 8ummit Point. Va.. October 7, 188S. 


elected Sheriff; Delegates to the Legislature, George 
A. Pearre, Lloyd Lowe, C. W. White, A. Chamber- 
lain. County Commissioners, Wm. R. McCuUey, 
Daniel Duncan, David Kent, Ashford Trail, David 
Compton. Surveyor, William Brace. 

The csmal and railroad were much damaged, by 
freshets and by incursions by the enemy. Both were 
put under military supervision, and protected as well 
as possible, but the railroad was so badly damaged 
in June, 1861, that for almost a year it was useless. 

Early in 1862, by orders from the War Department, 
extensive hospitals were established in Cumberland, 
for the reception of the sick and wounded from points 
both East and West. The citizens, especially the 
ladies, were constant in their kindness and attention 
to the sufferers who were brought here. In February, 
1862, there were 57 deaths, mostly of men from Ohio 
and Indiana. 

May 12. — Mayor, C. H. Ohr; Councilmen, Joseph 
Hughes, Jacob Wickard, M. L. Rizer, V. A. Buckey, 
George W. Hoover, William Hoblitzell. 

In May the Third Regiment Maryland Volunteer 
Infantry, Potomac Home Brigade, was mustered into 
service. A large proportion of this regiment was 
composed of men enlisted at Cumberland, the remain- 
der coming from Baltimore, Hagerstown and Ellicott*s 
Mills. The oflScers were as follows : 

Lieatenant'Colonel, Stephen W. Downey.* 
Major, Charles L. Orafiin.f 
Adjutant, N. M. Ambrose. 

Sargeon, G. E. S. McKee ; Assistant Surj^eon, Jesse Beerbower. 
Company A — Captain, James S. Inskeep ; First Lieaten&nt, John 
Coles ; Second Lieutenant, William A. Cross. 

*0wiDa to Boma mbandentondiog in r^oard to flUas tb« reglin«ai*l rolls M Aiia*poli» 
Oolonel Downey wm not coromlMioned, and ke resigned lioTeaber 8, UML 
tBealgned Janoary IC, IStt; •uooccdod by M^or Crawford Sbaarar. 


Company B — Captain, Wm. F. Cardiff; First Lieatenant, Moses 
Whitfora ; Second Lientenant, John K. Whitford. 

Company C — Captain, Harry C. Rizer; First Lieutenant, Wm. R. 
Jarboe ; Second Lieatenant, Charles F. McAleer. 

Company D — Captain, Michael Fallon; First Lientenant, Joseph L. 
Forsyth ; Second Lieutenant, John M. Armstrong. 

Company E — Captain, Henry B. McCoy ; First Lieatenant, John W. 
Dodson ; Second Lientenant, Theodore Qoff. 

Company F — Captain, Robert Maxwell; First Lieutenant, Peter J. 
Mayberry ; Second Lieatenant, Wm. H. Foreman. 

Company G — Captain, Jacob Sarbaugh*; First Lieutenant, Wm. H. 
Hipsly ; Second Lieutenant, Joseph K. Pitman. 

Company H — Captain, Wm. A. Falkenstine; First Lieutenant, Fred* 
erick Pringey*; Second Lieutenant, Hanson B. Friend. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen W. Downey, resigned September 1, 
1862; and Charles Gilpin was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel Septem* 
ber 2, 1862; and promoted to Colonel April 16, 1864, having recruited 
two additional companies, thereby making up a full regiment; and re- 
mained in service until the regiment was reduced to a battalion, by the 
expiration of the term of service of three companies. Afterwards, the 
battalion was commanded by Harry C. Riser, who was promoted to 
Lieutenant Colonel, the following officers remaining in command of com* 
panics: Captains, Wm. A. Falkenstine, N. M. Ambrose, John W. Dod* 
son, James E. Garrahan, Gastavus Valois, Samuel T. Eck, and Charles 
Pratt ; First Lieutenants, Ephraim C. Hedding, John W, Cook, Wm. J. 
Donahoe, James W. White, Wm. H. H. Friend ; Benjamin F. Cook, R. 
Q. M.; Frank A. Penny, Adjutant; Wm. H. Foreman, Augustus Robinett, 
and Daniel C. Shriver ; Second Lieutenant, Theodore Goff. 

In the summer of 1862 the President issued a call 
for 300,000 troops. The leading Union men of 
Allegany County took steps towards securing the 
voluntary enlistment of a sufficient number of men 
to fill her quota. A. ^^war mass meeting" was held 
on the 13th of August, for the purpose of adopting 
measures whereby volunteers might be secured. 
General C. M. Thruston was made President of the 
meeting ; Lloyd Lowe and F. A. Mason, Vice Presi- 
dents, and William R. McCuUey and William 
Hoblitzell, Secretaries. Messrs. Charles H. Ohr, S, 
P. Smith, M. Sherry, G. E. Porter and Hopewell 
Hebb, a committee, submitted resolutions, declaring it 
to be the duty of the people to maintain the gov- 
ernment, and requesting the County Commissioners 

^Killed At BoliTftr Helghto, 8«ptemb«r 14, IStti "~ 




to appropriate $50,000 to be applied to the payment 
of bounties to volunteers. The Commissioners con- 
sidered this proposition in September, but declined to 
take such action at the time. 

Several recruiting offices were opened in the 
city, and under the inducement* of large bounties 
many enlisted. 

A number of young men whose sympathies were 
with the South left, to join the Confederate army. 
Amongst them were : 

H. A. Hig^ns, 
Jos. A. Gahill. 
W. H. Cabill * 
J. Henry Shrivert* 
John H. Shrtver, 
Anthony Sh river, 
Albert Rice,t 
Lamar Spring, 

Peter Devecmon, 
John G. Lynn, Jr, 
Sprigg 8. Lynn,* 
David Lynn, 
J. B. Fay, 
Jacob Oassman,* 
W. W. McKaig, Jr, 
J. V. L. McKaig, 

Richard L. Glarr. 
Thad. W. Clary,'* 
Wm. Armstrong,* 
Joseph Pennington, Jr. 

Thomas I. McKaig, Jr, Van Lear Perry, 
Edward Bryan, Charles Brace,T 

John Palmer, Charles Nichols. 

HariT Osbom, Walter Bmce, 

Dr. Thomas A. Healey, James R. Annan, 

M. A. Healey, 
James Taylor, 
Harry C. Black, 
Matthew Coffey, 
John Calvin, 
John D. Mounds, 
Llojd L. Clary, 
John Hadley, 
John Dennody, 

James Briscoe, 
Theodore Dawson, 
James A. Mason, 
Walter Chisholm, 
Harlan Tabb, 
Peyton Tabb, 
C. James Dailey,* 
Ed. Browning,* 
George Ritter, 
William D. Hoye, 
Samuel Hoye, 

Roberdean Annan,* 

Roger Apnan, 

Duncan McBlair, 

Captain C. H. McBlair, Peter Chisholm, 

Charles McBlair,* Fetter S. Hoblitzell, 

Thos. M. Healey, Thomas W. West, 

Wm. Lamar, H. P. Tasker, 

John McClafferty,* Malcolm G. Harmison,t 

James Pollock, James R. Higgina, 

Thomas Goldsborough, 

jHWoanded. tKin«d. 

Apprehending a visit from the small Confederate 
forces in the bordering counties of West Virginia, the 
city authorities secured the organization of a City 
Guard. Three companies were formed of volunteer 
citizens, and were officered as follows : 

First District. — Captain, Casper Kassen ; First 
Lieutenant, Joshua Steiner; Second Lieutenant 
James A. Buckey; Orderly Sergeant, D. B. Myers. 


Second District. — Captain, Jacob Wickard; First 
Lieutenant, William R. McCulley; Second Lieutenant, 
J. M. Koerner; Orderly Sergeant, Charles A. Seay. 

Third District. — Captain Horace Resley; First 
Lieutenant, J. J. McHenry; Second Lieutenant, J. 
F. Troxell; Orderly Sergeant, George M. Read. 

Horace Resley was afterwards elected Lieutenant 
Colonel, to command the City Guard. 

The Eighty-FoUrth Ohio Infantry, a regiment of 
three-months' volunteers, under command of Colonel 
William Lawrence, had been stationed here in June. 
Upon the expiration of their term, in September, 
they were mustered out of the service, and the 
Second Regiment Maryland Volunteers, Potomac 
Home Brigade, under Colonel Robert Bruce, was 
sissigned to duty in their place. 

In response to the call for volunteers, Allegany 
had outstripped every other county in the State, and 
when the draft was ordered, in October, 1862, she 
had already furnished 1,463 volunteers. Her quota 
being but 872, there was no necessity for the enforce- 
ment of the draft within the county limits. 

It having been ordered that all the militia in the 
State should be enrolled, the Governor appointed Chas. 
Gilpin Commissioner of Enrollment in Allegany 
county. The number enrolled by him amounted to 
4,714, the work being completed early in September. 

A raid was made about the middle of September, 
by the Confederates, and both the railroad and canal 
again badly damaged, some twenty miles of the 
latter being almost destroyed. 

On the 1st of October, George T. Knorr commenced 


the publication of a weekly newspaper, in Camber- 
land, entitled ^^The Union."" It was discontinued in 

In October the hospitals at Clarysville were trans- 
ferred to Cumberland, under the direction of Dr. 
George H. Oliver, Medical Director. The Belvidere 
Hall, the old Presbyterian Church and the ^^Old 
Mill," on South Mechanic street, were amongst the 
buildings taken for the purpose. 

Gen. B. F. Kelly, in command of the Department 
of West Virginia, established his headquarters in 
Cumberland. Captain George W. Harrison was 
appointed Depot Quartermaster, and Captain W. H. 
Hosack, Depot Commissary. 

January 10. — The Cumberland City Bank was 
established, in the old Cumberland Bank building, 
with Alfred Spates as President, and William E. 
Weber Cashier. 

April 1.— Dr. C. H. Ohr was appointed Examining 
Surgeon, by the Commissioner of Pensions. 

The conflict of opinion as to all matters pertain- 
ing to politics, the conduct of the war, the right of 
secession, and the policy of the administration, was 
not in the slightest degree diminished by the progress 
of events; on the contrary, the opposing elements 
became more and more embittered, but the Union 
sentiment, supported by the Government, steadily 
prevailed. On the 23d of April, 1863, a county 
mass meeting of Union men was held at the Court 
House, on which occasion a series of resolutions was 
adopted expressing full confidence in the admin- 
istration, and urging the election of a Legislature 


which should take immediate steps toward the 
abolition of slavery in the State. The officers of 
this meeting were as follows : President, Joseph 
Shriver; Vice Presidents, William Shaw, Elijah 
Friend, M. Sherry, Lloyd Lowe, John Mantz and 
Ephraim Browning. 

On the 26th of April, some unknown wretch set 
fire to the dwelling of Mr. Joseph Sprigg, and also 
to the stable on his premises. Mr. Sprigg was at 
the time confined to his bed by sickness. Fortunately 
his house was saved, with but little damage, but 
the stable was burned to the ground, the inmates, 
seven colored people, who occupied the second story 
as sleeping apartments, being consumed in the 
flames. These were the servants of Mr/ Sprigg. 
and consisted of one man, one woman, and five 
children. The soldiers from the hospital, near by, 
rendered every service in their power, but the 
heartless work of the incendiary had been so 
effectively accomplished that it was impossible to 
rescue from the burning stable a single one of the 
unfortunate victims therein. 

May 11. — Mayor, James Smith; Councilmen, A. 
J. Ryland, John McFerran, Henry Shuck, John T. 
Shuck, Thomas McKee, and V. A. Buckey. 

On the 15th of June, in consequence of the defeat 
of Greneral Milroy's command at Winchester, orders 
were issued by the commandant of this department 
for the evacuation of Cumberland, and the concen- 
tration of the Union forces at New Creek, whereupon 
the provision and supply trains were immediately 

sent off, together with all the horses, &c. The Fif- 


teenth Virginia Regiment, and the Second Regiment 
P. H. B., both of which were on duty in this vicinity, 
followed, and Cumberland was left wholly unpro- 
tected. A thousand rumors were soon afloat, and 
the streets were filled with excited people, who were 
in momentary expectation of the appearance of the 
Confederates. Their apprehensions were still further 
excited by the removal of the rolling stock, moveable 
machinery, &c., of the railroad company. On the 
16th it was reported that the enemy was rapidly 
approaching the city in force, whereupon a number 
of citizens retired with considerable precipitancy in 
the direction of Pennsylvania, and merchants began 
to cast about for means whereby they might save 
their goods from confiscation by the expected visitors. 
Night came, however, and brought with it no enemy. 
But the early dawn discovered a small squad of 
strange looking men on the brow of the hill, east of 
the city, on the Williams Road. Several of the es- 
caped cavalrymen, from Milroy's command, advanced 
to ascertain whether they were friends or foes, and 
were saluted by the discharge of two small field 
pieces, the shells from which dropped in the vicinity 
of McKaig's foundry, whereupon the aforesaid cav- 
alrymen retired with commendable speed. The 
presence of the enemy was quickly heralded through- 
out the city; a few more citizens took refuge in flight, 
while the merchants generally closed up their stores, 
and joined the excited groups that gathered on the 
streets. In a little while two representives of the 
Confederacy rode into town, with a flag of truce. 
Shortly afterwards acting Mayor V. A, Buckey, head- 


ing a deputation of citizens, with a similar flag, met 
the emissaries of the Confederacy, and a consulta- 
tion was held, the result of which was that the 
town was surrendered, with the understanding that 
private property was to be respected, and no depre- 
dations to be permitted. 

The following is the correspondence on the occa- 

7b the Commanding Officer of Oumbttland : 

YoQ are Barroaoded by a snperior force, and as an act of humanity, I 
demand the surrender of the city. The bearer, Captain B. B. Muses, is 
aotkorized to negotiate as to terms of surrender. 

6. W. IMBODEN, Colonel Cavalry Brigade. 

This letter was handed Mayor Buckey, and the 
following response made: 

O. W. Imboden, Colonel Commanding Confederaie Forces : 

Sir : Your note addressed to officer commanding at this point has 
jnst been handed to me, and as there is no force here to resist you, and 
no officer in command, I, as Mayor, for the time being, do as far as I can, 
snrrender the city as demanded, upon the following terms, viz : that 
private persons and property, and the property of the State of Maryland 
be respected. V. A. BUCKEY, Mayor pro tem of Cumberland. 

Colonel Imboden accepted the terms in the follow- 
ing note: 

To the Acting Mayor of Cumberland : 

Sir : I will receive a surrender of the City of Cumberland, and will 
respect all private property except such property as the Quarter Master 
may desire for the Confederate States. No public property except of 
the State of Maryland will be respected. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

G. w. IMBODEN, Colonel Cavalry Brigade. 

About 350 of Imboden's cavalry, with two pieces 
of artillery, presently appeared, and after securing 
such horses as they could find, induced some of the 
merchants to open their stores. The Confederates 
then purchased pretty freely such articles as hats, 
boots, shoes, clothing, &c., paying for the same in 
Confederate money, a species of currency which had 
then a rather limited value. No damage was done 


to either public or private property, beyond the 
destruction of a portion of the telegraph lines. The 
Confederates were ill at ease while in town, knowing 
that a considerable force of Union troops was at New 
Creek, and might at any moment put them to flight. 
After a few hours, spent about the streets, they 
departed, being accompanied by several young men 
who concluded to cast their lot with the South. 

General Kelly and staff had arrived in town, from 
Pennsylvania, on Tuesday night, and left for New 
Creiek about the time of the arrival of Imboden's 
men next morning. Finding a portion of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad torn up, a short distance 
from town, the train upon which they had embarked 
was brought back, and taken over the Cumberland 
and Pennsylvania Railroad, to Piedmont, and thence 
to New Creek. On the following day a force of 
cavalry, from New Creek, came to Cumberland, and 
captured several of Imboden's command who had 
remained with friends in town. In a few days the 
excitement subsided, and the routine of business, 
pleasure and gossip was resumed. 

The raiders did no violence to person, except in 
the case of Griffin Twigg, Sr., living near Murley s 
Branch. The particulars are not exactly known, 
but the old man was killed ; not, however, until he 
had killed two of the enemy and wounded another. 

The railroad and canal, as well as the telegraph 
lines, were badly damaged, and communication was 
not restored for more than a month. 

During the continuance of the war that portion of 
Cumberland known as the "Devil's Half Acre," em- 


bracing Bedford street between Liberty and Mechanic, 
and that portion of Mechanic immediately adjoining, 
was a most disreputable locality, being a congrega- 
tion of saloons and low houses. Disturbances and 
riots were of almost nightly occurrence. On the 
night of the 13th of August a fight occurred there 
between some soldiers, in which William Frazier, a 
private in Company K, First Virginia Cavalry, was 
cut to pieces with knives and almost instantly killed, 
by James Quick in company with Jacob Krissinger, 
of the Second Maryland, P. H. B. Quick was after- 
wards convicted of manslaughter, and Krissinger 
was acquitted. 

Amongst the soldiers located here was a part of a 
regiment known as the Ringgold Cavalry. One of 
their number being confined in jail, on some charge, 
li party of them went to the jail on the night of the 
19th of September, and released him by force. 

November 4. — Hon. Francis Thomas was re-elected 
to Congress; State Senator, Dr. C. H. Ohr; Delegates, 
A. C. Greene, Hopewell Hebb, Henry Brown, and 
William Shaw; Clerk of the Court, Horace Resley; 
Register of Wills, George W. Hoover; SheriflF, B. T. 
Garlitz; State's Attorney, George A. Thruston; 
Judges of Orphans' Court, J. B. H. Campbell, A. M. 
L. Bush and Douglas Percy; County Commissioners, 
John Bell, Charles Ridgeley, J. L. Townshend, John 
H. Stallings, and Elijah Friend. 

November 18. — General Kelly returned to Cum- 
berland, and established his headquarters in the 
Barnum House. 

In March, 1864, General Franz Sigel was as- 



signed to the command of the Department of West 
Virginia, and made his headquarters in Cumberland, 
at the Revere House. In the latter part of March 
he ordered the erection of earth-works on McKaig's 
Hill, and a fort on. the hill near Williams Road. 
These were constructed under the supervision of 
his engineers, and are still in existence, though 
much dilapidated. 

The question of emancipating the slaves in Mary- 
land was one which was warmly discussed in 
1863-64, and the Legislature ordered a vote to be 
taken in April as to whether a State Convention 
should be held for the purpose of amending the 
Constitution. The Convention was ordered by a 
large majority of the voters, there being 61 dele- 
gates elected in favor of unconditional emancipation, 
and 34 opposed to emancipation. The emancipation 
candidates in Allegany were A. C. Greene, Hopewell 
Hebb, Jacob Wickard, G. A. Thruston and J. Robi- 
nette. The opposition candidates were William 
Browning, J. W. Robinette, Henry Hanekamp, J. 

B. Widener and Israel Thompson. The emancipa- 
tion candidates were elected by 1,170 majority, thfe 
vote in favor of holding a Convention being 2,307 
for, to 1,135 against. 

April 13. — A Sergeant of the First New York 
Cavalry shot and killed Charles Clause, of Company 

C, Second Maryland P. H. B., the ball passing 
through his heart. The tragedy occurred on Balti- 
more street. 

May 9. — Mayor, Dr. Charles H. Ohr; Councilmen 
J. B. H Campbell, William Armbruster, John Kolb, 


George Martin Rizer, Josiah Engler and Henry B. 

General Sigel took his departure, for active 
service in the field, and (Jeneral B. F. Kelly was 
again assigned to the commamd of the Depart- 

July 1. — The Cumberland Bank of Allegany was 
converted into the First National Bank of Cumber- 
land, and continued business with the same officers 
as heretofore, President, Joseph Shriver; Cashier, 
Edwin T. Shriver. 

At this time about one hundred men were drafted 
for three years' service to make up the county's quota 
under the last call, and 170 were drafted for the 
one hundred days' service. 

July 7. — Francis Gillespie, of Co. B, Fifteenth 
Regiment New York Cavalry, while on the cars, en 
route from Parkersburg to Cumberland, deliberately 
murdered Lieutenant William Shearer. Gillespie 
was brought here under arrest. On the Saturday 
following he was tried before a Court Martial, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be hanged on Monday, on 
which day he was taken to the gallows, near Rose 
Hill Cemetery, at 5 o'clock p. m., and executed. He 
ascended the scaffold with a firm step, and at the 
last moment said : "I forgive everybody from the 
bottom of my heart, and I pray God to forgive 
me. May the stars and stripes never be trampled 
on." Gillespie was but 24 years of age, and left a 
young wife, in Syracuse, New York. 

On the 31st of July, Cumberland was again panic- 
stricken. A soldier brought intelligence of the 



passage of the river, at Hancock, by a strong force of 
Confederates, whose destination was Cumberland. It 
was rumored that a smaller force was also approach- 
ing from the direction of Bedford. The wildest ex- 
citement prevailed^ throughout the city, and a public 
meeting was held Sunday night, for the purpose of 
organizing a militia force to assist the soldiers under 
command of Greneral Kelly. The meeting was ad- 
dressed by Mayor Ohr, who urged the immediate 
formation of companies of citizens, for the defense of 
the town. Three companies were formed, consisting 
of about two hundred men, which limited force was 
placed under command of Greneral C. M. Thruston. 
On Monday morning it was ascertained that the 
Confederates were still advancing, and in the after- 
noon scouts reported them in the vicinity of 
Folck's Mill, some three miles from town. The 
excitement now reached fever heat; the mer- 
chants loaded their goods and sent them off to places 
of safety ; the railroad companies moved their trains 
off to the West, and men were rushing about the 
streets arming themselves with muskets, rifles and 
shot guns, while thousands climbed to the hill-tops, 
for the purpose * of obtaining a view of the expected 
conflict. Meantime, Greneral Kelly had taken a 
regiment of infantry and a section of artillery out the 
Baltimore pike, and stationed them in sight of the 
enemy, near Folck's Mill. A little after three 
o'clock he sent a shell into the Confederate ranks, 
and they responded in like manner. The infantry 
engaged in desultory firing with the enemy's sharp- 
shooters, but the engagement did not become general. 

1864.] DEFENSE OP THE CITY. 417 

The artillery duel was kept up until dark. The 
enemy then moved oflF towards the South, and made 
their way to the Potomac at Greenspring Run. 

General Thruston had been posted with his com- 
mand on Williams Road, on the right flank of General 
Kelly, which position he maintained until the 
departure of the Confederates. At Green Spring an 
iron-clad locomotive and cars, with a small piece of 
artillery, fell into the hands of the enemy, as also 
8ome eighty men in the block-house. The attacking 
force consisted of probably 2,000 mounted men and 
a battery of artillery, under Generals Ransom and 
McCausland. On Tuesday they sent in a demand for 
the surrender of the city. General Kelly declined 
to accede to this, and immediately posted his men to 
give battle. The demand, however, proved only to 
be a ruse adopted to prevent any movement on the 
part of the )Jnion troops which might interfere with 
the recrossing of the river by the Confederates. 

The citizens' organization which went out to meet 
the enemy on this occasion, in defense of the town, 
was composed as follows : 

Commander — Gen. C. M. Thruston. 

Quartermaster — William Wickard. Commissary Sergeant — Josiah 

Company A — Captain, Samuel Luman; First Lientenant, Samuel J, 
Kdwards; Second Lieutenant. James J. Watkins; Orderly Sergeant, E. 
A. Lingo. 

Privates— J. M. Kearner, P. W. Hoblitzell, George W. Hoblitzell, 
•John W. Hummelshimei William Wolf, Robert W. McMichael, William 
Reid, Morris Siblej, John Heck, John Ohr, Charles Shaw, Daniel Web- 
ster, Win field Jordan, Walter Beall, William Reid, of (Qeo., William 
Brengle, W. W. Beall, Jacob Suter, Wm. Anderson, Thomas R id, Sum- 
merfield Speelman. S. Valentine (color bearer), Wm. Shepherd, Ohauncey 
McCulloh, Lona Ward, John T. Mahaney, Charles Kizer (d ummer), 
AlonzoSmenner, Thomas Hays, Thomas Wickard, James Reil, James 
Wingard, John Madore, Amor Keller, John Laney, Frank Fmnegan, 
Charles B. Madore, Wm. Trieber. 


CompaDj B-r- Qaptain, J. J. Crai^en; First Lieutenant, Joshua Steineq 
Second Lieutenant^ G. F. Shryer.. First Sergeant, Henry Shriver; Sec- 
ond Ser;;eant, Robeh ShHv'er, Third Sergeant, Charles A. Sea j; First 
Corporal, George T. Knorc; Second Corporal, C. B. Smith; Third Corpo- 
ralf S. H. Fundenberg. 

Privates^— A. M. Adams, Saroup] Anderson, L. W. Bran I, Thomas D. 
Davis, J. H. Doke, Geo. F. Gephart, 0. C. Gephnrt, George M. Gloss, 
WilliHin Uext, Geo. A. Hofrnian,'£j. M. Johnson, Thomas Johnson, John 
Morris, M. Y. Rsbold, Oliver Rice, John Schilling, Thomas Shack, 
Josinh Shuck, Angustus Smith, Amos Stallings, J. Spcelman, W. H. 
Wilkins, John P. Wolf, J. H. Young; 

Company C — Captain, Pat. Morriseyj First Lieutenant, H. M. Carle- 
ton; Second Lieutenant, John Winterstine; Orderly Sergeant, John Wefer. 

Privates — Qenry Bersee, John Taffel, John Smith, John Reis, John 
Hart, John Sheiler, Frederick Mirike, John Baker, George Zink. John 
Himmler, John Keogel, John Rhtder, Kahnrod Hartm-in, John Wilier, 
Thomas Leow, George Morgan, James Shaning, Joseph Schillinsr, Henry 
Willison, George Shuck, Jr., B«;njamin Bakley, John Baker, Kuhnrod 
Waltz, William Smith. 

August 18. — A party .of burglars undertook to 
blow open a fire-proof safe in M. M. Kearney's grocery 
store, corner of Baltimo.r^ and Centre streets, but 
having used too much powder, they blew up the 
building, and aroused the entire neighborhood. The 
damage was so great as to require the rebuilding of 
the house. 

September 3. — General Duffle's brigade, of General 
AveriU's division, arrived here and went into camp. 
The Second Maryland Regiment P. H. B., returned 
to Cumberland, their term of service, three years, 
having expired, and were mustered out. A veteran 
battalion was then formed, four companies re^n- 

September 25. — Taylor & Co.'s iron foundry, on 
George street, was destroyed by fire, together with 
the machine shop, the railroad warehouse, black- 
smith shop, and six dwelling houses, involving a loss 
of more than $30,000. 


1864-65.] INCIDENTS OP THE WAR. 419 

A soldier named Averill, belonging to the Twenty- 
First New York Cavalry, was shot and killed by a 
guard on Mechanic street, near Bedford. 

September 30. — Joseph Prevost, a soldier, who had 
been convicted of the murder of Christian Miller, was 
hanged by the military author! ties. He declared his 
innocence up to the last moment. When the trap 
fell with Prevost, the rope broke, and the unfortunate 
man wjis precipitated to the ground. He was taken 
on to the scaffold again, and after a new rope had 
been procured, was launched into eternity. 

In October, 416 men were drafted, in Allegany 
County, for the United States service. Cumberland 
having supplied her quota was not included in the 
draft. These men, howevier, were not required to 
report for duty. 

November 8. — The contest for Congressman 
resulted in the election of Hon. Francis Thomas over 
A. K. Syester, by a vote of 11,1% against 7,985. 
The vote in Allegany was: Thomas 2,487; Syester, 

State Senator, C. H. Ohr; Delegates, Samuel P. 
Smith, Henry Brown, S. W. Wardwell, M. Sherry 
and M. G. Dean. Judge of the Circuit Court, James 
Smith . 

The call made by the President for 300,000 men, 
in December, 1864, induced the County Commis- 
sioners of Allegany, in February, 1865, to oflfer a 
bounty of $200 to every man who should enlist in 
the United States army, from the county. The State 
also gave a bounty of $300. The sum proposed to 
be raised by the County was $54,200, for which it 


issued and sold its bonds, the work being performed 
by a board consisting of Hopewell Hebb, Nelson C. 
Read and John H. Toung. 

One of the most startling events in the history 
of the war occurred here on the night of the 21st, 
or early morning of the 22d, of February, when a 
small body of Confederates entered Cumberland and 
took two Major-Generals from their beds, while not 
less than 6,000 or 8,000 troops were encamped in 
the city. 

This daring invasion was made by iMcNeill's 
Rangers, and was participated in by a number of 
Cumberlanders, who were perfectly familiar with 
every foot of ground about the place. One of the 
leading spirits in the enterprise was John B. Fay, who 
performed the duty of a scout. He, with C. Ritchie 
Hallar, a young Missourian, crossed the Potomac 
near Brady's Mills, and from some acquaintancet^ 
obtained throrough information as to the number of 
troops in Cumberland, the location of the varioui^ 
headquarters, pickets, &c. With this fund of knowl- 
edge they returned, and reported the facts to 
Lieutenant McNeill. Some sixty-five men, a num- 
ber of them belonging to various companies of 
General Rosser's command, under McNeill and Fay, 
at once started for Cumberland. They again crossed 
the river near Brady's Mill, and almost within hearing 
of a cavalry picket. A portion of the command went 
to the house of S. D. Brady, amongst them Lieuten- 
ants McNeill and Fay, J. L. Vandiver, Joseph Kuy- 
kendall, John Cunningham, James Daily, Charles 
Nicholls and Isaac Parsons, where a consultation was 


held. McNeill proposed to capture the picket and 
return, as he was afraid it was too late to do more 
before daylight. Fay and a majority of others opposed 
this, and without delay the command was ordered 
forward. When the cavalry pickets were reached, 
the raiders were challenged, but by a quick dash 
they captured the pickets before a gun could be 
fired. The countersign, "Bull's Gap," was extorted, 
and with this the Confederates had no difficulty in 
securing the picket post which was stationed at the 
junction of the river road and the old pike, just 
below Steele's. Ten men were then detailed to 
secure General Kelly, and put him in charge of 
Sergeant Joseph Kuykendall; and ten others to take 
General Crook, and turn him over to Sergeant Joseph 
L. Vandiver. Sprigg S. Lynn and Charles Nichols 
were in the first squad. Lieutenant Fay's duty was to 
take a number of men, and destroy the telegraph 
lines. The party then rode rapidly along the road 
to Green street, down Green street and then leisurely 
across the bridge, and along Baltimore street to the 
Bamum House, bandying words occasionally with 
the guards on the street. Halting in front of Baiv 
num's, the headquarters guard was taken in custody, 
and compelled to point out the rooms of General 
Kelly and Adjutant Thayer Melvin, both of whom 
were aroused from their sleep, and requested to dress 
as speedily as possible. The astonished General and 
his aid quickly comprehended the situation, and 
submitted. Meantime, a similar scene was being 
enacted at the Revere House, where General Crook 
was sleeping in fancied security. Lieutenant Fay 


had also done his work, completely destroyingthe oflSce 
of the military telegraph. Eight of General Kelly's 
best horses, amongst them , his favorite, " Phillippi,'* 
were captured, and then the Confederates rodeoflF with 
their prisoners, taking the tow-path, and crossing 
at Wiley's Ford. Shortly after their departure the 
alarm was given, and a company of mounted men 
went in pursuit. The fugitives were overtaken near 
Romney, and a skirmish followed, but the prisoners 
were beyond recapture. 

Generals Hayes, Lightburn and Duval were in camp 
in the city at the time, but the Confederates having 
carried out their plans to the ,very letter, did not 
stop to hazard a further harvest of Generals. This 
event caused much excitement throughout the 
country, and was commented upon largely in every 
direction. The captured oflScers were sent to Rich- 
mond, and shortly afterwards exchanged. 

Upon the surrender of General Lee, in April, it 
became apparent that the war was virtually ended. 
The Union men were proud and happy, while the 
friends of the Confederacy were correspondingly 
depressed. None of the bitterness between the difler- 
ing elements, however, seemed to be obliterated. The 
bloody contest was just being terminated, and time 
alone could soften the memory of all the acts and 
words that had disrupted the political and social fabrics 
of the nation. When the overthrow of the Southern 
armies became assured, meetings were held in all 
parts of the county, at which resolutions were passed 
declaring that those who had left to take up arms 
against the government should not return to reside 

1865.] INCIDENTS OF THE.^WAR.. 423 

again at their old homes. Gradually, however, thin 
spirit became modified, and most of those who had 
gone South returned. For several years there was 
little or no intercourse between them and the men 
who had remained true to the Union, and not unfre- 
quently violent discussions and personal collisions 
occurred. The lapse of time, however, wore away 
the sharp edges of hate, until the soldiers of both 
sides became friends again, and neighbors renewed 
their friendly relations. 

At the city election, May 8th, the following officers 
were elected : Maj^or, George Harrison ; Council- 
men, Dr. J. J. Bruce, C. B. Smith, H. Startzman, 
George Long, John Young and John R. Cruzen. 

Early in the summer of 1865, Cumberland was 
designated as one of the posts at which troops should 
be mustered out of the United States service, in the 
Middle Department. Consequently a number of 
soldiers and long wagon trains arrived almost daily 
during the month of June. A camp was established 
by the Fifth United States Cavalry in a grove on the 
National Road, three miles west of town. This 
camp was laid out with great regularity, and the 
grounds handsomely ornamented with arches, bridges, 
&c., and lighted at night by means of large 
lamps. Almost as rapidly as they arrived the troops 
were mustered out, paid oflF and sent to their homes. 

July 1. — The "Civilian and Telegraph" was pur- 
chased by Will H. Lowdermilk, who became there- 
after sole editor. 

August 14. — Hon. James Smith, Judge of the 
Circuit Court, fell dead from his horse, while riding 


along the old pike, in the vicinity of Mr. Steele's house. 
His death was the result of disease of the heart. 

At the election in November, Daniel Duncan was 
elected Sheriff, James Chisholm, Surveyor ; Commis- 
sioners, Robert McCulloh, Ashford Trail, R. S. Day- 
ton, D. H. Friend and S. J. Beach3\ 

Hon. George A. Pearre received 2,082 votes for 
Judge of the Circuit Court, and had no opposition. 

Before the close of the year 1865, the last of the 
troops departed from Cumberland, and in the pursuit 
of peaceful avocations, a spirit of improvement soon 
manifested itself. The merchants began to enlarge, 
remodel and beautify their places of business, while 
numerous elegant private residences were erected. 
On Baltimore street, within five years following the 
declaration of peace, many old landmarks were 
destroyed, and the elegant buildings of Messrs. S. T. 
Little, F. Minke, M. M. Kearney, Hopewell Hebb, 
the fine block known as ^^ Merchants' Row," em* 
bracing the stores of C. C, Shriver & Co., John F. 
Johnson, C. F. Hetzel, and others, were erected. These 
were followed by J. B. H. Campbell's, A. M. L. Bush's^ 
the Second National Bank, S. J. Edwards', T. W. 
Shryer's, the Reynolds Block, &c. Baltimore street 
becoming crowded, Centre street was invaded, and 
the elegant furniture rooms of K. H. Butler were 
built, after which a new building for the Post Office 
followed, and blocks of business houses by M. J. 
Smenner & Son, 0. C. Gephart, and John E. Buck. 
The whole space from Baltimore street to Bedford 
street was soon occupied, and this became a busy 
part of the town. The formation of building asso- 

1866-75.] IMPROVEMENTS. 425 

ciations proved a great incentive to poor men to 
secure homes for themselves. 

In 1867 the city authorities gave to the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company 40 acres of land in 
South Cumberland, upon which to erect rolling mills, 
for which land ^28,000 of bonds were issued. The 
construction of these mills resulted in the employ- 
ment of nearly 800 men, in consequence of which 
there was a rapid increase of population, and a great 
demand for houses. Real estate advanced in price 
to figures never before thought of in the town, and 
hundreds of new dwellings were erected. Maryland 
avenue and half a dozen other new streets east of 
the railroad were rapidly built up, and Cumberland 
enjoyed a brief season of great prosperity. The 
railroad company erected and opened the Queen City 
Hotel, a magnificent establishment, which cost more 
than $300,000. The old depot at the Baltimore 
street crossing was torn down, and the station 
removed to the new hotel. 

The city authorities caught the infection, and in- 
augurated several much needed improvements. The 
necessity which h*d long existed for a satisfactory 
system of water works was now fully recognized, and 
in 1870 a committee, consisting of Mayor Lowe, 
W. A. Piatt, F. M. Offutt, and George H. Myers, of 
the City Council ; James M. Schley and Asa Willison, 
of the Water Board; T. L. Patterson, engineer; 
Dr. S. P. Smith, W. E. Weber and Will H. Lowder- 
milk, was sent by the city to Dayton, Ohio, for the 
purpose of examining into the merits of the Holly 

system of water supply and fire protection, in use at 


that place. The committee reported unanimously 
in favor of that character of water works, and the 
city at once entered into a contract with the Messrs. 
Holly for the construction of the necessary machinery, 
and issued $100,000 of bonds to meet the expenses. 
In 1871 the works were completed, and they are still 
in successful operation. A year later a bridge was 
built over the Potomac river to connect the city with 
West Virginia, and shortly afterwards two bridgej* 
were built over Will's Creek. In 1874 the erection 
of a new City Hall was commenced, and it was com- 
pleted in 1876. 

The building is of brick, having a massive, lofty 
and striking exterior. Its length on Centre street 
is 126 feet; on Liberty street 115 feet; depth ou 
Frederick street 104 feet; on Bedford street 80 feet; 
height to square of building 62 feet; to cresting 78 
feet; to top of tower 140 feet. 

The ground floor is occupied as a market, having 
a superficial area of more than 10,000 feet. 

Above the market the building is divided into twi> 
distinct parts by a corridor thirteen feet in width, 
which also accommodates the stairways. On the 
north side of the corridor are the Council Chamber, 
Mayor's office, Clerk's office, and committee room. 
These occupy the second floor. The rooms are 
handsomely frescoed, and the Council Chamber, which 
is 50 by 38 feet, in size, is furnished with desks of 
black walnut. On the third floor are three rooms, 
used by the Independent Order of Odd Fellows; 
while the upper floor supplies a full suit of elegant 
rooms for the Masonic fraternity, the lodge room 


1866-75.] THE CITY HALL. 427 

being 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 18 feet high. 

The south side of this edifice, above the market, is 
devoted entirely to the purposes of amusement, and is 
known as the ^* Academy of Music." It is elegant in 
all its appointments, and is one of the most beautiful 
interiors to be found in any place of amusement in 
the country. The ceiling is a work of art, upon 
which was expended the skill of the best painters in 
the employ of Eramart & Quartley, of Baltimore. 
The lower floor of the Academy is divided into the 
** Orchestra," and "Orchestra Circle," and is supplied 
with nearly 500 patent folding chairs. The next 
floor is the "Dress Circle," and above this the 
** Balcony." The balconies are supported by hand- 
some iron columns, and the fronts are of iron open 
ornamental work, in soft colors, picked with gold, 
and a vermilion background. The "Sunlight" re- 
flector in the centre of the ceiling illumines the house, 
but is supplemented by handsome brackets on the 

The dimensions of this room are : from the door to 
the curtain 66 feet; width 62 feet; to the ceiling 43 
feet; stage 31 feet deep and 30 feet wide between 
the boxes, the entire width being 62 feet; the pro- 
scenium is 27 feet in height to the crown of the arch; 
there are four private boxes, two on either side. 
The drop curtain is a handsome painting, represent- 
ing the "Decline of Carthage." On the apron border 
is a faithful portrait of Shakespeare, with suitable 

Dressing rooms, with water, heat and all conve- 
niences occupy a portion of the space under the 


stage^ and a door leads directly from the stage to a 
comfortable room for the "stars." 

The entire house is heated by steam, the arrange- 
ments being such as to guarantee a comfortable 
temperature in the most extreme weather. 

The Building Committee, under whose care this 
structure was erected and completed, were, H. W. 
Hoffman, chairmai\4 J. B. H. Campbell, Jesse Korns^ 
Josiah H. Grordon and F. Haley. The architect was 
Frank E. Davis, of Baltimore, and the contractor, 
J. B. Walton. 

The Academy was opened Tuesday night, March 
7, 1876, under the auspices of John T. Ford, when 
his company presented *'The Big Bonanza," and a 
beautiful address was delivered by Frederick B. 

The County Commissioners being impressed with 
the necessity of furnishing increased accommodations 
for the Courts and their various officers, in 1872, 
caused the old Court House to be entirely remodeled 
and enlarged, at a cost of about $50,000, and thereby 
secured a handsome, commodious and complete 
structure, in every way suitable for the purposes to 
which it is dedicated. They also built a new jail, in 
the rear of the Court House, the old one, adjoining 
the Academy, being afterwards demolished. 

The depressing effects of the financial crisis which 
began in 1873, were not felt until a year or two later, 
in Cumberland, but then every branch of business 
was blighted, and much suffering followed. The 
closing of the rolling mills was particularly disastrous. 
Beal estate depreciated in value to an alarming 

1866-76.] CITY OFFICERS. 429 

extent, and hundreds of houses were unoccupied; 
bankrupts became numerous^ and dozens of persons 
who had almost secured homes finally lost them. 
In common with all parts of the country, Cumber- 
land was a sufferer. 

In May, 1869, the "Transcript," a daily news- 
paper, was established, by Will H. Lowdermilk, and 
was published for three months, when it was 
abandoned, because of the ill health of the editor. 

In April, 1871, the "Daily News" was established, 
by Charles, Fanagin & Co. It was afterwards sold to 
George Charles and Henry J. Johnson; and eventu- 
ally they dissolved partnership, the paper going into 
the sole possession of Henry J. Johnson. 

In the same year the "Daily Times" was estab- 
lished, Lloyd L. Clary being the editor. After his 
death, it was continued by T. F. McCardell and John 
Broyderick, and was finally discontinued in 1876. 

The following is a list of the county and city 
oflScials from 1866 to 1876 : 

May 14, 1866. — Mayor, John Humbird; Council- 
men, F. Mertens, Asa Willison, Francis Haley, 
Andrew Gonder, George Long and George W. 

November 6. — State Senator, Dr. C. H. Ohr ; Dele- 
gates to Legislature, Charles Gilpin, William R. 
McCuUey, S. M. Haller, D. C. Bruce and George W. 
McCuUoh. For Comptroller, Robert Bruce received 
2,410 votes, and W. J, Leonard 2,292. For Congress, 
Francis Thomas received 2,376 votes, and William 
P. Maulsby 2,308. 

The State Senate unseated Dr. Ohr, and gave 


his seat to Alfred Spates. The House unseated 
Charles Gilpin, and gave his seat to William Devec- 

May 13, 1867. — Mayor, John Humbird ; Council- 
men, A. J. Clark, Asa Willison, Henry Grerdeman, 
Andrew Gonder, Wm. 0. Sprigg, and George W. 

November 5. — Chief Judge, Richard Alvey; 
Associate Judges, Thomas Perry, Wm. Motter ; State 
Senator, Alfred Spates ; Delegates, G. W. McCulloh, 
Anthony Kean, Wm. Devecmon, Noah Trimble, E. 
G. Hall. Clerk of Court, Horace Resley; Sheriff, 
Hanson Willison; State's Attorney, Charles B. Thrus- 
ton; Register of Wills, Elijah Fuller; Judges of 
Orphans' Court, John Coulehan, Patrick Hamill and 
John M. Buchanan. County Commissioners, Wm. 
Browning, John Farrell, Wm. Barnard, H. Shircliff, 
and Daniel Frazee. Surveyor, W. M. Owens. 

May 11, 1868. — Mayor, John Humbird; Council- 
men, Frederick Mertens, Jas. H. Percy, A. J. Clark, 
F. M. Offutt, A. Willison, F. M. Gramlich. 

At the election in November, the vote in Allegany 
was, for President, Grant 2,428, Seymour 2,721. 
For Congress, Patrick Hamill 2,702, Daniel Weisel 
2,421. Hamill was elected to Congress by a majority 
of 586. 

Maj' 13, 1869. — Mayor, Lloyd Lowe ; Councilmen, 
J. B. Walton, John Bauer, J. J. McHenry, W. W. 
McKaig, Jr., J. J. Bruce, John Weible. 

State Senator, Alfred Spates; Delegates to the 
Legislature, John M. Standish, Geo. Myers, Geo. 
Percy, Anthony Kean, James Wilson. 


County Commissioners, Israel Thompson, William 
Browning, Michael Naughton, William McCuUough, 
Adam Garinger. Sheriflf, George Layman. Surveyor, 
William Armstrong. 

May 15, 1870. — Mayor, Lloyd Lowe; Councilmen, 
James B. Walton, Frederick Mertens, F. M. OfFutt, 
Wm. Piatt, F. M. Gramlich, George H. Myers. 

The Congressional election in November resulted 
in the success of John Ritchie of Frederick county, 
Democrat, over John E. Smith, of Carroll county, 
Republican, by a majority of 1,818. The vote stood 
Allegany county, Ritchie 2,843; Smith 1,980; 
Washington county, Ritchie 3,756, Smith 3,284; 
Frederick county, Ritchie 4,739, Smith 4,664; Car- 
roll county, Ritchie 2,966, Smith 2,558. 

May 8, 1871. — Mayor, Wm. Piatt; Councilmen, 
John B. Widener, H. Bloomenour, James H. Percy, 
A. J. Walton, S. P. Harbaugh, and Henry Gerdeman. 

November 7. — ^George A. Pearre was elected 
Associate Judge of the Circuit Court, by a majority 
of 2,515. Delegates to the Legislature, Dr. G. E. 
Porter, John Coles, Charles Young and Jasper 
Robinette. Sheriflf, R. L. Gross. State's Attorney, 
William J. Read. Judges of the Orphans' Court, 
William R. McCuUey, John Coulehan, Upton D. 
Ijong. County Commissioners, A. C. Greene, Ashford 
Trail, William R. Beall, S. L Townshend, George 
Reuschlein Surveyor, T. L. Patterson. 

May 13, 1872. — Mayor, John B. Widener; Council- 
men, W. A. Withers, Alexander McFerran, Francis 
Haley, Henry Shuck, Jesse Korns and C. F. Hetzel. 

November 5. — The election for Congressman in 


the Sixth District resulted in the choice of Lloyd 
Lowndes, Jr., Republican, of Allegany county, over 
John Ritchie, Democrat, of Frederick county, by a 
majority of 1,715. The vote stood, Allegany, 
Lowndes, 3,611; Ritchie, 2,646. Washington. 
Lowndes, 3,635; Ritchie, 3,385. Frederick, Lowndes, 
4,892, Ritchie, 4,099. Montgomery, Lowndes, 1,920; 
Ritchie, 2,213. 

In January, 1872, a number of persons living in the 
western portion of Allegany county presented to 
the Legislature a petition, praying for a division of 
the county, and the fonnation of a new county, 
which should comprise all of Allegany lying west 
of a line extending from the middle of Savage 
river, where it empties into the Potomac river, 
north twenty-six miles to a point on the. top of 
Savage Mountain, where said mountain is crossed 
by Mason and Dixon's line. The Legislature passed 
an act authorizing the voters living within the limits 
of the proposed new county to vote upon the question 
of the division, as also upon the location of the county 
seat. At the regular election in November the ballot 
was taken. Oakland, Grantsville and McHenry's 
Glades were the competitors for the county seat. 
The vote in favor of the new county wa« 1,297 ; 
against it, 405. For the county seat Oakland 
received 653 votes, Grantsville, 590, and McHenry's 
Glades, 456. In the following year, the new county of 
Garrett (so named in honor of John W. Garrett, 
President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany) was formed, and the county seat was located 
at Oakland. 


May 12, 1873.— Mayor, W. A. Withers; CouDcil- 

tnen, F. Haley, George Flurshutz, Henry Korns, 

Joseph H. Ways, Alexander McFerran, and George 



November 4. — State Senator, Thomas G. McCul- 
loh ; Delegates, C. B. Wack, William Brace, John 
Weir and James Park. Clerk of Court, Theodore 
Luman. Register of Wills, C. C. Shriver.* SheriflF, 
James C. Lynn. County Commissioners, A. C. 
Greene, Ashford Trail, B. L. Turner, William R. 
Beall and George Reuschlein. Surveyor, Daniel 

A new charter was adopted for the city, in January, 
by the Legislature, whereby the city was divided 
into six wards, and each ward authorized to elect 
two members of the City Council, one to be elected 
each alternate year. At the election held on the 
18th of May, 1874, the officers chosen were as fol- 
lows, a full board of Councilmen being elected, one 
from each ward to retire from office at the expira- 
tion of one year ; the others to serve two years from 
date of election : 

Mayor, Wm. R. McCulley; Councilmen — First 
Ward, Wm. 0. Sprigg, George Rossworm; Second 
Ward, M. Y. Rabold, John Weibel; Third Ward, A. 
M. L. Bush, Archer Scott; Fourth Ward, Jacob 
Shuck, James T. Hill; Fifth Ward, Wm. M. Price, 
Joseph H. Ways; Sixth Ward, H. D. Black, Francis 

On the 4th of December Mayor McCulley died, 
much regretted by the entire populace of the city, 

•Mr. Shriver di«d Oetober L2. 1875, 4nd John Rblnd wm eleelad to fill tb« vseAaey. 



and John Humbird was elected to fill the vacancy. 

May 17, 1875. — Councilmen — First Ward, John 
B. Fay; Second Ward, M. Y. Rabold; Third Ward, 
John Martz ; Fourth Ward, James T. Hill ; Fifth 
Ward, Joseph H. Ways; Sixth Ward, Peter Kelly. 

November 2. — Delegates to the Legislature, Wm. 
0. Sprigg, George M. Rawlings, H. R. Atkinson, John 
R, Brooke. County Commissioners, A. C. Greene, 
William R. Beall, George Reuschlein, A. B. Shaw, 
Ashford Trail. Judges of Orphans' Court, John 
Coulehan, Robert Bruce, C. Slack. Register of 
Wills, John Rhind.* SherilBF, John G. Bauer. State's 
Attorney, A. Hunter Boyd. Surveyor, John Schaidt. 

May 16, 1876.— Mayor, W. A. Withers; Council- 
men: First Ward, A. Spier; Second Ward, John 
Weibel ; Third Ward, F. Foghtman, J. G. Greenfield;t 
Fourth Ward, Jacob Shuck, George W. Cromwell ;J 
Fifth Ward, E. M. Bynon ; Sixth Ward, George W. 

November 7. — The candidates for Congress were 
William Walsh, of Cumberland, Democrat, and 
Louis E. McComas, of Hagerstown, Republican. 
The vote was as follows : Garrett county, Walsh 
950, McComas 1,020; Allegany, Walsh 3,110, Mc- 
Comas 3,304 ; Washington, Walsh 3,893, McComas 
3,986; Frederick, Walsh 4,921, McComas 5,305; 
Montgomery, Walsh 2,853; McComas 2,098— 
Walsh's total vote 15,727, McComas 15,713. 

The following is a list of the Postmasters, at Cum- 
berland, with date of appointment in each case, since 

•ElMt«d to flU Yaeanoj oocMioned bj the dearth of C. C. Shriver. 
tTo Mrre unexpired tenn of George Manz, rebtgned. 
tTo Mrre oaexpired term of J. T. Hill, resigned. 





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the establishment of the Post-office, January Ist, 

Charles P. Broadhag January 1 

Beene S. Pigman, Jaly 1 

Sama«»l Smith Janaary 17 

Edward Wiatt December 21 

Samael Magill , Janaary 18 

James Whitehead October 19 

James P. Garleton December 11 

Daniel Wineow February 16 

William Lynn March 5 

William Lynn, (office became Presidential) March 8 

Jacob Fechtig February 24- 

Jas. C. Magraw May 9 

Wm. A. Taylor June 1 

Samuel H. Taylor August 31 

Geo. A. Hoffman. March 27 

John H. Young.... April 11 

Will H. Lowdermilk May 13 

H. J. Johnson March 1 


The following is a list of Attorneys at Law ad- 
mitted to practice at the Allegany County Bar : 


Date of 





D. WeiseK 

Samuel G. Bartley, 

John McNeil], Jr., 

y. M. Randall, 

Daniel Clarke, Jr., 

John Davis, Jr., 

John T. McBurbridge, 

Edward McDonald, Jr., 

M. Brown, 
John Taylor, 

William W. McKaig, 

William Thistle, 

George Magmder, 

Dec. 1791 

William Matthews, Jr., 

£. Gaither, 

James Wm. MoCalloh, 

Oct. 1834 

S. Hughes, Jr., 
John Johnson, 

Edward Shriver, 

(( (1 

Dec. 1791 

Hanson B. Pigman, 
Elisha C. Wells, 

April 1836 

John Miller, 

Roger Perry, 

R. Wilson, Jr., 

April 1847 

Lenox Martin, 

Dec. 1791 

H. B. Tomlinson. 

William Clasett, 
Joseph Wegley, 

It t€ 

A. W. McDonald. 
Benjamin P. Smith, 

April 1839 

B. Semmes, 

Georse A. Pearre, 

M « 

Samael Price, 

Jems Spencer, 

•( (1 

William Sprigg, 
Jacob Nagle, 
William O. Brown 

WillUm Pitta, 

Oct " 

William Motter, 

(C cc 

Georoe Schley, 
Charles H. J. Figman, 
George R. C. Price, 
William Perry, 
Worthlngton Boss, 

0. L. Sample, 
T. Murdoch, 

April 1840 
Oct. " 

Patrick Magruder, 

Silas Paul, 

April 1841 

Thomas Thistle, 

Thomson Mason, 

»• !• 

George jerioe, 

William P. Webster, 

Oct " 

Resin Davidge, 

George A. Thmston, 

II i( 

Beene 9. Pigman, 

John F. Dilley, 

W. Murray HoUyday, 

April 1842 
Oct. " 

John Hanson ThOmss, 

April 1802 

S. Selby, 

Dec. 1791 

Minor Gibson, 

II .1 




Tal P. Shaffuer, 
Edward Warner, 
Upton Laurence, 
U. H. Gaither, 
John Lyon, of Bedford, 
John J. Stull, 
R. C. Hollyday, 
William Lawrence, 
Robert C. btone, 
Robert J. Brent, 
Otbo Shrader, 
James Shair, 
P. WorthingtoD, 
Josiah Espy, 
Seal Howard, 
Richard Brooks, 
Ch(«ton Rini;goId, 
D. Raymond, 
Phil B. Street, 
James Dixon Roman, 
Thomas B. Pottenger, 
Upton S. Reid, 
George B. Balch, 
H. M. Brackenridge, 
James Caraou, 
George G. Ross, 
John M. Fordick, 
Dan HnKbes, Jr., 
Robert Swann, 
James M . Riddle, 

M. Wallace, 

If OSes Tabb, 

William Magrader, 

Brice W. Howard, 

T. I. McKaig, 

James P. Carleton, Jr., 

J. D. Yore, 

James M. Russell, 

John A. J, Kilgoar, 

Joseph B. Fayes, 

J. M. Palmer, 

Samuel M. Semmes, 

William Price, 

Arthiv Shaaff, 

John Tod, 

David G. Yost, 

Zadok Magrnder, 

J. E. Barclay, 

William J. Roas, 

D. Forward, 

Thomas Perry 

C. Forward, 

Lozley H. Thistle, 

J. IfcMahon, 

Qeorge Swearingen 

Cuth. Powell, Jr., 

James Smith, 

W. J. Naylor, 

William Matthewa, 

W. V. Boskirk, 

Date of 

April 1843 

April 1834 
Oct. 1803 

April 1805 

Oct. 1801 


Oct. 1816 

Oct. 1817 
April 1817 

Oct. 1816 
ti (I 

April 1818 

Frederick A. Schley, 
William Schley, 
J. Dixon. 
John ClGraff, 
John M. Brewer, 
M. Tophum Evans, 
Charles C. McCuUoh, 
E. C. Guest, 
J. P. Roman, 
James U.'JBevans, 
J. H. Gordon, 
J. Manihall, 
N. Carrol! Mason, 
J. H Clay Mudd, 
W. G. Van Lear, 
Charles B. Thruston, 
George H. Hickman, 
A melius Steele, 
L. M. Barclay, 
Andrew W. Kercheral, 
Thomas C. Green, 
Thomas Devecmon, 
Charles F. Mayer, 

Andrew Sterelt Ridgely. 

G. B. M . Price, 

Henry W. Hoffman, 

Jucob Brown, 

Alonzo Berry, 

Aza Beall, 

J. M. Schley, 

Andrew £. Kennedy, 

William Baird, 

Joseph A. Chaplin, 

Thomas A. Hopkins, 

William Kil^ore, 

Joseph Sprigg, 

Hopewell Uebb, 

George Hebb, 

F. S. Hoblitzell, 

haniel Blocher, 

Henry Priee, 

Michael Umbangh, 

John A. Dilte, 

Joseph A. Wickes, 

Richard H. Alvej, 

John McCarty, 

Theodore Brace, 

Charles B. P«»arre 

Samuel Smith, 

Wm. McCIay Hall, 

S. W. Downey 

Jairus W. Robinette, 

John L. Thomas, 

William Walsh, 

Henry Bruce, 

William Johns Read, 

William Devecmon, 

Peter Devecmon, 

J, Frank Seiss, 

Joseph A. Cahill, 

Date of 

April 1835 
Oct. 1827 

April 1845 



Get 1844 



April 1845 

Oct. 1845 

April 1846 

April 184^ 

April 1847 

April 1847 

Julv 1847 

Oct. 1847 

Oct' 1847 

April 1848 

April 1848 

May 1848 

May IMS 

Nov. 1848 

Not. 1848 

April \SA9 

Oct. 1850 


• c 




Oct. 1851 

April 1854 

Oct 1854 

Nov. 185(> 

Oct. 1853 















It •• 
« u 

Jan. 1856 
«t •• 






Richard T. Semmes, 
J. J. McHenry, 
Thomas I. McKaig, Jr., 
William M. Price, 
Ferdinand Williams, 
James L. Vallandigham, 
T. Cook IIu«rhey, 
A. n. Black tfiton, 
D. James Blaokiston, 
Maarice A. Healey, 
R. Chew Jones. 
Llojd Lowndes, Jr.. 
Clarendon Tate, 
William H. Cahtll 
Thomas E. Gonder. 
James M. Beall, 
Robert W. McMichael, 
8. A. Cox. 
John B. Fay, 
W. H. Resley, 
A. B. Gonder, 
James Forsyth Harrison, 
Charles Brown. 
A. Beall McKai?, 

Date of 

Jan. I860 
*« i« 

April 1866 
i« II 

Oct. 1866 
«i 11 

Jan. 1867 
*« (* 

t« II 

Oct. 1867 
Jan . 1868 








\ Date of 
< Adraisttion. 



Oct. 1869 

Jan. 1870 

April 1870 


J. W. Wolf 
GilmoreS. Hamill. 
A. Hunter Boyd. 
William Brace. Jr., 
John II. Read, 
Oscar G. Getsendanner, 
B.F. M. Hurley. 
Wm. M. Goldsborough, 
J. D. Ludwig. 
Robert H Gordon, 
Dwight McCleave, 
Benjamin A. Richmond. 
John S, Grove, 
John E. Semmes, 
James A McHenry, 
David W. Sloan, 
T. F. Candler, 
Johns McCleave, 
Will S. Bridendolph. 
Robert McDonald, 
W. J. Ravenscraft, 
H. C. Brace, 
James E. EUegood, 
N. E. Fuller, 











April 1872 



April 187.3 











April 1875 









July 1878 












For more than seventy years the Bench in this Judicial District has been 
distinguished for its pre-eminent ability, and is to>day, oneof the ablest in 
the country, being composed of their Honors R. H. Alvey, Chief Judge; 
George A Pearre and Wm. Motter, Associate Judges. 

Richard Potts was appointed Chief Justice of this District, October 15, 
1796; Wm. Craik, At-sociate, October 20, 1801; Wm. Claggett, Jantiary 28, 
1802. In 1806, John Buchanan was appointed Chief Judge, upon the death 
of Judge Potts; and Abraham Shriver succeeded Judge Craik. Judge Clag- 
gett then died, and Roger >ielson succeeded him, in May, 1810; and upon his 
death, in 1815, Thomas Buchanan was appointed. In 1843, Richard H. 
Marshall succeeded Judge Shriver; and in 1844, Samuel M. Semmes was 
appointed to succeed Judge John Buchanan, but a succeeding Senate of 
opposite politics declined to confirm him, and in 1845 Robert N. Martin was 
appointed. In October, 1847, Judge Thomas Buchanan died, and Daniel 
Weisel succeeded him. 

Under the constitution of 1850 the ofifice of Judge became elective, each 
county having but one Judge, and Thomas Perry was elected to the Bench 
in Allegauy in 1851, serving until the adoption of the constitution of 1864, 
when a new election was held, and James Smith was chosen. Judge Smith 
died suddenly in August, 1865, and George A. Pearre was appointed to fill 
the vacancy, and elected to the same position in November, of that year. In 
1867, the constitution was again changed, and three judges required for each 
District ; in compliance with which Richard H. Alvey was elected Chief 
Judge; Wm. Motter, and Thomas Perry, Associates. In 1871, Judge Perry 
died, and Judge Pearre was elected to fill the vacancy. 




rrom the> Cmnberltiid Clrilifto. 

On Thursday, the 10th of October, 1850. the open- 
ing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, for continuous 
navigation from Cumberland to Alexandria, was 
commemorated at this place with appropriate cere- 
monies. After undergoing unparalleled vicissitudes 
of fortune, this great work has been at length 
consummated. It cannot, therefore, be inappropriate 
to record with some degree of detail the incidents of 
a day that ushers into existence a new era in the 
history of Western Maryland. 

On the day previous, a large number of gentlemen 
arrived in Cumberland to participate in the approach- 
ing ceremonies. Among them we may mention 
General James M. Coale, President; and Messrs. 
John Pickell, William Cost Johnson, William A. 
Bradly, George Schley, S. P. Smith, Directors of the 
Canal Company ; Ex-Governor Sprigg, General Tench 
Tilghman and J. Yanlear, Esq., state agents; the 
Hon. William D. Merrick, late U. S. Senator from 
Maryland ; John L. Skinner, Esq., editor of " The 
Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil ;" Henry Adison, 
Esq,. Mayor of Georgetown ; together with a number 
of gentlemen from various parts of Maryland and 

These gentlemen came by the invitation of the 
Canal Company, and were properly received and 
entertained by them. 


Along with Colonel John Pickell, and under his 
direction, came the splendid band of the Independent 
Blues of Baltimore, who, soon after their arrival, made 
their appearance in the portico of the U. S. Hotel, 
and electrified an immense multitude of our citizens 
with their unsurpassed instrumental performances. 
The presence of this band was a most happy con- 

Thursday, the day fixed for the celebration, dawned 
upon the mountains in all the richness of the early 
autumn, and it was evident shortly after the sun had 
risen above the hills that the inhabitants of our city 
were preparing to do honor to the new epoch in 
their history. About half past eight o'clock a 
large assemblage had collected in the street before 
the United States and Bamum's Hotels. In a 
short time the Eckhart Artillery, Captain Davidson, 
with a battery of two handsome pieces, arrived, and 
performed various military evolutions in a manner 
that would have done credit to a veteran corps. 

At nine o'clock the procession was formed, the 
Eckhart Artillery in front, escorted by the band of 
the Baltimore Blues, the distinguished visitors, 
officers of the Canal Company and State agents fol- 
lowing in the rear. Behind these were the Mayor 
and Council of the town of C umberland, and in their 
rear an immense number of the citizens of Allegany, 
escorted by the Mechanics' Band of Cumberland. 
The procession marched through the streets in the 
direction of the canal locks, gathering numbers as it 
advanced to the inspiring strains of music, until, 
when that point was reached, there was an immense 


assemblage of all ages and sexes, congregated to do 
honor to so proud an event in the history of Allegany 

When everything had been arranged, five canal 
boats, laden with the rich products of the mines of 
Allegany, and destined for Eastern markets, were 
passed through the locks, amid the salvos of artillery 
from the Eckhart company, accompanied by the 
brilliant performances of the bands. 

William Price, Esq., then ascended the deck 
of one of the boats and delivered the following 
address : 

"I have been requested by the Mayor and Council, on behalf of the 
people of Cumberland, to welcome to their city, the President and 
Directors of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, the agents of the 
State, and the distinguished visitors who have honored us on this occa- 
sion with their presence. Gentlemen, I bid yon all a hearty and a cordial 
welcome, and congratulate you upon the event we are assembled to 

Many of us were youn£ when this great work was commenced, and 
we have lived to see its completion, only because Providence has pro- 
longed our lives until our heads are grey. During this interval oi foar 
and twenty years, we have looked with eager anxiety to the prosrress of 
the work up the valley of the Potomac. That progress has been slow — 
often interrupted and full of vicissitudes. At times the spectacle of 
thousands of busy workmen has animated the line of the work, when, to 
all human calculation, no CHUse was likely to intervene to prevent its 
early completion. But when we have turned to look at the scene again, 
it was all changed ; contractors and laborers had departed and the still- 
ness of desolation reigned in their place. Thousands have been mined 
by their connection with the work, and but few in this region have had 
cause to bless it. 

It was natural, perhaps, that .things should be precisely as they have 
been, both with the enterprise itself, and with the individoals whose 
fortunes have been connected with it. The uncommon magnitude, and 
the uncommon finish of the work, may be regarded as cause sufficient 
for all the alterations and disappointments attending its history. The 
reasonings of men, from their experience upon works of difierent dimen- 
sions and character, might have been expected to lead to disappointment 
when applied to a work like this. 

Go view those magnificent aqueducts, locks and culverts, of hewn 
stone — those huge embankments, on which you may journey for day« 
down the river ; go view the great tunnel passing three fiflhs of a mile 
through rocks, and arched with brick, its eastern portal opening upon a 
thorough-cut almost equal in magnitude to the tunnel itself. Lrook at 
the vessels lying in that basin, ready to commence the work of transpor- 


tation, and lar^re enough to navigate the Atlantic — look at all these 
things, and then think how soon the fortanes of individoals embarked in 
the prosecution of such an enterprise would be swallowed up, leaving 
upon it but little more impression than the bubbles which now doat upon 
its waters. It will not be deemed ont of place, if I here express the 
hope, that those whose losses have been gains of the company, should 
not in the hour of its prosperity be forgotten. 

It has been greatly decried and greatly misunderstood, but it is a 
magnificent work, whatever may be said to the contrary. Of its probable 
revenues, now that it is completed, I see no reason to distrust the opinions 
heretofore entenained by its friends. And why should it not be as 
profitable as, from the first, it was expected to be 7 The same great coal 
deposits which originally induced its projection, and which have animated 
the hopes of its friends, during all the tnals and vicissitudes of its history 
still lie in these mountains, waiting an avenue to market. Its quality 
has in no wise deteriorated, and is known to be such as to give it a 
preference over every other description of coal on this side of the Atlantic. 
The capacity of the canal is prnctieally unlimited. All the coal compa- 
nies have their railroads and other means of shipment upon the canal, 
completed. With such a staple and such an avenue to market, what is 
to limit the emoluments of the work? Coal, however, is but one item of 
its trade. And when we look to the agricultural products of Western 
Maryland, and of the contiguous portions of Virginia and Pennsylvania; 
and afler all this, add to the account, the ascending trade, consisting of 
the merchandize for the supply of the territory already indicated, and a 
share of that destined for the fVest, it is no exaggeration to say, that the 
work will in due time pay off its own debt and leave the State in possession 
of a permanent fund, adequate to all her financial wants. 

The people of the State must not be disappointed, if these results 
should be a little longer in coming around, than they may be willing to 
anticipate. A full trade cannot grow up in a day. To carry a million 
tons of coal, and there are single companies here competent to ship that 
quantity, will require four hundred boats, fifteen hundred men and boys, 
and eighteen hundred horses. It is evident therefore that some time and 
a great deal of capital will be required to put the canal in full operation. 

The opening of yonder gates to let through the first boat carrying 
freight from Cumberland to tide water, signalizes a happy epoch in the 
financial condition of the State. It is the turning point in the history of 
the canal, and marks the precious moment of time, when this great work 
ceases forever to be a burden upon the tax-payers of Maryland, and 
begins to reimburse those who have so long and so patiently borne the 
charge of its construction. Sneh an event is cause of congratulation to 
the P^ple of the whole Stkte. 

Without detaining you longer, gentlemen, I again bid you a hearty 
welcome to our city.'' 

General James M. Coale, President of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal Company, then arose and 
made the following reply : 

Mr, Mayor, gentlemen of the Council, and citizens of Cumberland : 

We thank vou for this cordial expression of your welcome, and for 
the congratulations which you have offered to us on this .auspicious occa- 



To the officers of the company, wh* have lon^r toiled for the comple- 
tion of the canal to Cumberland, and to the Maryland State agents who 
have so ably and generously co-operated with and sustained them in their 
arduous efforts, the event we commemorate is indeed full of deep interest 
and gratification ; but it is also a subject of scarcely less interest, and in 
its consequences will prove of far more substantial and enduring import- 
ance, to you and to your town. If therefore we have congratalationa U> 
receive, we likewise have congratulations to return to you. 

Gentlemen : — It would not be compatible with the brevity due to an 
occasion like this, for me to dwell upon the origin, and the grand design 
and object of this company ; nor to trace its interesting antecedents which 
carry back the history of its work to a period anterior to the formation of 
the Federal Union, and connects it with the immortal name of the Father 
of our country — nor need I recapitulate the long succession of misfortunes 
and disappointments, which, commencing soon after the organization of 
the company, continued to track its progress, step by step, down to the 
period in which the measures were adopted, which have this day been 
crowned with success. But it may be proper for me to mention, and I 
will barely allude to the fact that when assistance in no other form could 
be obtained, and as a last alternative, the act of the 10th of March, 1845, 
was passed by the Legislature of Maryland, waiving the liens of the State 
to a limited extent and upon certain conditions for the purpose of 
enabling the company to finish the canal to Cumberland upon a pledge 
of its unencumbered revenues, few men were so sanguine as to believe 
that under the then existing circumstances, and in view of the 
peculiar provisions of the act, it could be made to take effect, or if made 
to take effect, that it would prove available and sufficient for the purposes 

We this day present the gratifying evidence that these forebodinn 
have not been fulfilled. The consummation so long and so devonUy 
wished for, has been attained — the hope, so often deferred, and yet still so 
perseveringly clung to, has been realized. The Chesapeake and Okio 
CanaX^foT aUihe purposes of navigaiumj is finished to Cumberland! 
It is finished, too, upon a mere pledge of its revenues — without the 
slightest additional expense to the State of Maryland — by a faithful com- 
pliance with the provisions of the act of the 10th of March, 1845. with all 
Uieir conditions, limitations, and restrictions, and in little more than half 
the time allowed by the amendment of the charter adopted at the 
preceding session of the Legislature, the act itself being significantly 
silent on that subject. 

In regard to the losses which, from time to time, have been sustained 
by individuals engaged in the prosecution of the work, we express oor 
sincere regrets ; but we must here take leave to say, that whatever may 
have been the case in former years and in former efforts to bring about 
the completion, we have the satisfaction to know that in carrying the act 
of 1845 into execution, and in completing the canal to Cumberland, under 
and in conformity with its provisions, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
Company has entered into no contract, which, on its part, has not 
been fully complied with — incurred no debt which has not been promptly 

Said according to the terms of agreeinent — made no engagements whi<» 
ave not been punctually and faithfully fulfilled. 

Gentlemen — At the present day the glory of a people consists in 
their advance in civilization, and one of the highest evidences of that 
advance, is their great enterprises for developing their resources, and 


promoting the pursuits of useful and productive industry. In this 
respect Maryland now occupies a proua position among her sister 
states of the Union, and, in proportion to her population, may favor- 
ably compare with any nation or people, upon the face of the earth. 
Among the great works which have been the objects of her munificent 
patronage, none has attracted her favor so strongly nor been so uni- 
formly sustained as the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. In the first 
instance, she embarked in this noble enterprise cautiously, and not 
until she had received what was deemed a sufficient pledge or assurance 
from the general government, that it should be regard^ as a naHonal 
worky and that the national treasury would supply a fair proportional 
part of the amount that would be required to carry it forward and 
complete it to its ultimate destination. But when once embarked, so 
far as the completion of the canal was considered necessary for the 
development of her own resources, Maryland took no step backwards. 
In 1834, when the subscriptions to the capital stock were exhausted, 
and the work was only finished for a distance of one hundred and seven 
roiles, and stood suspended for want of means, the general government, 
and all the other original parties to the undertaking, save Maryland only, 
declined to afford further assistance, and, seemingly, abandoned the com- 
pany to its fate. At that time and at such a crisis, this State, ''among the 
faithless faithful only she,*' firmly fixed her gaze upon its completion to 
this place, and, in spite of all difficulties and disappointments, steadily 
pressed forward to the accomplishment of her object. She freely con- 
tributed her means so long as her credit would permit, and when it failed 
and the company was in the darkest midnight of its misfortunes, she 
did what alone was left her to do^waived her liens on the revenues 
of the canal, to the extent and for the purpose we have mentioned; 
and she now has cause to rejoice in the wisdom of the proceeding, 
for her object is attained. 

Gentlemen- -In her liberal appropriations to works of internal im- 
provements, the State of Maryland has run up, what in this country, and 
among a people unused to direct taxation for the support of government, 
is regarded as a very heavv debt. But what does it amount to ? From 
a statement I have recently seen published, and which I believe to be 
correct, the whole debt now chargeable on the treasury of Maryland is 
less than ten millions of dollars. Why, the national debt of France is 
more than one thousand millions of dollars, and the national debt 
of England is upwards of four thousand millions of dollars I And what 
have England and France now got to show for these immense debts ? 
Little more than the bloody pages of history which record their bootless 
victories and barren conquests. Notwithstanding the vast incidental 
resources of these two mighty nations, neither the Frenchman nor the 
Englishman can look forward to the day when the debt of their respective 
crovemments will be paid off, and his person and property be relieved 
from onerous taxation. Each bears his burden with resignation dnring 
his own life, and hands down the gloomy heritage to his children. The 
debt of Maryland was contracted for no such destructive or vainglorious 
purposes. It resulted from the necessities of her condition to enable her 
to keep pace with the progress of civilization, and grew out of the 
utilitarian spirit of the age. Under the silent operation of her present 
financial and revenue system, the entire amount will be discharged in 
some twelve or fifteen y^ars. And, as an offset to this debt, what can 
Maryland now exhibit ? Why, several great works of internal improTe- 


ment| and among them this magnificent canal, which| with its continaons 
line of nearly 186 miles of deep navigable water, its costly aqnedocts, 
and stupendous tunnel, will stand as a proud and enduring monument of 
her glory — be a source of constantly increasing prosperity and happiness 
to her people, and in due season, after allowing some just provision to be 
made for the meritorious creditors of the company, (which I hope will be 
done,) pour into her treasury streams of revenue to be divided among the 
different counties, and city of Baltimore, in conformity with the 64th 
section of the act of March session, 1841, chapter 23, or be expended by 
the Legislature in the further promotion of the arts of civilization, in 
extending and increasing the facilities of trade, and in diffusing the 
blessines of education throughout every portion of her limits. 

The canal commences its operations under flattering auspices. The 
circumstances which surround and attend the opening of naviga^n are of 
the most favorable character. Unlike other works, constructed with a 
view principally to the coal trade, it is not required to await the 
slow process ot preliminary preparations. It is true that more boats 
ought to have been built, but tnis omission can, and we have reason 
to believe, soon will be repaired. 

The coal mines have been opened, the laborers have been gathered, 
facilities of connection with the canal basin have been constructed, and 
the coal trade of Allegany is already considerably advanced. Little 
more is necessary, than for it to turn to its appropriate channel — the 
canal — and go on increasing. Evidence is afforded that this will be done. 
The little fleet of boats, freighted with' coal, which this morning clustered 
around the inlet lock like mettled coursers eager for the tap of the drum, 
and which passed in, so soon as the gates were opened, contain more tons 
of coal than were carried down by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation com- 
pany during the first year of their operations. 

We still, gentlemen, may hold on to the hope, particularly in view of 
the contemplated improvement of the Ohio, that the general government 
will sooner or later redeem its early pledges, and furnish the necessary 
means to carry on the canal, by a continuous line of communication, to 
the Ohio river, according to the original plan. We may perhaps with 
greater confidence expect that the State of Virginia, which has recently 
exhibited a revived interest in the success of this company, and has 
generously come forward to its assistance, by guaranteeing its bonds to 
a limited amount, will contribute efficient aid towards the extension of 
the work, by a mixed improvement, from this point to the month of 
Savage river, with a view to the development of her rich and abundant 
coal fields, lying on the southern side of the North Branch. And, I have 
no doubt, but that the State of Maryland, will cause a connection to be 
formed with the city of Baltimore, either by an extension of the canal 
through the District of Columbia, or by a lateral canal from some more 
northern point, in case it shall be hereafter found practicable. 

But, gentlemen, whatever may be the future fate of this great under- 
taking, and whether these plans be carried out or not, its advantages, so 
far as your immediate and local interests are concerned, are now secured 
to you. The guarantees are before you. You have them in that solid 
structure which stretches across from your town to the Virginia shore 
and arrests and gathers together the current of the Potomac, to become 
tributary and subservient to your enterprize — in that broad, beautifal 
sheet of water upon whose deep bosom a merchantman may float — ia 
that commodious basin which reaches out from the canal to multiply the 


accommodations for business and increase the general facilities of trade 
— in that deep navigable communication which connects your wharves 
with the wharves of Georgetown and Alexandria, and upon whose placid 
surface every man may, at any hour of the day, freely launch his boat, 
and by merely conforming to regulations established for the general 
good) and paying a small toll for the use of the improvement, transport 
the products of your industry, and the *' hoarded labor of your moun- 
tains," from your very doors, to the tide water of the Potomac, from 
whence they may pass, on **the wings of wind,'* to the ports of the 
uttermost parts of the earth. 

By the side of these eminent advantages stand high responsibilities. 
Now that these great benefits are confirmed to you, it is your duty to exert 
yourselves to turn them to profitable account, as well for those by whose 
means they have been afforded to you, as for yourselves and your pos- 
terity. You must work up your spirit to a full appreciation of the high 
destiny that is before you and within your reach. By the opening of the 
navigation to Cumberland, and the connecting facilities which exist 
between this point and the navigable waters of the Ohio, a chain of 
improvements, such as was contemplated by General Washington, in 
1784, to attract and secure the western trade, is thoroughly consummated. 
But vast and wonderful changes, in every respect, have taken place 
since his day, and the improvements that were considered sufficient, 
and would have been all-sufficient, theUy can not be expected to answer, 
fully, the contemplated purpose, now. They will doubtless, however, 
bring to your town no inconsiderable trade from beyond the mountains. 
But the main reliance, both for the advancement of your own interests, 
and for the success of the canal, must be on the labor and on the liberal 
enterprise of the inhabitants, the proprietors of the coal fields, and the 
managers of the coal companies of Allegany. It will depend upon 
them, whether the population and wealth of this county shall be aug- 
mented in a degree commensurate with its resources. It will depend 
upon them, whether long lines of boats will soon constantly be seen 
gliding down that great highway, freighted with the rich treasures of 
your '*Black Indies^^^ which, as an element of national wealth, and the 
source and foundation of manufacturing and commercial prosperity, are 
far more important and valuable than the placers of Calfornia, or than 
mines of gold and silver. 

Gentlemen — ^your State and county pride — ^your industry and energy 
of character — your interests, present and future, all combine to give 
assurance, that you will not be wanting in the due performance, of the 
part that belongs to you, to render your county prosperous, and this 
great improvement successful. The canal company, on its part, will 
cordially cooperate in all proper and just measures, for the attainment 
of these objects. 

These ceremonies being concluded, the distin- 
guished visitors, the officers of the company, and a 
large number of citizens embarked on the canal 
packet "Jenny Lind'' and the canal boat "C. B. 
Fisk," which had been fitted up for their reception, 
and proceeded down the canal, followed by the 


Eckhart Light Artillery, with their pieces, on another 
boat, the coal boats "Southampton," "Elizabeth,"' 
"Ohio," and "Delaware" — belonging to the Mer- 
chants' Line of Messrs. McKaigand Agnew; and the 
"Freeman Rawdon "-^belonging to the Cumberland 
Line of Mr. Ward — bringing up the rear. The 
passage down was agreeably enlivened by the music 
of the bands and the firing of canon. 

Arrived at a large spring ten miles east of Cum- 
berland, the boats halted, and the company having 
disembarked, in a short time returned on board tc> 
partake of an abundant collation prepared by the 
committee of the canal company — Messrs. S P. 
Smith, W. A. Bradley, and John Pickell — to which 
zest was imparted by a copious supply of the finest 
and choicest wines. Having spent some time in 
these agreeable divertisements, the fleet of boats was 
again put into line, and started on their return to 
Cumberland, the coal boats proceeding down the 
canal towards their destined p6rts. The return was 
accomplished by night-fall, and everything seemed 
to have met the most sanguine expectations of those 
who joined in the festivities. 

Upon the return of the company to Barnum's, they 
were entertained by the citizens of Cumberland at a 
dinner prepared by J. A. Hefelfinger, Esq., proprietor 
of that establishment. To say that the viands were 
all choice and well served, is to say but little of this 
entertainment. After the cloth was removed a 
number of toasts were drunk, which, we regret we 
have not the time to report. The Hon. Wm. Cost 
Johnson, the tried friend of the canal, and who, as 


chairman of the committee of internal improvements 
of the House of Delegates, at December session, 1844, 
reported the act under which it has been completed, 
arose during the course of the evening, and, after 
alluding in handsome terms to the recent courtesies 
extended to the officers of the canal company, by the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, offered the 
following sentiment, which was drunk with applause : 

** The Chesapeake and Ohio Catudf andjhe Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad — The former haa happily reached its ebony harTests amid the 
coal fields of the Alleganies; may the latter jonmey vigorously on west- 
ward, until it rejoices amidst the golden plains of the far Galifomias.'* 

At this point the further festivities of the table were 
arrested by the necessity of yielding the room for 
the opening of the ball, to which the fair daughters 
of Cumberland had been invited by the gentle- 
men of the town for the purpose of meeting their 
distinguished guests. In a short time wine and 
sentiment had yielded to the dominion of music and 
the dance, and it was not until long after the '^wee 
sma' hours" that the reign of beauty had given place 
to the quiet slumbers of the morning. We take this 
occasion to say, the supper prepared by " mine host," 
of Barnum's, on this occasion, was such, in all its 
characteristics as to draw forth commendations from 
every lip. 

Thus ended the 10th day of October in Cumber- 
land — a day which will be held ever memorable in 
the recollections of the people of this region, being 
the day on which their much cherished project of 
canal navigation to tide-water was brought to a 
glorious and successful consummation. 


In procuring data upon which to give even an 
outline of the history of the various churches, the 
work has been accompanied with trials and difficul- 
ties that were unforeseen, and certainly unexpected, 
when the task was begun. With scarcely an 
exception, the churches have kept no historic record, 
and in many instances we have had to rely upon 
letters, diaries, and individual memories to fill up the 
gaps that occurred in the annals of the churches. 


Without any precise date to govern us we are led 
to belieye that Methodism was first introduced into 
Allegany county about the year 1782, and the pio- 
neers in the work were Revs. Bishop Asbury, John 
Haggerty and Richard Owens, the latter a local 
preacher, of Baltimore county, Md., but which of 
them took precedence in the work we have no means 
of determining. These were succeeded in 1783 by 
Revs. Francis Paytheres, and Benjamin Roberts; in 
1784 by Wilson Lee and Thomas Jackson ; in 1785 
by Lemuel Green, William Jessup and John Paup. 
From the year 1785 to 1786 Rev. John J. Jacob, 
father of Governor Jacob, of West Virginia, assisted 
by Bishop Asbury, labored in the work, and the 
accessions to the faith were large. In 1786 Rev. 
Jacob was succeeded by Rev. Enoch Watson, who 


officiated until 1787, and was succeeded by Philip 
Bruce, whose labors in 1788 were blessed with a 
great revival, by which many were added to the 
church. From 1788 until 1802-3 the church 
languished and sank into a lethargic state, until the 
arrival of Bishop Whatcoat, who inspired and infused 
new life into the faithful who remained true to their 
profession. Something over one hundred were added 
to the church in 1803, through the labors of Bishop 
Whatcoat, assisted by Rev. L. Martin, a local 
preacher of Montgomery county, Md. The church 
relapsed again until 1805, when new life was infiised 
into the society through the efforts and preaching of 
Revs. James Ward and Louis R. Fechtig. Allegany 
circuit first appears in the general minutes of the 
church in 1804, at which time there were three 
preachers commissioned for the work, J. Paynter, 
Joseph Stone and James Read, with James Ward 
as Presiding Elder. As early as 1787 there was 
occasional preaching by Methodist ministers in Cum- 
berland, and about that time steps were taken to 
form a society. The deed for the lot upon which 
the first Methodist church in Cumberland was erected 
bears date 1799, and the church edifice was probably 
erected in 1800. The location was on the west side 
of Will's Creek, on the comer of Fayette and Small- 
wood streets. The building was of an unpretending 
character, a. frame structure, 25 by 35 feet, one story 
in height, and was never plastered. The pulpit was 
plain and of a primitive style, the benches hard, 
narrow and without backs. Among the names of 

those identified with this first house of worship we 


find James Hendrickson, Thomas Leakins, Adam 
Seigler, Aquilla Brown, (local preachers) and Dick- 
inson Simkins. The names of Irvin, Wall, Hinkle, 
and Twigg also appear in this connection. In 1816 
a new church was determined upon. The preachers 
of the circuit for that year were Tobias Reiley and 
Robert Cadden, with Gerard Morgan as Presiding 
Elder. In the erection of the second church Mr. 
Keiley took an;a,ctive part, never ceasing his labors 
until its completion. The site selected was on Centre 
street, north, where the present handsome edifice 
stands. The house was built of bricks, about 36 by 45, 
one story and a half high, with gallery in front and 
on either side. The benches were an improvement 
on the former church, having a single strip as a back 
support. The pulpit was in a large half-room recess 
and placed the preacher far above the heads of the 
people. Among those identified with the church 
building were, Peter Shultz, Jas. Hendrickson, John 
Wright and Jonathan Peterson. The quarterly meet- 
ings of the circuit were usually held in Cumberland. 
In 1829, Cumberland was made a station, and 
Rev. Charles B. Young was appointed to the charge, 
who was succeeded in 1831 by Rev. J. H. W.* Monroe, 
and in 1832 by Rev. G. W. Humphreys; in 1833 by 
Rev. Hezekiah Best; in 1834 by Rev. Bazil Barry; 
1835 by Rev. P. D. Lipscomb, who was succeeded in 
1837 by Rev. S. C. Parkinson, who was ^followed by 
Rev. Jas. Stevens, who ministered to the church until 
1840. In 1837, under the pastoral charge of Mr. 
Stevens, the building was enlarged to meet the 
demands of the church, fifteen feet being added to 


the rear, and the house altered to show as a two 
story building. This building answered only eleven 
years. In 1848, under the ministry of Rev. Thomas 
B. Myers, the third church was erected, 50 by 80 feet, 
at a cost of about |6,000. The Baltimore Conference 
met in this church in 1851. Continuing our list of 
the pastors who were appointed to this station, we 
find the following in order named: In 1841-2, 
Rev. E.E. Allen; 1843-4, Rev. William Prettyman; 
1845, Rev. John A. Henning; 1846-7, Rev. James 
Sewell; 1848-9, Rev. Thomas Myers; 1860-1, 
Rev. John M. Jones; 1852-3, Rev. John Lanahan; 
1854-5, Rev. W. T. D. Clemm; 1856, Rev Samuel 
Kepler; 1857-8, Itev. A. E. Gibson; 1859-60, Rev. 
R. H. Crever; 1861-2, Rev. Thomas Barnhart; 
1863-5, Rev. S. W. Sears; 1866-8, Rev. Edward 
Kinsey; 1869-71, Rev. Asbury Reiley; 1872-3, Rev. 
Samuel V. Leech; 1874, Rev. James H. Lightbourne; 
1875 Itev. G. G. Baker. 

In 1871, during the pastorate of Rev. Asbury 
Reiley, the third church was taken down, and the 
present handsome edifice commenced. It was not 
completed and dedicated until the ministry of Rev. 
Lightbourne, 1874-5. The house stands to-day with 
its towering spire, one of the largest structures in the 
city ; beneath its pulpit rests all that was mortal of 
Rev. Tobias Reiley, who labored faithfully for the 
church and endeared himself to her people. Rev. 
Baker was succeeded in 1876-7 by Rev. W. S. 
Edwards, D. D., who was followed in this ministry 
in 1878, March 1st, by Rev. Joel Brown, who is at 
this time pastor in charge. 


The annual session of the Baltimore Conference 
was held in the new church in February, 1878. 
The number of communicants in this church is about 
four hundred. 


The first Lutheran church in Cumberland, Md., 
was organized on the 11th day of May, 1794. There 
were at the time twelve men whose names we find 
enrolled upon the church book, as follows : Nicholas 
Leyberger, John Rice, George Rizer, Andrew Harry, 
Christopher Brotemarkle, George Shuck, Christian 
Kollhoefer, Frederick Loch, Jacob Valentine, Jacob 
Ganner, and John Cramer. The original constitution 
u|)on which this church was based is written in 
German and Latin, the rules of government being 
simply and vigorously expressed. The first church 
building was a log-bodied structure, with no preten- 
sions to architecture, and was located near the site of 
the present imposing brick edifice on the northeast 
comer of Centre and Baltimore streets. The first 
pastor was Rev. Frederick William Lange, who served 
the congregation eleven years, and was succeeded by 
Rev. John George Butler, who accepted the pastorate 
in 1805, ministering twelve years. Mr. Butler was 
succeeded by Rev. C. F. Heyer, who, even now, is 
familiarly remembered by the title of "Father" 
Heyer. Father Heyer officiated six years, and was 
followed in the ministry by Rev. Nathan B. Little, 
who remained in charge until 1830, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Henry Haverstick, who ministered 
to the congregation three years, and was succeeded 


by Rev. John Kehler, who labored eight years, and 
was followed, in 1841, by Rev. Jesse Winecoff. 

Previous to this time the services in this church 
were conducted in both the English and German 
languages, but a short time before the ministry of 
Rev. Jesse Winecoff (1839) a congregation purely 
German Lutheran was organized, who separated 
from the body of English Lutherans. This separation 
was peaceable and by mutual agreement, being solely 
a matter of convenience. 

Continuing the history of the English Lutheran 
church, we find that Rev. Winecoff served from 1841 
to 1844, and during his ministry the present massive 
brick edifice was erected, the comer stone being laid 
in 1842. From 1844 to 1846 Rev. Samuel D. Finkle 
officiated as pastor, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph A. Seiss, D. D., who served over five years, 
and was succeeded in 1852 by Rev. John Francis 
Campbell, who officiated until 1856, having been in 
charge four and a quarter years. He was followed 
by Rev. A. J. Weddel, who remained eleven years 
and nine months, bringing the period down to the 
10th of May, 1868, when Rev. H. C. Holloway was 
called to the pastorate, and is officiating therein at 
this date. 

Miscellaneous. — On the arrival of the Rev. 
'^ Father" Heyer, in Cumberland, he found the church 
almost destroyed ; only a few Lutherans remained, 
and these were scattered and discouraged; but 
'' Father" Heyer was an energetic man ; he went 
earnestly to work, and succeeded in gathering the 
scattered flock and re-establishing church worship. 


After remaining here six years he removed to Som- 
erset, Pa., from which point he was subsequently 
commissioned by the (Jeneral Synod of the Lutheran 
church as missionary to India, being the first ever 
sent to that field by the English Lutheran church of 
this country. 

The following incident is related in connection 
with the building of the present English Lutheran 
house of 'worship, and the truth of the story is fully 
substantiated : 

When the present edifice, which stands at the inter- 
section of Baltimore and Centre streets, was contem- 
plated, a building committee was appointed by the 
congregation, and when the location was fully decided 
upon, this committee was empowered to supervise 
the erection of the building. A majority of the 
committee decided that the house should be of 
certain proportions in length and breadth, while one 
man stoutly contended that the length they proposed 
was not proportionate to the height or breadth, and 
desired that ten feet be added to the proposed length. 
In this he was overruled ; the ground was staked off. 
and the minority man went away sorrowing. But 
he did not cease to think upon the matter, and after 
he and his compeers had retired that night, he arose 
from his bed and proceeding to the site of the new 
church, removed the stakes, placing them ten feet 
further back upon a direct line. The work of 
digging for the foundation was completed, and even a 
large part of the foun4ation wall was built, before the 
trick was discovered, but no one who passes the 
church to-day can fail to see the effect of the taste 


and force of character manifested by this active 

Under the ministry of Rev. Weddel considerable 
improvement was made in the church building, the 
front being materially changed, and the steeple 
erected within that period. 

During the war between the States the church 
lecture room, which had fallen into disuse, was 
temporarily converted into a storehouse for army 
supplies, but under the ministry of Rev. HoUoway 
this room was put in thorough repair, and fitted for 
congregational and Sunday school purposes. The 
English Lutheran church of Cumberland now num- 
bers about 260 communicants. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod, of Maryland, 
met in its annual convention in this church, for the 
third time, in October, 1878. 


There was, perhaps, a considerable Presbyterian 
element among the early settlers of Cumberland, but 
there is no record or tradition of a congregation of 
this church until within the first decade of the 
present century. About the year 1810 or '11 Rev. 
Mr. Porter, who was principal of the old Allegany 
county Academy, which stood upon Jones's lot, on 
Fayette street, preached occasionally as a minister 
of the Presbyterian faith, in the log church owned 
by the Lutherans, then located on the comer of what 
is now known as Baltimore and Centre streets. Rev. 
Mr. Porter left here during the war with Great 
Britain, 1812-15. 


The next who succeeded him, so far as we are 
able to ascertain, was Rev. Mr. Hayes, who was also 
principal of the Academy, in 1815, and who had 
formerly been President of the Carlisle College, Pa., 
and who removed to this point on account of his 
health, /which was very feeble. He remained in tbii^ 
field of labor only a little more than a year, when he 
was called away by death. Mr. Hayes's successor 
was Rev. Robert Kennedy, who also became principal 
of the Academy, as well as pastor to the flock. His 
pastorate began in the year 1817, and ended in the 
spring of 1825. 

Up to the ministry of Mr. Hayes the Presbyterians 
had worshipped in the Lutheran church, on alternate 
Sundays with that body; this arrangement was con- 
tinued during Mr. Kennedy's ministry, but in 1817 
an effort was made by subscription to build a church 
in Cumberland "for the joint use of the Presbyterian 
and Episcopalian churches of the town." For this 
purpose $2,122 in money was subscribed, besides the 
donation of Thomas J. Perry's "lot No. 68, in #he 
fort," then valued at $100, on which the present 
Emmanuel Episcopal church stands. The list of 
names of those who subscribed to this purpose 
embraces members of all the Protestant churches, 
several Roman Catholics, and one Israelite. Among 
those names are the following, many of whose 
descendants are now living in our midst : William 
McMahon, Samuel Thomas, Henry McKinley, Roger 
Perry, James Scott John Hoye, David L3mn, 
Thomas J. Perry, George Thistle, Rev. Robert 
Kennedy, Thomas Beall, John Hayed, Walter Slicer. 


J. Wm. Hoblitzell, Samuel Smith, Robert McCleary, 
John Shryer, Peter Lowdermilk, Hanson Briscoe, C. 
Tilghman, Martin Rizer, John Hoblitzell, Henry 
Korns, Elnathan Russell, John McHenry, William 
Hilleary, Jacob HoflFman, George Blocher, Robert 
Swann, George McCulloh, Jacob Seass, John G«p- 
hart, Valentine Hoffinan, John Hoffman, Greo. Shuck, 
John M. Read, Henry Wineow, and Wra. Magruder. 

The erection of this church was begun in 1817, 
but owing to some legal and financial troubles was 
not completed until some time after Mr. Kennedy 
left Cumberland. (Some account of this church is 
given in the history of the Episcopalians.) The 
building afterwards passed into the hands and control 
of the Episcpalians. 

We now lose the thread of our narrative, until the 
year 1832, when the Domestic Mission Board of the 
Presbyterian church sent Rev. Mr. Raymond to 
Cumberland. For a while during his labors the 
church on Fort Hill was jointly used by the Presby- 
terians and Episcopalians. 

Mr. Raymond remained here about two years, and 
was succeeded in 1834 by Rev. S. H. McDonald, 
who was also commissioned by the Domestic Board 
of Missions. During the ministry of Rev. McDonald, 
December 9, 1837, the congregational organization 
was perfected. At a meeting held for the purpose 
of organization we find that Rev. H. R. Wilson, of 
Carlisle Presbytery, was appointed moderator, T. 
I. McKaig secretary, and the following were elected 
and duly appointed trustees of the Presbyterian 

congregation of Allegany county : Wm. McMahon, 



James Moore of Geo., James M. Smith, John G. 
Hoffman, Thomas I. McKaig, Joseph B. Hayes, Alex. 
King, John J. Hoffman, John Boward, John A. 
Mitchell, William Harness, Jeremiah Berry, Jr., and 
Charles Heck. 

It was now resolved by the • congregation to build 
a house of worship, and the trustees were authorized 
to appoint a building committee, consisting of five 
persons. The committee thus selected consisted of 
the following gentlemen : J. J. Hofiman, James M. 
Smith, John G. Hoffman, Thomas I. McKaig and 
James Moore. The committee went actively to work, 
and soon raised a sufficient amount of money by 
subscription to justify them in building their house 
of worship; a lot had been bequeathed the church as 
a location by Richard Beall, a wealthy citizen, in 
1836. This piece of ground was on the west side of 
Will's Creek, fronting on what is now known as 
Washington street, and is part of the same lot on 
which the present handsome Presbyterian church 
stands. For various reasons the committee did not 
think proper to build thereon, and the ground was 
sold, and another lot purchased on Liberty street, 
north, where the present German Reformed church 
stands. In fact that identical building was erected bj 
the Presbyterians in 1840, though only about two- 
thirds the size of the present Liberty street building. 
Rev. McDonald labored here until 1843, when he 
^ was removed to another mission, and was succeeded 
by Rev. B. Wall, the same year, who was installed 
first pastor of the church. Mr Wall remained two 
years, and was succeeded, in 1845, by Rev. John H. 


Symmes, who officiated as minister for over seventeen 
years. Rev. Symmes resigned his charge in 1862, 
and from the 6th of November of that year until 
early in 1867 no congregational services were held 
in the building, which was used a part of the time as 
a hospital for Union soldiers. 

In March, 1866, Rev. James D. Fitzgerald was 
temporarily called to this ministry, and the services 
were held in the Baptist church edifice, on Bedford 
street, and worship was continued there throughout 
the year. In February, 1867, the repairs on the old 
church on Liberty street were completed, and Rev. 
Fitzgerald was regularly called as pastor, in October, 

In May, 1871, a provisional sale of the church 
property on Liberty street was made to the Grerman 
Reformed congregation for the sum of $5,500, and a 
full transfer was made in June, 1872. This sale was 
made with the design of erecting a new house of 
worship, the trustees having purchased the Devec- 
mon lot, ou Washington street, in August, 1870. 
The laying of the comer stone of the new church 
took place on the 4th of July, 1872, with impressive 
ceremonies, in which the Masonic lodges took an 
important part. 

Rev. Fitzgerald tendered his resignation as pastor 
in April, 1873, and on the 14th of July, the same 
year. Rev. E. B. Raffensperger was unanimously 
elected to the charge. The lecture room of the new<< 
church was completed and dedicated in August, 1873, 
and the entire church edifice was fitted for services 
in June, 1875. 


The church edifice is built of white Narrows sand- 
stone, and is semi-Gothic in style; it is eighty-seven 
feet long and forty-five feet wide. The cost of the 
edifice was about $48,000. 

Bev. Baflfensperger resigned his pastorate on the 
1st of October, 1877, and was succeeded February 
10, 1878, by Rev. J. E. Moffatt, the present min- 
ister. The number of communicants in this church 
is 235. 


In the year 1803, the first steps were taken to 
establish an Episcopal church in Cumberland. On 
the 16th of October, in that year, the holy com- 
munion was administered to members of that 
profession of faith, here, for the first time. During 
the same year steps were taken to effect the legal 
organization of the parish, and among the first names 
in the parish records of the Protestant Episcopal 
church are those of Lynn, Bruce, Perry, Lamar, Hil- 
leary, Beall, Thistle, Briscoe, Cresap and Burbridge. 
A provisional vestry was chosen after divine service, 
on Easter Monday, of the year 1803, and this vestry 
selected Mr. John Kewley as a delegate to the con- 
vention, and recommended him for holy orders. Mr. 
Kewley was ordained deacon ia June, of that year, 
and about a year following was ordained priest. The 
convention was petitioned to constitute Allegany 
» county into a parish with territorial bounds, which 
was claimed as a right inherited by this diocese from 
the Church of England. The convention replied that 
they had no power to set them off as a parish, and 


recommended that they organize under a new act of 
assembly as a congregation, without regard to terri- 
torial limits; this was done, and on the 1st of August, 
following, the same vestrymen were again elected. 
In 1853, just half a century after the petition of this 
church, the convention set off Allegany county as 
^^£mmanuel Parish." The first vestry of the parish 
consisted of the following persons : Patrick Murdock, 
Hanson Briscoe, David Lynn, Upton Bruce, Robert 
Tivis, George Hebb, John B. Beall, and Mr. Hilleary. 
They appointed Rev. John Kewley minister of the 
parish, at a salary of £100, Maryland money, 
equal to about $266.66 United States currency. 
Previous to his entrance upon the ministry, the 
presumption is, that Hev. Kewley had been acting as 
lay reader in the parish. After his ordination he 
officiated steadily, not only in Cumberland, but at 
('resaptown, Murley's Branch, Oldtown, and occa- 
sionally in Pennsylvania, and in other counties of 
this State, besides Allegany. His rectorship ended 
in 1804, at which time he removed from the State. 
After his withdrawal the parish was without a pastor 
for more than twenty-four years, and had only such 
service as was afforded by passing clergymen, or 
those sent on sjiecial occasions. In 1834 Rev. 
Leonard H. Johns .became rector of the parish. 
Up to this time the vestry had not owned a house of 

In 1816, or early in 1817, a subscription was * 
opened to build the brick church which occupied the 
site on Fort Hill, upon which the present beautiful 
structure stands. The joint efforts of Episcopalians 


and Presbyterians succeeded in raising upwards of 
$2,000, and the work of erecting a house of worship 
for the two sects was begun, but in 1818, before its 
completion, the lot was sold to satisfy a judgment, 
and it remained unoccupied for religious purposes, 
and in an unfinished condition until 1829, when, 
during the rectorship of Rev. L. H. Johns, "for a 
considerable sum," Colonel Lamar and Captain Lynn 
made a deed of the property to Emmanuel Parish. 

Up to this time the Episcopalians had worshipped 
in the old Lutheran church, (elsewhere noted) when 
not occupied by other congregations. The church 
now built by the joint eflForts of Episcopalians and 
Presbyterians was consecrated, and used for the first 
time in 1830. Rev. Johns resigned his charge in 
1834, after a ministration of nearly five years. The 
church was again without a pastor for more than a 
year, when Rev.Thaddeus M. Leavenworth was called 
to the rectorship; he remained one year; another 
vacancy then occurred, of nearly a year, and Rev. 
Matthias Harris succeeded Rev. T. M. Leavenworth, 
remaining in charge four and a half years. In 
October, 1841, Rev. Harris resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Samuel Buell, who remained until 
September, 1847, and was succeeded by his brother, 
Rev. D. H. Buell, during whose ministry the present 
beautiful structure was reared ; the comer stone being 
laid in May, 1849, and the building consecrated with 
solemn services just eighteen months thereafter. 

This building is of yellow sandstone, of Gothic 
architecture, built in the form of a cross; and ivy- 
clad as it is, with its symetrical proportions, stands 


upon Fort Hill one of the prettiest structures in the 

Rev. D. H. Buell resigned his charge in June, 1854, 
and was succeeded by Rev. Henry Edwards, who 
remained until October, 1856, and was followed by 
Dr. William Wiley Amett, who was rector until 
1859, when he was removed by death. Dr. William 
Wallace Spear succeeded Dr. Arnett, and remained 
from July 4, 1859, to October, 1861. Rev. Orlando 
Perinchief was rector from May, 1862, to February, 
1864. He was succeeded by Rev. E. Owen Simpson, 
who served from July, 1864, to July, 1865, and was 
followed by Rev. John B. Henry, who died here 
February, 1868. The church was without a rector, 
from February, 1868, until the following August, 
when Dr. Chauncy Colton took charge, and served 
until July, 1872. Another vacancy occurred in this 
ministry until February, 1873, when Dr. Stephen 
Chipman Thrall became rector, and is still in charge. 

From the reorganization of the Parish, December, 
1853, to 1878, Emmanuel Episcopal church has had 
but one register, Hopewell Hebb, Esq., the present 

The present number of communicants in this 
church is one hundred and fifty.* 


The precise date at which the Baptists made their 
advent in Allegany county, like that of the Method- 

^be pretent geoeratlon will be snrpriited to note Ibe great revolatloD that eoolety bM nnder- 
gonewfth regard to lotteries oince the year 1812, when we oite the faet that a lottery m heme 
wa« proposed at that date to raise money wherewith to erect a chnreh In this place. 

By an act of the Lesislatare of the State of Maryland, bearing date December 17th. 181S, it was 
ordered, "That David Lynu. Wm. MoMahon, Upton Bruce, George Hebb. Patrick Mnrdock, 
Roger Penr and James Searight be anthorixed to prepare a scheme of lottery, and sell, and 
dispose of tickets therein, for raising a sum of money not to exceed 90,000, to be appropriated 
to the boUdicg of a church in the town of Cumberland." 


ists, is very uncertain. Rev. John J. Jacob, of the 
latter church, says in a letter that treats of early 
Methodism, that he think the Baptists were here at 
a date earlier than 1782, but that they subsequently 
disbanded, and had no organization until a much 
later date. To use the exact language of Rev. 
Jacob : "Our Baptist brethren were, I think, a 
little earlier in the work in this section of the country 
than we (Methodists) were. They made some prose- 
lytes, but gradually declined, and removed away; 
so that but few remain at this day," (1831). Thus 
it will be seen that we have no record of this church, 
even at a comparatively late period, although the 
society existed anterior to the year 1782. 

Our first reliable record of this church as an 
organization dates back only as far as 1847 or '48, 
when seven or eight members banded together and 
met in the hall above the old Pioneer engine house, 
on North Centre street. The building in which they 
met is now occupied by Mr. Charles Keyser, 
as a green grocery. Rev. Benjamin GriflSth, D. D., 
now secretary of the Baptist Publication Society of 
Philadelphia, was the first missionary to this little 
flock, and was also their first pastor. The church 
dedicated their present house of worship, in Novem- 
ber, 1849. The building is a brick structure, with a 
seating capacity for a number largely in excess of 
the present membership; has a lecture room, baptis- 
mal tank, and pastor's study; it stands on Bedford, 
between Front and Columbia streets, and has been 
recently repainted, and put in thorough repair, 
making it a neat and comfortable house of worship. 


The original trustees of this church were Rev. Dr. 
R. Fuller, Rev. F. Wilson, Rev. B. Griffith, Joseph 
H. Tucker, and A. F. Roberts. The building was 
consecrated on Sunday, November 4, 1849, at which 
time the sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Fuller. 

Rev. Benjamin Griffith remained in this charge 
about three and a half years. From this time we 
find it impossible to. give the succinct order of the 
pastors, and the duration of their ministry here. 
Even the full names are unattainable. The cause 
of this was the removal of the records of the church 
to Baltimore, some years ago, for historic purposes, 
since which they have never been recovered. 

The Rev. B. Griffith was succeeded by Rev. Price, 
who remained a short time, and he was succeeded by 
Rev. John Bray. Mr. Bray was followed by Rev. 
Brown, who remained only about six months. The 
next pastor was Rev. J. B. T. Patterson, who was 
succeeded by Rev. T. P. Warren, and during the 
ministration of Mr. Warren it was agreed, in a council 
of the church, to disband it as an organization. 

In the year 1871, Rev. H. J. Chandler was sent to 
Cumberland as a missionary. Arriving here in 
January, of that year, he found eighteen members; 
he subsequently baptized five more, increasing the 
number to twenty-three, with which the church was 
re-organized. Rev. Chandler was installed pastor in 
the same year, 1871. 

Owing to a defect in the title to the lot upon which 

the present church stands, the congregation have had 

to pay twice for their property. The conmiunicants 

now number seventy, although the church book 


shows an enrollment of over one hundred names. A 
number of these have moved away, and taken letters 
of admission to other churches. At this time. Rev. 
H. J. Chandler is pastor of the church. 

It was from this church Mr. and Mrs. James 
Landrum Holmes were sent as missionaries to China, 
where Mr. Holmes was murdered during an outbreak 
among the inhabitants of that country. His widow 
has near relatives in this city. 

In November, 1878, Rev. Chandler tendered his 
resignation as pastor of Bedford street Baptist church, 
but it was declined by an overwhelming vote of the 


The early history of this church has not been 
preserved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy, and 
there are none now living whose memories carry 
them back to the days of the first missionary work 
done in this county, by the priests who made frequent 
visits from the lower counties. It is certain that 
this missionary work was done as early as 1790, and 
the belief is general that the first church erected 
under the care of these priests was built about 1794 
or 1795. The oldest of our citizens in their early 
lives knew the building as an old church, and it was 
destroyed in 1850, to make room for Carroll Hall. 
From the foundation of the church here, it was 
called "St. Mary's Church," but upon the erection of 
the new brick edifice, in Father Obermyer's time, 
this title was changed to " St. Patrick's." 

In 1833 the church was in charge of Rev. Francis 

ST. Patrick's romak catholic church. 467 

X. Marshall as pastor, who also ministered to the spir- 
itual wants of the few scattered Catholics at Arnold's 
Settlement, (now Mt. Savage) and at Blooming Rose, 
now in Garrett county. He continued in the same 
mission until 1837, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
Henry Myers, who, in 1839, had Rev. B. S. Piot as 
assistant in these missions until 1840, when the 
latter gentleman was transferred to EUicott's Mills, 
leaving Rev. Henry Myers in sole charge, until 1842; 
when Rev. Leonard Obermyer became pastor of St. 
Mary's, and so continued until 1853, at which time 
Rev. John B. Byrne was appointed his assistant, and 
in 1854 became the successor of Rev. L. Obermyer, 
who was transferred to St. Vincent's Church, Balti- 
more. The spacious church now known as St. 
Patrick's was erected by the Rev. L. Obermyer, on 
the site of the former one, St. Mary's. 

After the departure of Rev. John B. Byrne, in the 
year 1854, the Rev. P. B. Lenaghan was appointed 
pastor of St. Patrick's, and was succeeded in 1856 by 
Rev. James (barney, who was, at a later date, suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Michael O'Reilley. 

In 1859, St. Patrick's was in charge of Rev. George 
Flaut, as pastor, and Rev. Edward Brennan, as assist- 
ant; and after the departure of Rev. G. Flaut, Rev. 
E. Brennan became pastor, and has so continued to 
the present time. Revs. Edmund Didier, Father 
Barry, James Carey, Charles Damer, and F. S. Ryan 
became successively assistant pastors of St. Patrick's, 
the last-named reverend gentleman filling that posi- 
tion at the present time. 

In the year 1850, "Carroll Hall," now used as a 


parochial school building, was erected, and at that 
time a literary society, called "Carroll Institute," 
was established. 

In 1866, St. Edward's Academy, a large and com- 
modious brick structure, was built, and placed under 
the government of the Sisters of Mercy. It is 
devoted solely to the education of young ladies, many 
of whom, of various Protestant denominations, as 
well as Catholic, have been educated within its walls. 

In 1875 the present handsome parochial residence 
in rear of Carroll Hall was built. 

St. Patrick's church edifice stands upon North 
Centre street, and is of the Ionic style of architec- 
ture, built of brick, 140 feet long, exclusive of portico 
and sacristy, and 60 feet wide, with an interior 
height from floor to ceiling of 40 feet. The interior 
is handsomely frescoed and ornamented, and has a 
fine organ. The building has a seating capacity^ 
exclusive of the choir gallery, of about 1,000. 


The earliest history we have of the German 
Catholic church, in this city, dates back to the year 
1847. There were at that time only a few German 
Catholic families residing in the city limitit. 

In the spring of 1847, meetings, composed of the 
German Catholic families, of the city and vicinity, 
were held in the basement of St. Patrick's Catholic 
church, which occupied the site of the present struc- 
ture, on north Centre street. These meetings were 
held twice a month during the summer, at which time 
about $300 was raised by subscription, for the 
purpose of erecting a house of worship. 


In the meantime, the members had been looking 
around them for a suitable place on which to locate 
their building. After several sites had been suggested 
they finally determined upon the lot upon which their 
present imposing edifice is erected. 

During the previous worship of this people a priest 
came from Baltimore every three months, and offi- 
ciated at the altar. 

While the question of church location was yet 
pending, Father Neuman, afterwards Bishop of Phila- 
delphia, arrived in Cumberland, and approved the 
site that was finally selected. 

The lot was purchased of King's heirs, through 
their agent, Mr. McCuUoh, for the sum of $350. 
Some time elapsed, however, before a title was 
obtained, owing to the fact that the heirs from whom 
the property was purchased, were scattered in various 
parts of the country. This delayed the building of 
the house until the following spring. The deed was 
finally executed in the name of Samuel Eccleston, 
Archbishop of Baltimore, and his successors, in their 
corporate capacity, in trust for the German Catholics 
of Cumberland and vicinity. 

Early in the spring, of 1848, the work of digging, 
and constructing the foundation was begun, and on 
the 4th of June, the same year, the corner stone was 
laid with imposing ceremonies, conducted by Right 
Reverend Archbishop Eccleston, assisted by Father 
Obermyer and Father Helenbrecht, the latter one of 
the priests of the Redemptorist order in Baltimore. 

The building of the church progressed rapidly, 
under the supervision of the architect, Mr. Joseph 


N0II9 and the labor of the builders^ Messrs. Francis 
Haley & Bro., and was put under roof in the fall of 

In the spring, of 1849, a Bedemptorist priest, 
named Father Urbauzick, was sent from the diocese 
of Baltimore, and during his administration the 
church was completed (September, 1849). 

The dedicatory services took place the same months 
at which time a second priest. Father Kronenberger, 
of the Redemptorists, was sent to this point, who 
remained in charge. 

The church edifice was originally ninety feet in 
length, exclusive of the altar recess, and fifty feet in 
breadth ; it was subsequently lengthened twenty-four 
feet, the addition being made in 1872. 

The society rapidly increased, and in the year 
1852 a seminary for the education of priests of the 
Redemptorist order was erected on a part of the lot 
belonging to the church, and contiguous thereto, and 
in the year 1855 or 1856, it was found necessary to 
increase the size of the seminary building. With 
this view a lot was purchased by the priests, and the 
building augmented to its present size, being now 
one hundred feet in length by forty in breadth, and 
six stories in height, built of brick, in a very sub- 
stantial manner. It stands upon an eminence, on 
the west side of Will's Creek, from whence is obtained 
one of the finest views of Cumberland and her girdle 
of mountains. 

The order of Redemptorists afterwards purchased 
a lot west of their church, on which stood the old 
"Allegany County Academy," and upon this lot they 


erected a parochial school house. Hitherto, for some 
years, a parochial school had been taught in the 
basement of the church building. This school was 
continued in the old Academy until the new structure 
was fitted for occupancy. 

In May, 1870, the church built a Convent on part 
of the same lot, immediately west of the school house, 
and the services of three sisters of the Ursuline order, 
from the Convent at Louisville, Kentucky, were 
obtained to instruct the children of the congregation. 

The church was under the administration of the 
Bedemptorist fathers from 1849 to 1866, at which 
time the Redemptorists gave place to the priests of 
the order of Carmelites, who came here from Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, and who were succeeded in 1875 by 
priests of the Capucin order, from the province of 
Muenster,in Westphalia, Germany, who are officiating 
at this time. 

The number of communicants in this church, 
inclusive of children, is about 1,800. 

The priest now ministering in this church is 
Father Francis, who is assisted by other priests of 
the order of ( ^apucins in the seminary. 


In the spring of 1836, the Home Missionary Society 
of the Maryland Annual Conference, of the Methodist 
Protestant church, sent Rev. Dennis B. Dorsey as a 
missionary to Allegany county. Among other of 
numerous places at which he preached, was the town 
of Cumberland, and here he formed a society com- 
posed of John Gephart, Addison L. Withers, and 


William Haller, with their respective families. Ser- 
vices were held statedly in the basement of the 
English Lutheran church, until Rev. Dorsej was 
succeeded by Rev. John Elderdice, when it was 
found necessary to seek another place of worship. 

In the fall of 1838, this little band went to work 
with a will, and built their first church edifice, a 
little "rough-cast" house, 20 by 48 feet, on Blocher, 
now called Bedford, street. 

The congregation rapidly increased, until it was 
found that the little ** rough-cast" was too small tx) 
accommodate the congregation, and it became neces- 
sary to build a larger house of worship. Accordingly, 
in 1849, under the pastorate of Rev. W. T. Eva, the 
original house was superseded by the present 
substantial brick structure, that stands at the inter- 
section of Front and Bedford streets, and in 1852 a 
comfortable brick parsonage was erected on a lot 
adjoining the church. 

The history of the church from 1852 to the fall of 
1871 is one of comparative success. In the fall of 
1871, Rev. Henry Nice, appointed by the Conference 
of the Methodist Protestant church to this station, 
becoming dissatisfied with his church relations, desired 
to transfer his membership together with the Bedford 
street church property, to the Methodist Episcopal 
church. In this he was supported by a number of 
the members of his charge. This condition of things 
was duly reported to the President of the Maryland 
District Methodist Protestant church, (Rev. D. Evans 
Reese, D. D.) and the relations between Mr. Nice 
and the church were severed. In the interim the 


church property on Bedford street was leased to a 
board of trustees, elected or appointed by the Centre 
street M. E. Church, and Mr. Nice was received into 
the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Strenuous eflForts were made by the Method- 
ist Protestants to get the representatives of the 
Methodist Episcopal church to relinquish the occu- 
pancy of the building. Failing in this, the Maryland 
Conference, at its session in March, 1872, adopted 
a resolution authorizing the board of managers of 
the missionary society, of the Maryland Conference, 
to employ competent legal counsel, and under such 
direction, to proceed, without delay, to recover pos- 
session of the church and parsonage, of the Methodist 
Protestant church, in the city of Cumberland. In 
accordance with this resolution, suit was entered, 
and after all the postponements and delays common 
to a court of chancery, the property was remanded 
to the possession and control of the Methodist Pro- 
testants, in the spring of 1875. 

After obtaining possession of the property again, 
the Methodist Protestant Conference, by its President, 
appointed Rev. T. H. Lewis pastor, in charge of this 
station, in the summer of 1875. Mr. Lewis was an 
earnest, zealous worker, and soon succeeded in re- 
organizing the church, and, with but few exceptions, 
the old members returned to their former place of 
worship. Rev. Lewis was succeeded in the spring of 
1877, by Rev. Francis T. Little, the present pastor, 
under whose ministry the church has sensibly 
increased, having a larger number of members upon 

its church book than at any former period of its 


history. The church has also a large and flourishing 
Sunday school under its management. The number 
of communicants in this church is now 175. 


In our account of the English Lutheran church of 
Cumberland, we mentioned that the congregation of 
that church, then worshipping in a log building, near 
the site of the present English Lutheran church, was 
composed partly of Germans, and that the service 
was for some time conducted in both the English 
and German languages. 

In the year 1839, the Germans separated from the 
English Lutherans, and obtained the services of Rev. 
Mr. Kehler, to preach to them in their native tongue, 
every fourth Sunday, at 2 o'clock p. m. These ser- 
vices were held in the old log church of the English 
Lutherans. We have not the exact date at which 
Rev. Kehler left, nor how long he continued serving 
the German Lutherans, but he was succeeded by Rev. 
Winecoff, who remained until 1843. The German 
Lutherans materially aided their English brethren 
in contributions toward their new church, (the 
present structure) . Rev. Winecoff was succeeded by 
Rev. Samuel Finkle, who preached for the congre- 
gation every two weeks. He came in the fall of 
1844, and left in the fall of 1846. At the close of 
Mr. Finkle's ministry, the Germans obtained the 
services of Rev. Peter Rizer, the English Lutherans 
considering it impracticable to supply a pastor who 
spoke both languages. Rev. Rizer preached especially 
to the German Lutherans every Sunday. 


In the spring of 1848, the vestry of the German 
Lutheran church received a letter from the vestry of 
the English Lutherans indicating that the latter 
would in future require the sole use of their place of 
worship, whereupon the former, with a membership 
of thirty-five, begun the work of erecting the present 
massive structure on Bedford street. 

This church, which is of Tuscan style of architec- 
ture, was designed by Mr. Henry Smenner, a member 
of the church. It has a steeple 150 feet in height 
from the ground, and 100 feet clear of the roof; in 
the tower of this steeple is fixed the only town clock, 
or public time enunciator, we have at this time. The 
church was finished and dedicated March 17, 1850. 
The corner stone was laid the June preceding, with 
an imposing display, there being on that occasion a 
procession of Clergy, professional gentlemen. Mayor, 
and City Council, Freemasons, Odd Fellows, Sons of 
Temperance, Red Men, German Society, trustees, 
and members of the congregation. The church 
stands on Bedford, near Decatur, street, and is not 
only large and commodious, but is a monument to the 
indomitable energy and perseverance of the fathers 
who reared the house. Among those whose names 
are connected with the erection of this building 
are, H. Hanekamp, Deitrich Lear, Christian Ren- 
ninger, Henry Smith, Mr. Buckholtz, Mr. Stier, John 
Weibel, and George Martz. 

Rev. Peter Rizer was pastor of this congregation 
from June 3, 1847, to October 15, 1849. He was 
succeeded in 1849 by Rev. C. Schwankoosky, who 
remained until 1852. Rev. Bauman succeeded him 

476 msTORY OF Cumberland. 

and remained until 1855, when the Rev. Daniel 
Maier was called, who remained until 1858. Mr. 
Maier was succeeded by Rev. G. H. Vosseler, who 
filled the pulpit until 1866; from this time until 
June, 1867, the pastoral duties were performed by 
"Father" Heyer. In June, 1867, Rev. John Philip 
Conradi was installed as pastor, and fills the position 
at this date. 

Upon the record of this church we find the follow- 
ing entry : 

"On the 10th of August, 1853, the cholera appeared 
in this town, and took away sixteen fathers of fami- 
lies, and six mothers, from this church; many children 
also died, but as the force of the epidemic was so 
great, the burials took place at night, and I, myself, 
was for some time very ill, it was impossible to obtain 
names, ages, and dates of death." This record was 
made l^ Rev. Bauman. 

The number of communicants in the church at this 
date is about 500. 


On the 27th day of April, 1853, a little band of 
Israelites, residing in Cumberland, met together for 
the purpose of organizing a congregation for religious 
worship, according to the faith of their fathers. 
The room in which they then assembled was in an 
upper story of No. 22 Baltimore street, and was 
occupied by the congregation until the spring of 
1854, when the place of meeting was changed to an 
upper room on the comer of Centre and Baltimore 
streets, opposite the English Lutheran church. In 


the spring of 1858, they again changed their place of 
meeting to the building on the west side of Will's 
Greek, nearly opposite Emmanuel Episcopal church, 
known then as Semmes' Law Building, which still 
stands at this day. 

This first congregation of Israelites was organized 
with H. Rosenbach, President; A. Scheilds, Vice 
President; H. Adler, Secretary, and S. Nathan, Trea- 
surer. The following board of trustees was also 
elected at that time: Samuel Sonnebom, and S. 

Prom this time it was the law of the congregation 
to observe the Sabbath strictly, and all the holy days 
enjoined by the Mosaic Law; for the more regular 
observance of which, worship in congregational form 
was at once instituted. 

On the I9th of November, of the same year, the 
congregation concluded, after due deliberation, to 
engage a reader, and the services of Rev. Juda 
Wechsler were at once secured. Mr. Wechsler 
remained in charge one year, and at the end of that 
time was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Hermann. Mr. 
Hermann remained two years, and was followed by 
Rev. Isaac Strauss, who was succeeded by Rev. Mr. 
Freundlich, who officiated one year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. A. Laser, who continued in charge 
until the year 1860, when he wais followed by Rev. 
Isaac Gottlieb, who served the congregation four 
years, and was succeeded by Rev. Isaac Baum, who 
remained until 1869. 

In the year 1866, during the ministry of Rev. 
Baum, the present synagogue, comer of South Centre 


and Union streets, was erected. The building is a 
neat brick structure, with a seating capacity for 
about one hundred and fifty persons. Attached to 
the synagogue, and situated in the basement of the 
building, is a school room, where the children of the 
congregation are taught, by the minister or reader, 
who contracts with the church for this duty when 
he enters upon his pastoral charge. The school 
dates its organization from the time of the establish- 
ment of the congregation. 

On the 2d day of March, 1867, the synagogue on 
Centre street was dedicated with religious obser- 
vances, on which occasion Rev. B. Szold, and H. 
Hockheimer, of Baltimore, and Rev. Baum, of 
Cumberland, officiated. 

In 1869, Rev. A. Openheimer succeeded Mr. Baum 
as reader, and held the position until the 24th day of 
April, 1871, when he died, suddenly, of heart disease, 
and was buried in the Hebrew cemetery, in this city. 

Rev. Openheimer was succeeded in 1871, by Rev. 
A. Bonheim, who remained until 1873, and was 
followed by Rev. G. Levi, who officiated until 1875, 
when Rev. M. Wurzel was called to the charge. 
Mr. Wurzel continued here two years, and was 
succeeded in 1877 by Rev. L. Eiseman, the present 
incumbent. In the year 1853 the congregation pur- 
chased a piece of ground on the Baltimore pike, east 
of, and contiguous to, the city, for burial purposes. 
They have since greatly enlarged and improved the 

The congregation numbers at present twenty mem- 
bers, and the number of pew holders is about eighty. 


Trinity congregation, of the Lutherans who adhere 
to the "Unaltered Augsburg Confession of Faith," 
was once a part of, and in affiliation with, the congre- 
gation that worships in the church on Bedford, near 
Decatur, street, but who separated from the latter 
about the year 1852. 

About this date, Rev. E. G. W. Keyl, of Baltimore, 
came to Cumberland, and preached for this body. 
The meetings were held in the old Court House. 
Following Mr. Keyl came Rev. Mr. Nortman and 
Rev. Sommer, who preached for the congregation 
alternately. These services were held at irregular 
intervals, and continued until the year 1854, when 
the present house of worship was built, although a 
congregation had been previously organized, with a 
pastor in charge. 

By reference to the records we find that Rev. J. 
F. Biltz came to this charge in October, 1853, and 
remained about seven years. He was succeeded in 
the spring of 1860 by Rev. Conrad H. Steger. In 
June, 1854, the comer-stone of the new church, on 
North Centre street, was laid. This building is a 
neat and substantial brick edifice, 50 feet long by 30 
wide, and capable of seating about 300 persons. It 
is built in modem style, to show full two stories. 
The house was completed the same year, and dedi- 
cated to religious worship. Rev. Steger remained in 
charge of this church two years, and was succeeded 
by Rev. W. Kaehler. Mr. Kaehler was followed, 
in 1865, by Rev. Conrad Schwankoosky, who re- 
mained until 1871. Rev. Schwankoosky had been 
pastor of the United German Lutheran church, in 


former years, but had separated from that organiza- 
tion, and connected himself with those who held to 
the "Unaltered Augsburg Confession." The next 
pastor in charge of this church was Rev. Frederick 
Kuegele, who came here the 20th of May, 1871, and 
is officiating at this time. 

There is a parochial school attached to, 
which is taught by the pastor. The present number 
of pupils registered is 33. The number of commu- 
nicants in the church is 142. 


The idea of erecting a Methodist Episcopal chapel 
in South Cumberland, originated with a few zealous 
members of Centre street M. E. church, among whom 
were 8. T. Little, John Kellenbeck, and Samuel 
Milford, who, taking in view the wants of the mem- 
bers who were settling in that part of the city, in 
consequence of the establishment of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company's Rolling Mills, wished 
to place them in more convenient reach of a house of 

In the month of August, 1870, the lot on which 
the chapel and parsonage stand was leased^ at an 
annual ground rent of $30, and the chapel, a pliun 
frame building, 30 by 45 feet, was erected. The 
structure was completed on the 5th of December, 
1870, at a cost of $1,000, and on the 10th of the 
same month was subsequently dedicated to God's 
worship, by Rev. E. J. Gray, then pastor of the M. 
E. church in Frostburg, Md., at which time sufficient 
money was collected to relieve the church from 


The Presiding Elder, for this circuit, appointed 
Kev. J. McK, Walsh, a supernumerary preacher, of 
Baltimore Conference, to take charge of the new 
chapel, which charge he held until the session of 
the annual conference, in March, 1871, when Rev. 
A. J. Gill became the regular pastor, who, on the 
19th day of March, preached his first sermon in the 
building, and received into membership, by certificate, 
the following persons : S. T. Little, Samuel Milford, 
John Kellenbeck, George Johnson, Samuel Johnson, 
Henry Mahaney, Howard Deetz, John Kope, Elizar 
beth Milford, Elizabeth Kellenbeck, Ellen Fisher, 
and Amos Fisher. 

On the 6th of April, following, the first regular 
quarterly conference of this church was held at the 
residence of John Kellenbeck, and the following 
ofiicers were elected : Trustees, Jesse Korns, S. T. 
Little, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Milford, and W. R. 
Mudge. Stewards, S. T. Little, John Kellenbeck, 
and Howard Deetz. 

Rev. Gill continued to officiate in this charge two 
years, and was succeeded in March, 1873, by Rev. S. 
M. Alford, who remained three years, and was suc- 
ceeded in March, 1876, by Rev. W. H. Reed, who 
ministered to the congregation one year. 

It was during the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Reed that 
the parsonage, a neat frame residence, was erected. 

In March, 1877, Rev. D. M. Browning, the present 

pastor, was appointed to this charge. The earlier 

history of this church was that of marked prosperity, 

but for the past few years it has sufiered loss, on 

account of the stoppage and irregular working of the 


Baltimore and Ohio rolling mills, in which many of 
the members of this congregation found employment 
in more prosperous times. 

The number of communicants in this church is 
about 90. 


This church congregation meets in what was for- 
merly known as the old Presbyterian church, a large 
brick edifice, with cupola and belfry, situated on 
north Liberty, between Baltimore and Bedford, 

The first misson of this church was established in 
1867, with Rev. A. Wanner as missionary, who 
remained until 1871. Previous to the arrival of Mr. 
Wanner, preaching by ministers of this profession 
took place occasionally, at which times the Presby- 
terians kindly granted the use of their building on 
Liberty street. 

In May, 1871, the congregation, having been fully 
established, made a provisional purchase of their 
present house of worship, from the Presbyterians, 
although a full title was not obtained until June, 
1872, the price then paid being $5,500. From this 
time stated services were held in this building. 

The first regular pastor was Rev. C. Cast, who 
was installed in 1871, and remained in charge until 
1874, when he was succeeded by Rev F. R. Schwedes, 
the present incumbent. 

The congregation of this church own a cemetery, 
three acres in extent, situated on the Baltimore pike, 
a little east of the city. 


A Sunday school, under the patronage of the 
church, numbers about 125 scholars. 

The number of communicants in this church is 
about 150. 


The inaugural services of this church were held in 
Trinity M. E. church, South, corner of south Centre 
and Union streets, on Sunday, May 14, 1876, when 
Bishop George D. Cummins, Presiding Bishop of 
the Reformed Episcopal church, oflBciated, assisted by 
John K. Dunn, the present pastor. At this time 
services were held morning and evening, the Bishop 
preaching on both occasions. 

Two days thereafter (Tuesday, May 16), a num- 
ber of gentlemen met at the office of Geo. Henderson, 
Jn, on north Liberty street, and organized a parish, 
and established a church, under the name of Christ 
Reformed Episcopal Church. Rev. J. K. Dunn was 
chosen rector, and a vestry consisting of the following 
persons was elected: Wardens, Dr. S. P. Smith, 
and George Henderson, Jr. Vestrymen, Thomas 
Johns, George A. Pearre, Jonathan W. Magruder, 
E. T. Shriver, C. J. Orrick, Dr. S. H. Fundenberg, 
J. W. Pearce and W. H. Harrison. 

On the following Sunday, (May 21, 1876,) regular 
services of the newly organized parish were held for 
the first time, in the Hall of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, north Centre street, Rev. John K 
Dunn rector, officiating. In the course of a month 
about twenty-five members were enrolled upon the 
church book as communicants. 


A Sunday school under the management of this 
church was established on the afternoon of Sunday, 
May 21, 1876, in the same place. 

The services of the church were continued in the 
Hall of the Young Men's Christian Association, until 
March, 1877, when the congregation purchased 
Trinity M. E. church building, on south Centre street, 
for the sum of $5,500 in cash, the congregation of 
that church having disbanded some months previous. 
The building thus purchased by Christ Reformed 
Episcopal church has been in their occupancy ever 
since, stated worship being held there at this time. 

The present number of communicants is about 70, 
and the Sunday school now numbers about 170 


The church now known as McKendree M. E. 
Chapel Congregation, is composed of colored people, 
who formerly worshipped with the congregation of 
the Centre street M. E. church, and were under the 
government of the Baltimore Conference, as their 
white brethren. In the fall of 1854, the colored 
|)ortion of the Centre street M. E. church withdrew 
from the whites, and organized a separate congrega- 
tion. They purchased their present house of worship 
during that year, and have occupied it for religious 
purposes ever since. 

The building is a modern brick structure, and was 
originally 30 by 40 feet, but during the pastorate of 
Rev. M. Spreddles it was lengthened eight feet. It 
is finished as a two story building. 


Among the first trustees of this church we find the 
names of Lewis Graham, Joseph Taper, James Tibbs, 
and Eli Robinson. 

The congregation, at the time of its organization^ 
numbered about forty. The first pastor was Rev. 
Henry Matthews, who remained one and a half 
years, and was succeeded by Rev. W. S. Wilson, who 
served three years, and was followed in 1869 by 
Rev. M. Spreddles, who remained until 1872, when 
he wa6 succeeded by Rev. E. Lawson. Rev. Lawson 
served only one year, and was succeeded in 1873, by 
Rev. Thomas Davis, who, after a brief ministry 
withdrew from this conference, and united with 
another. In 1874, Rev. A. B. Wilson came here to 
fill the unexpired term of Rev. Davis, and remained 
until February, 1875, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Henry Cellers, who is the present pastor. 

The church has a Sunday school under its man- 
agement. The number of communicants at this 
time is 90. 


•For many years the colored persons of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal faith were accustomed to attend 
services at the Centre street M. E. church, where a 
portion of the gallery was set apart for their use. 
But in 1848 they determined to provide themselves 
with a house of worship, and therefore efiected an 
organization, and elected a board of trustees, as fol- 
lows : Nathaniel Burgee, Philip Only, Jacob Mitchell, 
Wm. Hamilton, John Page, John Murdock, and 
Henry Robinson. Father Grolden, of Baltimore, came 


here, and devoted himself to the work, and before 
the close of the year, succeeded in securing the 
erection and completion of a plain brick building, on 
Frederick street extended. In 1871, the house was 
rebuilt and enlarged, and in 1875, was again 
enlarged, to accommodate the increasing member- 

The pastors who have served in this church, from 
the date of its organization, are as follows, beginning, 
in 1848, with Father Golden: His successors were 
Rev. Thomas Henry, Dr. Watts, D. A. Ridout, James 
Sterricks, Mr. Russell, R. A. Hall, John F. Lane, 
William Smith, C. Sampson, Wm. H. Waters, 
Joseph Thompson, Jas. H. A. Johnson, J. B. Ham- 
ilton, and J. M. Cargill, the latter having been 
appointed to this charge early in 1877, and being 
still the pastor of the church, which is quite pros- 


Ebenezer, African, Baptist church, was organized 
in the spring of 1875, by the Revs. H. J. Chandler, 
of Bedford street Baptist church, in Cumberland, and 
James Nelson, then of Georgetown, D. C, now of 
Farmville, Va. 

The first congregational worship of this body was 
in the third story of the west end of Reynolds's 
Block, on Baltimore, between Liberty and Mechanic, 
streets. The number of members enrolled at the 
time of organization was about twenty, and Rev. 
Lewis Hicks, the present pastor, was then installed. 

This church continued to worship in Reynolds's 
Block until their new church edifice was built, on 


Cumberland street, on the west side of Will's Creek. 
The corner stone of this building was laid in August, 
1875, Dr. S. C. Thrall, of Emmanuel Episcopal 
church, and Rev. H. J. Chandler, of Bedford street 
Baptist church, officiating, and the house was pushed 
forward to completion by the end of the year. 

The .lot on which the church is located was pur- 
chased of George Henderson, Jr., and deeded to 
Lewis Hicks, Willie Johnson, Robert Trent, Simon 
Bolden, and John H. Thomas, a committee appointed 
by Ebenezer Baptist church of Cumberland. 

The building is a modern brick structure, finished 
to show two stories in height, and 40 feet in length 
by 28 in breadth. 

The building of this house of worship evinced a 
degree of courage and energy truly remarkable. At 
a time when there was a great scarcity of money, and 
a prostration of business, the work was projected, 
and it was carried forward under trials and difficulties 
innumerable, by a class of men dependent on their 
labor for daily bread. 

A small Sunday school is in operation, under the 
management of this church. The number qf com- 
municants is about 15. 


The City of Cumberland is located at the Eastern 

base of the Allegany Mountains, on the banks of the 

North Branch of the Potomac River and of Will's 

Creek, at the mouth of the latter stream. Her 

geograpical position is 39° 39' l^" latitude; longitude, 

in arc 78° 45' 25"; in time 5A. 15m. 01.7«. The city 

is surrounded by mountains and abrupt bluffs on all 

sides, but has natural outlets in every direction, 

through which easy passage has been found for her 

channels of communication with other parts of the 

world. Not only has the valley east of Will's Creek 

been built up with streets, residences, business houses 

and factories, but the hills have been scaled, and on 

every side improved by the hands of enterprise and 

progress. The picturesque beauty of the place is 

scarcely surpassed by any other spot in the country, 

while some of the surroundings are grand and 

imposing in the extreme. There are few points from 

which the entire city can be brought into view at 

one glance, but from every point of observation the 

eye is greeted with a variety of scenery of exceptional 

attraction, and the natural beauty of the vision 

is enhanced by the architectural improvements which 

have converted the quiet hill and vale into scenes of 

busy life. From every hill side flash into view lofty 


spires, temples built of native stone, charming villas, 
towered edifices, and comfortable homes, evincing 
educated tastes and refined ideas. The placid 
Potomac, forming the southern boundary of the city, 
is apparently land-locked, and presents the appear- 
ance of a modest lake, upon whose bosom is mirrored 
the beauty of its leafy shores; while ^the swifter 
waters of Will's Creek come purling into the very 
heart of the town, cool and fresh, from the sombre 
shades of the wondrous "Narrows." Southward the 
waters of the two streams tumble over a dam of 
solid masonry, and skirt the base of " Nobley" Moun- 
tain, until they disappear from view at the edge of 
the city, some half mile lower down the channel. 
Eastward is a series of bluffs, some three hundred 
feet in height, known as " Shriver's Hill," " M cKaig's 
Hill," and "Fort Hill." The sides of these hills are 
dotted with dwellings, and cultivated fields, in many 
places, while the gorges between have been converted 
into streets and roads. On the south, and on the 
opposite side of the river, in West Virginia, Nobley 
Mountains rise in their self-asserting grandeur, and 
with the rich bottom lands lying at their feet, form a 
picture worthy to be transferred to canvas, if a brush 
can be found to do them justice. On a knob, around 
which the river sweeps with a graceful curve, stands 
the beautiful villa of Capt. Roger Perry, of the navy, 
forming one of the most prominent and attractive 
pictures of the panorama of the city. Cumberland is 
divided into two parts by the waters of Will's Creek. 
That portion lying east of the Creek comprises ihe 
greater part of the business houses, hotels, mills, 


factories, wharves, railroad depots, &c., besides the 
elegant structure recently erected as a City Hall, 
and a number of streets desirable as places of resi- 
dence. The west side is devoted almost exclusively 
to private residences, and there are few thoroughfares 
in the smaller cities of the Union, superior to Wash- 
ington street in the character of its buildings and 
their tasteful surroundings. This avenue is well 
lined with shade trees, while spacious grounds and 
cultivated shrubbery surround almost every house. 
On it are located also the Court House, a handsome 
building, and two fine stone church edifices. 

The Potomac River is spanned by an iron bridge, 
built by the city, for the purpose of affording easy 
communication with the people of West Virginia. 
Over Will's Creek are three iron bridges for general 
traffic, one iron bridge for railroad purposes, one 
bridge for the passage of canal boat teams, and the 
splendid brick viaduct, built by the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, in 1850, for the passage of 
its trains. This latter is about one sixth of a mile 
in length, has fourteen arches, and spans several 
streets, as well as the Creek. In addition to these 
there is a bridge of solid masonry at the north end 
of the city, constructed by the general government, 
as a part of its great improvement known as the 
National Road. 

The streets are quite irregular, in the eastern 
section, and seem to have followed, to a great extent, 
the courses of the old roads. They are from thirty 
to sixty feet in width, and with few exceptions are 
graded and paved with cobble stones. Large sums 



of money were spent in this work originally, and 
thousands of dollars are now applied every year to 
the cleansing and repair of the same. 

The climate is mild, but changeable. The ex- 
tremes of heat and cold are not so great as those 
common to points in the same latitude, and altogether 
the city may be said to be quite healthy, as there are 
no types of disease that become epidemic. In the 
summer season, no matter how warm the weather 
may be during the day, the nights are cool and 

The business houses are generally of a substantial, 
respectable and attractive character, and as a rule 
the merchants confine themselves each to a particular 
branch of trade, instead of keeping a " general" stock 
of merchandise on hand. There are many wholesale 
houses that have a good trade, and they are able to 
compete with jobbers in the larger cities East and 

" The city is on the outer edge of the great Coal 
Basin which goes by its name, connected with it by 
the lines of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company's 

" The population of Cumberland, according to the 
census of 1870, was 8,056 ; in 1873, 11,300. As the 
city has grown rapidly since that time it is probably 
safe to estimate its present population at about 

" It is an incorporated city, governed by a Mayor 
and Board of Councilmen ; with a regularly organized 
police force. The city is lighted by gas, and supplied 


with water from the Potomac rivet, by the * Holly 
system of fire protection and water supply.'" 

Ite means of communication with other parts of the 
country are numerous, and ample. The Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal extends from Cumberland to Wash- 
ington City, where it connects with tide-water ; and 
about three-quarters of a million tons of coal are 
annually transported through this channel to the 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad connects the city 
with Baltimore on the one hand, and the Ohio River 
on the other; the Pittsburgh and Connellsville 
Railroad, with Pitsburgh; the Cumberland and 
Pennsylvania Railroad, with the coal region ; and a 
new road (the Pennsylvania Railroad, in Maryland,) 
is nearly completed, whereby the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road will find its way into the city. 

"The business of the city is largely dependent upon 
the coal trade, the annual shipments of Cumberland 
coal amounting to nearly 2,000,000 tons. 

The Cumberland Coal Field lies west of the city 
of Cumberland, in a basin formed by the Great Savage 
Mountain on the North-west and the Dan's Mountain 
on the South-east, and running North-east and South- 
west from Pennsylvania State line, through Allegany 
county, into Mineral county, West Virginia. The 
basin is about five miles wide between the two 
ranges and about twenty miles long. The floor of 
the basin slopes from either end upwards to Frost- 
burg, where it attains its greatest altitude, from 
2,000 to 2,100 feet above mean tide. 

" The Southern slope of the basin is drained by 


Greorge's Creek, flowing South-west from Frostburg 
and emptying into the Potomac river. The Northern 
slope, by Jenning's Run, flowing Northwest into 
Will's Creek. The aggregate depth of coal formation 
here is 1,100 feet, its base being the Millstone Grit 
Capping the summits of Savage and Dan's mountains, 
it extends down their sides into the valley, where it 
dips below the surface. 

"The principal coal veins are, first, the **Big Vein," 
fourteen feet of coal, lying 1,860 feet above tide. 
This is the vein from which most of the coal is now 
mined. It underlies the surface of the valley at 
Frostburg and Borden Shaft, but southward, down 
the George's Creek, water has cut away that portion 
of the measure lying in the lowest part of the valley 
and with it this vein (which ^ here must have been 
very near the surface) leaving the higher parts only 
of the vein standing in the hills thus formed on 
either side of the water course. Second, the " Four 
Foot Vein," which lies about 800 feet below the 
" Fourteen Foot Vein." This vein is below water in 
the higher part of the basin ; but appears about sixty 
feet above at Barton, and lies above the level from 
that point southward, down the George's Creek. 
This vein has been opened by the Piedmont Coal and 
Iron Company, and proves to be equal in quality to 
the Big Vein, and in the southern portion of the 
basin lies in such a way as to be easily mined. 
Lastly, the " Six Foot Vein," which lies 160 feet 
below the " Four Foot Vein," and is above water 
level in the lower part of the valley only. These 
two lower veins, though smaller in size than the 


" Big Vein," have a much greater acreage, as but 
little of either vein has been cut away by erosion. 
At present the abundant supply contained in the 
large vein is so easy of access and can be so cheaply 
mined, that these smaller veins have not received 
the share of attention which they eventually will. 
Several new openings other than those mentioned are 
now being made in these smaller veins, with very 
encouraging prospects. 

'^The total acreage of coal land in this field is 
44,132. Of this, 17,300 acres contain the large 
"Fourteen Foot Vein," and of course all contain the 
two smaller veins. Besides these, which are the 
working veins, there are numerous other small veins, 
throughout the entire depth of the coal measure ; 
these veins are from six inches to three feet in 
thickness ; they have never received any attention 
from mining companies or experts. The coal of this 
field is well and favorably known by consumers and 
dealers generally. It is a free burning bituminous 
coal, containing on an average 75 per cent, of fixed 
carbon. It is free from injurious impurities and 
with very little slate or earthy particles. A Com- 
mitttee of Naval Officers and Engineers which was 
appointed by the United States Government, to test, 
by actual experiment, the relative value for forge and 
steam generating purposes of all the different kinds 
of coal found in this country and in England, rate 
Cumberland Coal (in general average) to be the best 
coal for steam generating purposes in the market, and 
superior for forge purposes also. Under equal weights 
the Cumberland Coal surpasses the Anthracite, in 


here, and devoted himself to the work, and before 
the close of the year, succeeded in securing the 
erection and completion of a plain brick building, on 
Frederick street extended. In 1871, the house was 
rebuilt and enlarged, and in 1876, was again 
enlarged, to accommodate the increasing member- 

The pastors who have served in this church, from 
the date of its organization, are as follows, beginning, 
in 1848, with Father Golden: His successors were 
Rev. Thomas Henry, Dr. Watts, D. A. Ridout, James 
Sterricks, Mr. Russell, R. A. Hall, John F. Lane. 
William Smith, C. Sampson, Wm. H. Waters, 
Joseph Thompson, Jas. H. A. Johnson, J. B. Ham- 
ilton, and J. M. Cargill, the latter having been 
appointed to this charge early in 1877, and being 
still the pastor of the church, which is quite pros- 


Ebenezer, African, Baptist church, was organized 
in the spring of 1875, by the Revs. H. J. Chandler, 
of Bedford street Baptist church, in Cumberland, and 
James Nelson, then of Georgetown, D. C, now. of 
Farmville, Va. 

The first congregational worship of this body was 
in the third story of the west end of Reynolds's 
Block, on Baltimore, between Liberty and Mechanic, 
streets. The number of members enrolled at the 
time of organization was about twenty, and Rev. 
Lewis Hicks, the present pastor, was then installed. 

This church continued to worship in Reynolds's 
Block until their new church edifice was built, on 


Cumberland street, on the west side of Will's Creek. 
The corner stone of this building was laid in August, 
1875, Dr. S. C. Thrall, of Emmanuel Episcopal 
church, and Rev. H. J. Chandler, of Bedford street 
Baptist church, officiating, and the house was pushed 
forward to completion by the end of the year. 

The lot on which the church is located was pur- 
chased of George Henderson, Jr., and deeded to 
Ijcwis Hicks, Willie Johnson, Robert Trent, Simon 
Bolden, and John H. Thomas, a committee appointed 
by Ebenezer Baptist church of Cumberland. 

The building is a modern brick structure, finished 
to show two stories in height, and 40 feet in length 
by 28 in breadth. 

The building of this house of worship evinced a 
degree of courage and energy truly remarkable. At 
a time when there was a great scarcity of money, and 
a prostration of business, the work was projected, 
and it was carried forward under trials and difficulties 
innumerable, by a class of men dependent on their 
labor for daily bread. 

A small Sunday school is in operation, under the 
management of this church. The number qf com- 
municants is about 15. 


The City of Cumberland is located at the Eastern 

base of the Allegany Mountains, on the banks of the 

North Branch of the Potomac River and of Will's 

Creek, at the mouth of the latter stream. Her 

geograpical position is 39° 39' 14" latitude; longitude, 

in arc 78° 45' 25"; in time 5A. 15m. 01. 7«. The city 

is surrounded by mountains and abrupt bluffs on all 

sides, but has natural outlets in every direction, 

through which easy passage has been found for her 

channels of communication with other parts of the 

world. Not only has the valley east of Will's Creek 

been built up with streets, residences, business houses 

and factories, but the hills have been scaled, and on 

every side improved by the hands of enterprise and 

progress. The picturesque beauty of the place is 

scarcely surpassed by any other spot in the country, 

while some of the surroundings are grand and 

imposing in the extreme. There are few points from 

which the entire city can be brought into view at 

one glance, but from every point of observation the 

eye is greeted with a variety of scenery of exceptional 

attraction, and the natural beauty of the vision 

is enhanced by the architectural improvements which 

have converted the quiet hill and vale into scenes of 

busy life. From every hill side flash into view lofty 


spires, temples built of native stone, charming villas, 
towered edifices, and comfortable homes, evincing 
educated tastes and refined ideas. The placid 
Potomac, forming the southern boundary of the city, 
is apparently land-locked, and presents the appear- 
ance of a modest lake, upon whose bosom is mirrored 
the beauty of its leafy shores; while ^the swifter 
waters of Will's Creek come purling into the very 
heart of the town, cool and fresh, from the sombre 
Qhades of the wondrous "Narrows." Southward the 
waters of the two streams tumble over a dam of 
solid masonry, and skirt the base of " Nobley" Moun- 
tain, until they disappear from view at the edge of 
the city, some half mile lower down the channel. 
Eastward is a series of bluffs, some three hundred 
feet in height, known as " Shriver s Hill," " McKaig s 
Hill," and "Fort Hill." The sides of these hills are 
dotted with dwellings, and cultivated fields, in many 
places, while the gorges between have been converted 
into streets and roads. On the south, and on the 
opposite side of the river, in West Virginia, Nobley 
Mountains rise in their self-asserting grandeur, and 
with the rich bottom lands lying at their feet, form a 
picture worthy to be transferred to canvas, if a brush 
can be found to do them justice. On a knob, around 
which the river sweeps with a graceful curve, stands 
the beautiful villa of Capt. Roger Perry, of the navy, 
forming one of the most prominent and attractive 
pictures of the panorama of the city. Cumberland is 
divided into two parts by the waters of WilFs Creek. 
That portion lying east of the Creek comprises the 
greater part of the business houses, hotels, mills, 


fiu^tories, wharves, railroad depots, &c., besides the 
elegant structure recently erected as a City Hall, 
and a number of streets desirable as places of resi- 
dence. The west side is devoted almost exclusively 
to private residences, and there are few thoroughfares 
in the smaller cities of the Union, superior to Wash- 
ington street in the character of its buildings and 
their tasteful surroundings. This avenue is well 
lined with shade trees, while spacious grounds and 
cultivated shrubbery surround almost every house. 
On it are located also the Court House, a handsome 
building, and two fine stone church edifices. 

The Potomac River is spanned by an iron bridge, 
built by the city, for the purpose of affording easy 
communication with the people of West Virginia. 
Over Will's Creek are three iron bridges for general 
trafiic, one iron bridge for railroad purposes, one 
bridge for the passage of canal boat teams, and the 
splendid brick viaduct, built by the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, in 1850, for the passage of 
its trains. This latter is about one sixth of a mile 
in length, has fourteen arches, and spans several 
streets, as well as the Creek. In addition to these 
there is a bridge of solid masonry at the north end 
of the city, constructed by the general government, 
as a part of its great improvement known as the 
National Road. 

The streets are quite irregular, in the eastern 
section, and seem to have followed, to a great extent, 
the courses of the old roads. They are from thirty 
to sixty feet in width, and with few exceptions are 
graded and paved with cobble stones. Large sums 


to act as a second Grenadiers company and to be 
posted upon the left of the Battalion, leaving the 
same Interval as the Grenadiers upon the Right; 
This company is to be kept compleat of OflBcers and 
two of them as well as of the other Grenadier company 
are to be posted in the Front and the other in the 

The eight Battallian companies are to form so 
many Firings and to be commanded by their re- 
spective Officers. The commanding Officer of each 
company is to give the word, the second is to be posted 
in the center of the Front Rank and the remaining 
Subaltom Officers of the Regiment after this dispo- 
sition 'are to divide the ground equally: These 
Firings are to begin by the colonel's company, second 
by the Lieu^ col** and continued from Right to left as 
fast as possibly, but the two Captn« of Grenadiers are 
to take particular care never to give their Fire till 
the company's upon the Right and left are loaded. 

To avoid confusion if the Regiment should be 
ordered to wheel or fire by Platoons, every Officer 
commanding a company is to tell it off in two divisions 
and to post the second commissiond Officer and non 
commissioned Officer's, and when the Regiment 
decamps or are to form, the commanding Officer of the 
company is to instruct his mens arms, compleat the 
Files, Post the Officers and see his men loaded that 
they may wheel up and ye Battalion be instantly 

The Officers upon a march are to remain in the 
same Order with their companies, and Those Officers 
who were placed in the Rear are to march as posted 
which will consequently be upon the Flank as the 
Regiment moves by Files they are therefore required 
to keep the Soldiers in their Files, and if any lag 
behind one or more of these Officers is to bring them 

Every Officer leaving his company upon a march 


will be cashierd, and every commanding OflScer will 
be answerable for the men of his company left behind; 
and the commanding Officer of the Regiments are 
ordered to punish with the utmost severity any soldier 
who leaves his File but in cases of sickness. 

Commanding Officers of companies are to have 
their arms in constant good order, and every man to 
be provided with a Brush, Picker, two good spare 
Flints and 24 Cartridges. 

The Roll of each company to be calld by a com- 
missioned Officer, morning, noon and night, and a 
return of the absent or disorderly men to be given to 
the commanding Officer of the Regiment who is to 
order proper punishment. 

The Women of each Regiment are to march with 
the Provost and none upon any acct are to appear 
with the men when under arms. 

Each Regiment is to mount a Piquet Guard con- 
sisting of one capt" and three Subalterns and 100 
men to be paraded at the retreat they are to report 
to the Field Officer of the Day. 

The two Regiments are to find the Genia Guard 
alternately consisting of one Lieut, and thirty Private 
and report to an aid de camp. The Regiment which 
finds the Guard finds also the adjutant of the Day. 

All Guards are to be retird at 8 Oclock; all guards 
to be told of in two divisions Tho' ever so stnall. 

Guards ordered at Orderly time are to remain for 
that duty and a new detachment is to be made for 
any orderd afterwards. 

All returns are to be 'signed by the commanding 
Officer of Regiments. Reports of all Guards except 
the Generals are to be made to the Field Officer of 
the Day who is to visit them once at least and to go 
the piquet rounds. 

All remarkable occurrances in camp to be reported 
to an aid de camp. 

Returns of all commands to be made to the Brigade 


Major, and every Regiment, company, Troop, &c., 
are to make a daily return to him specifying the 
numbers wanting to compleat, who is to make one 
Generi return to his Excellency. 

A daily return of the sick is to be made to the 
Greni thro' an aid de camp. 

As the nature of the country make it impossible 
to provide magazines of Forage, and as it is appre- 
hended the Quantity will be very small, uncertain, 
and difficult to be procurd his Excellency recommends 
it to all the Officers to take no more baggage than 
they find absolute occasion for. 

Commanding Officers of Regiments are directed by 
His Excellency to inform their men not to suffer 
themselves to be alarmed upon a march by any 
stragling Fires from the Indians in the woods, they 
being of no consequence nor liable to any inconve- 
niences but what arise from their misbehaviour. 

Any Soldier by leaving his company, or by words 
or Gestures expressing Fear shall suffer death and 
the Gen^ will greatly approve and properly reward 
those men who by their coolness and good Discipline 
treat the attempt of these Fellows with the contempt 
they deserve. 

The Sergents of the two Regiments are to be pro- 
vided with Firelocks and Bayonets, but to wear their 
Swords— ^They are to leave at Winchester under the 
care of the Train their Halters and all the private 
men their Swords. His Excellency likewise recom- 
mends it to all the Officers to provide thein selves 
if possible with Fuzeis, as Espontoons will be 
extreamely inconvenient and useless in the Woods. 

As the good of the Service renders the presence of 
all the Officer's absolutely necessary His Excellency 
cannot suffer any commissiond Officer to act as pay- 
master, the General therefore desires the colonels and 
captains will agr^ as soon as possible for a proper 
person for that purpose. 


The Line is to find one Field Officer daily to be 
relieved at 10 o'clock, this duty to be done by the two 
Lieut cols and two Majors, the Field Officer, is to visit 
all the Guards except the Generals and to go the 
rounds of the Picquet which as well as other Guards 
and Posts are to report to the Field Officer and he is 
to make his report of y® whole at nine o'clock every 
morning to the Gen^ and in case of any alarm the 
Field Officer is to repair to the place of alarm with 
all expedition and to send for all necessary assistance 
to the two Regiments who are immediately to comply 
with his Orders. 

All reports and returns to be made before nine 
o'clock, all out posts are to receive the Gen* with 
shoulderd arms and without beat of Drum or Salute. 

Upon any application from S*" Jn*' St Clair Quarter 
Master Gen* for Men the Regiments are immediately 
to furnish them. 

Sir Peter Halkett is to be applied to for all Regu- 
lations of Provisions and his Orders are to be strictly 
complied with. 

All Guards are to rest and beat two Ruffles to his 
Honour Governor Dinwiddle. 

The Regiments are to hold themselves in readiness 
for a muster, each company is to provide their Rolls 
one of Parchment, and those Officers with new com- 
missions are to have them in their Pockets, after the 
muster the Geni will receive the two Regiments by 
Companys the Officers to be in Boots and the men in 
Brown Gaters. 

The adjutants of the two Regiments and artillery, 
and also the adjutant of the Rangers to be at the 
Major of Brigades Tent, every day at eleven o'clock 
to receive Order's. 

A Surgeant from the two Regiments Artillery and 
Rangers to attend the Major of Brigade as Orderly, 
and to be relieved every day at Guard Mounting. 

The Gentlemen of the Hospital and their Ser- 


vants are to receive to morrow three Days Provisions. 
Field Officers for the Day Lieut Colo Gage. 

Alexandria, March 28th, 1755. 
Parole — Albemarle. 

The Generals Guard to be mounted in Brown 
Gater's, and the Officers in Boots. 

Sir Peter Halkets Col® Dunbar's and the Royal 
Regiment of Artillery are to be mustered, on Monday 
morning at seven o'clock, and afterwards they will 
be received by Gen> Braddock. 

Robert Webster of Sir Peter Halkets Regim^ is 
appointed Provoest Marshall and he is to be obeyd 

One Sergeant; one Corporal and twelve men to 
mount as a Guard for the Provost Marshal and be 
relieved every 48 Hours. 

The Adjutant who does not send in his return to 
the Major of Brigade, by seven o'clock in the morning 
will be orderd under an arrest. 

The Quarter master of the Corps which is to receive 
provisions is to give to the Commissary a signed 
Return of the number he is to draw Provisions for 
every Saturday at six in the afternoon : The Quarter 
masters of the different Corps are to give into Sir 
Peter Halkets a return of the Provisions they 
delivered out that week, distinguishing the quantitys 
deliverd each Corps ; In this return he is to have 
Colums for the quantitys of each species of Provision's 
he has receivd that week and a Column for the 
Quantitys remaining in Store. 

To morrow at Orderly time the Adjutants are to 
deliver in a return of the number of Serv<i -^y^ho are 
not Soldiers and for whom Provisions are to be drawn 
for ; The Commissary are to make two Copy's of 
this return, one for Gen> Braddock, the other for Sir 
Peter Halkett. 

Field Officer to morrow Lieu^ Col® Burton. 
For the Geni« Guard 48th Regiment 


One of the Orderly Sergeants or the Major of 
Brigade is to carry the Orders to Sir John St. Clair. 

A General Court Martial consisting of one Field 
Officer, Six Captains and Six Subalterns, to sit to 
morrow morning at 8 o'clock. 

Lt Colo Gage, President. Sir Peter Halkett gives 
3 Captns and 3 Subalterns ; Col^ Dunbar gives 3 
Capt»8 and 3 Subalterns. Mr. Shirley Judge Ad- 
vocate ; The Picquet to consist of one Capt", two 
Subalterns and fifty men till further Orders. No 
Officer, Soldier or any other Person to Fire a Gun 
within a mile round the Camp. 

Camp at Alexandria, March 29th, 1755. 

Parole — Boston. 

For the General Guard 44 th Regiment. 

The alarm Post for all the Virginian Troops 
Quarterd in the Town of Alexandria to be before the 

When any man is sent to the General Hospital he 
is to bring a certificate signed by an Officer, of his 
name. Regiment and Company, to what day he is 
subsisted, and what arms and acoutrements he brings 
with him. The arms and accoutrements to be 
bundled up, and marked, with the mans name and 

Coh Dunbars Regiment to morrow to receive three 
days provisions. 

On Sunday every Regiment in Camp, is to have 
divine service at the Head of their Colours. 


Each Regiment to send to the train for twenty 
Thousand Flints out of which number, they are to 
pick five thousand, and to send the remainder back 
again ; The Commanding Officers giving their receipts 
for what number's they receive. 


All the Virginia Troops that are Quartered in 
Alexandria to be under arms, to morrow morning at 
half an hour after seven o'clock. 

The Officers that were formerly appointed Pay 
masters, to continue so till further Orders and are to 
issue out in payment to the Troops, each a Dollar at 

When either Regiment have occasion for Ammu- 
nition, or any Military Stores the Commanding 
Officers are to send to the Artillery when they will 
be supplied giving their receipts accordingly. 

The General Court Martial where of Lieut 
Col® Gage was President is dissolv'd, and James 
Anderson of Col® Dunbar's Regiment who was tryed 
by ye General Court Martial is orderd 1,000 lashes 
with a Cat and Nine Tails which he is to 
receive in such manner as the Commanding Officer 
shall think proper. 

Field Officer for to morrow, L^ Col^ Gage. 

Camp at Alexandria, 30th March, 1755. 
Parole— "Chichester." 

The two Regiments are to be musterd to morrow 
morning at seven O'clock but the General will not 
receive the Troops till further Orders. 

The two Regiments from Ireland are to acct for 
their men for their Sea pay giving them credit for 
their subsistance to the first of March and for their 
Arms to the 24th of Feby ; The Captains are to take 
credit for their Watch Coats, Blankets and Flannell 
waistcoats brought from Great Britain for their 

The men listed or incorporated into Sir Peter 
Halketts, and colo Dunbar's Regiment are to have 
credit for twenty Shillings and to be chargd with the 
above mentiond necessarys His Excellency orders 
this to be taken from the recruiting Fund, and gives 


it to those men for their Incouragement that they 
may do their duty like good Soldiers. 

The first company of carpenters are to march to 
morrow morning to Sir John St Clair for further 

A Return to be sent to morrow morning to Sir 
Jno St Clair from Sir Peter Halketts and Col® Dun- 
bars Regiments of the number of Draughts they have 
receivd by whom they were enlisted and from what 
company 8 draughted. 

Camp at Alexandria, Slst of March, 1755. 
Parole —Darlington. 

Field Officer for to morrow, Lt Colo Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

All casualties or occurrances that happen in camp 
to be reported immediately to the Geni through an 
aid de camp. 

Whenever Sir John St Clair has occasion for arti- 
ficers Tools, or Implements he is to apply to the 
commissary of the Train, who will supply him with 
what he demands taking his, or his assistants receipts 
for the same. 

The Officers to provide themselves with Bat Horses 
as soon as possible. 

The artillery to have their men upon the Wharf 
every morning at 6 O'clock precisely to send their 
Stores &c and care must be taken that they have 
their Waggons at the Wharf exactly at the same time 
that their may be no delay one Sergant and 12 men 
from the two Regiments to march immediately to 
the Wharf in order to assist the Artillery in the 
Landing of their Stores this party to be reliev'd every 
morning and to be on the Wharf precisely at 6 

Sir Peter Halkets Regiment receives three days 
provisions to morrow. 


Camp at Alexandria, April 1st, 1755. 

Parole — Esse. 

Field Officer for to morrow 

For the Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 
Colo Dunbars Regiment to receive three Days 

The two Regn are to send to artiU for 1 Doz" of 
carts made up with Ball in order to try if they will 
fit the men's Firelocks. 

Camp at Alexandria, April 2d, 1755. 

Parole — Famhara. 

Field Officer for to morrow May Chapman. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

The Artillery and Hospital receive three days pro- 
vision to morrow. 

The two Regiments are to apply to the Train for 
Paper, Powder & Ball sufficient to compleat every 
man with 24 rounds which are to be made up, and 
distributed as soon as possible. 

The commanding Officers of companys are desird 
to give particular directions to their men to be careful 
of their Ammunition and to inform them they will 
be very severly punishd for any abuse or neglect of 
it, and the Officer's of company's who calld the 
Evening Rolls are to inspect the Ammunition of 
their several companys and to report the defficiencys 
to the commanding Officers of the Regiments who are 
desird by his Excellency to keep them compleat with 
24 Rounds. 

His Excellency General Braddock Orders that the 
Soldiers should be told that any man who upon a 
march by fastning his Tent Pole, or by any other 
means incumbers his Fire lock, shall be immediately 
and most severely punished. 

One corporal and eight men of the Line to attend 


at 6 Oclock every morning, to assist the Engineers in 

The Artillery, Hospital and Engineers to receive 
three days provisions to morrow. 


One Sergant one Corporal, and twenty men of the 
Line without arms to March to the Wharf immedi- 
ately to assist in disembarking the artillery. 

The Virginia Troops as appointed to the particular 

Sir Peter Halkets. 
Capt« Stephen ^ !»* f Company 
Capt™ Peyronny > A -( of 
Capt" Cock J ^ I Rangers. 

Col® Dunbars Reg^ 
Capt" Waggoner 1 3 f Company 
Capt" Hogg > 5**" < of Rangers 

Capt" Poison J 2^ [ Comp* of Artificers. 
Sir Peter Halketts and Colo Dunbars Regiments 
to find three Corporals one for each Company of 
Rangers to assist Lieu^ Allayne in the dissiplining 
the Troops. 

Camp at Alexandria, April 3d, 1755. 

Parole — Canterbury. 

Field Officer to morrow Lt Col® Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 
The Generals Guard is this day reduced to a 
Corporal and nine men and the Corporal is to report 
to the Officer of the main Guard. 

Sir Peter Halkets Regiment to receive three days 
Provisions to morrow. 

Camp at Alexandria, 4th of April, 1755. 

Parole— Dorsett. 

Field Officer to morrow Major Sparke. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regim^. 


Cob Dunbars Regiment to have one Ck>rporal and 
six men ready to march to morrow at 6 o clock from 
Alexandria to Frederick with the Hospital stores thej 
are to carry six days Provisions with them and to 
take the Arras and accoutrem*^ with which they are 
to take the field Each man to have his Blancket and 
29 rounds^f Ammun". 

Col'' Danbars Regiment to have three days 
provisions to morrow. • 

Alexandria, Saturday, April 5th, 1755. 

Parole — Lfondon . 

Field Officer to morrow L^ Colo Burton. 

For the Generals Guard 48th Regim'. 

The Tents and clothing for the Virginia Company 

to be brought on shore as soon as possible ; Their 

tents are to be pitched the first fair day after they 

are on shore. 

The Artillery Hospital and Engineers to receive 
three days provisions to morrow. 

Alexandria, April 6th, 1755. 

Parole — Kinsale. 

Field Officer for to morrow Maj*" Chapman. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

All Departments for Duty of every nature what- 
ever are to parade at the Grand Parade ar.d to march 
from thence, Detachments from diflferent corps to 
draw up by Seniority. 

The Grand Parade for this camp is appointed to be 
at the head of Sir Peter Halketts Regiment. 

A report to be made every morning to Sir Peter 
Halkets, of the Sergeants, Corporals, Drummers and 
Private men who are Drunk upon Duty, the Sergeants 
of the Companies they belong to, to keep an exact 
Roll of their names, Sir Peter Halkett being deter- 
mined to put a stop to any more prov"** being drawn 


for such men. Sergeants, Corporals, Drummers, and 
Private men who appear Drunk in Camp tho they 
are not upon duty will have their provisions stop'd 
for one week. 

Sir Peter Halketts Regiment to receive three days 
Provisions to morrow. 

The Detachments from the Ordinary Dutys of 
camp to change from Right to left every Day. 


One Sergant, one Corporal, and thirty men are to 
morrow at 6 o'clock in the morning, to go to Alexan- 
dria to assist the Officers of the Artillery in loading 
the Waggons for Winchester and Shipping of Stores 
for Rock Creek One Officer and thirty men from 
Colo Dunbar's Regiment to march to morrow for Rock 
Creek The Officer to call this night upon Sir Peter 
Halkett who will give him his Instructions. 

Alexandria, Monday April 7th, 1755. 

Parole — Dublin . 

Field Officer for to morrow L*- Col^ Burton . 
For the Generals Guard 48th Regime 

One Officer one Sergeant and 20 men of Sir Peter 
Halkets Regiment to hold themselves in readiness to 
morrow morning to march to Winchester the Officer 
at Retreat beating to call upon Sir Peter Halkett for 
his Instructions; They are to take six days provisions 
with them, subsistance to the 24 th of this month 
and every thing with which they are to take the 

Every Party ordered to march from camp is to 
have 24 Rounds per man. 

A Greater number of Women having been brought 
over than those allowed by the Government sufficient 
for washing with a view that the Hospital might be 
servd; and complaint being made that a concert is 
enterd into not to serve with out exorbitant Wages 

xym. GENERAL braddogk's orderly book. 

a Return will be calld for of those who shall refuse to 
serve for six pence per day and their Provisions that 
they may be turnd out of camp and others got in 
their places. 

Colo Dunbars Regt is to rec. 3 Days Prov° to morrow. 

Colo Dunbar's Regiment is to march at 5 Oclock on 
Saturday Morning for Rock Creek. 

Waggons will be ordered on Friday to carry the 
baggage and whatever Tents may be struck to the 
Boats destend for their Transportation and at Day 
break on Saturday morning Waggons will attend at 
the head of the Riegiment fur the mens Tents &c. 

A Subaltern Officer with three Sergeants three 
Corporals and thirty men are to be sent on board the 
Boats as a Baggage Guard, and this Guard is to 
assist in conveying the Tents &c to the Boats and to 
help in putting them on board. 

All the Boats upon that part of the River near 
Rock Creek are ordered to attend to cary the Troop 

The sick men that are not able to march with the 
Regiment, to be left in the General Hospital. 

after orders. 

As Colo Dunbars Regimt is to march on Saturday, 
they are to receive to morrow nine days Provisions 
one for to morrows use and the remaining 8 days the 
men are to carry with them. 

The four companys of Sir Peter Halketts Regim' 
the Royal Regt of artillery Engineers and the Hos- 
pital are to continue to receive their provisions as 
usual till further Orders. 

March Rout of Col® Dunbars Regiment from the 
camp at Alexandria to Frederick in Maryland. 


To Rock Creek. — 

To Owens Ordinary 15 

To Dowden's Ordmary...., 16 

To Frederick 16 



Within a few miles of the Minocasy cross the 
Minocasy in a Float. 

Alexandria, Tuesday, April 8th, 1755. 

Parole — Guilford . 

Field OflBcer for to morrow Maj^ Sparke. 
For the Grenerals Guard 44th Regime 

The Quarter Masters of Sir Peter Halketts and 
Col<) Dunbars Regiments to meet Mr. Leslie assistant 
Quarter master General this afternoon at 4 Oclock 
who will show them their Regimental Store Houses. 

The Commanding OflBcer s of each of the Regim' as 
soon as their Regimental Store Houses are fixed are 
to order their Officers baggage and their mens Stores 
to be immediately lodgd. 

The Soldiers are to leave their Shoulder Belts, 
Waist Belts and hangers behind and only to take 
with them to the Field one spare shirt, one spare 
pair of stockings, one spare pair of Shoes and one 
pair of Brown Gater's. 

For the future the Generals own and all other 
Guards are to beat a march to him and the Line is 
always to turn out when the General passes. 

As a mistake has happend in regard to the Com- 
missions of the youngest Subaltern of the Rangers; 
The Commissions of Second Lieu^ being deliverd to 
them instead of Ensigns are to be immediately 
changd to avoid any Inconvenience, which may 
arise from disrules of Rank. 

His Excellency Gen^ Braddock Orders that all 
Ensigns bearing Commissions in any of his Majestys 
Regiments shall take post of the third Officer in any 
of the Companys of Ranger s. 


Six Companys of Sir Peter Halketts Regiment are 
to march for Winchester at 6 o'clock on thursday 
morning ; Upon your arrival at Rock Creek you are 


either to Encamp or lodge your Men as you shall 
find most convenient and as fast as the Wagons 
arrive you are to employ them in the Service of 
ye Begiment and Regulate your Detachment'^ ac- 
cordingly and to be particularly careful not to use 
any more Waggons than are absolutely necessary. 

You are to leave at Rock Creek an Officer and 30 
men who is to remain there till all the Stores of the 
Train and Hospital are put into the Waggons is then 
to march and form the Rear Guard of the whole. 

You are also to leave at Rock Creek a Subaltern 
and 20 men who are to wait there till the arrival of 
M^ Johnston the Paymaster and to Escort him to 

You will be joined at Rock Creek by an Officer 
and 30 Seamen who you are to take under your 
command and give them your Orders and Regulations 
as they will want some conveyance for their baggage 
you will dispose of it as you find most convenient. 

Upon your arrival at Frederick you are to encamp 
your men the Troops to remain there till further 
Orders except a Capt", two Subalterns and 50 men 
who are to be sent immediately on to Conogogee as 
a covering Party for the magazines and you are to 
direct the Commanding Officer of this Detach' to stop 
all Waggons which shall brg in Flower, &c, from 
Pennsylvania and to send a daily to you of the 
numbers which return you are to remit to me unless 
you should see Sir Jn® St. Clair and that he should 
have securd a sufficient number for Transporting the 
Stores from Frederick to Wills Creek in such case the 
Waggons are to be dismissd. 

You will find provisions at Frederick which you 
are to issue to your men in the same proportions as 
at Alexandria and to begin upon it as soon as you 
have expended the Provisions cslt^ with you. 

You are to direct your Officers to provide them- 
selves as soon as possible with Bat Horses as no 


more Waggons will be allowd after they get to 

* Alexandria, Wednesday, April 9th, 1755. 

Parole — Henry. 
Field Officer for to morrow L^ Cob Gage. 
For the Generals Guard 48th Regimt. 

Col^ Dunbars Regpiment to send this forenoon two 
Sergeants and twenty men to Rock Creek to reinforce 
the Officer there. 

A" return to be given in this Day of the two 
Regiments specifying all extraordinary's that have 
happened since their embarking in Ireland a monthly 
return of the two Regiments to be given in to Gen- 
eral Braddock every first day of the month — The 
companys of Rangers Artificers and the Troop of 
light Horse are to give in a monthly return at the 
same time: They are to apply to the Major of 
Brigade, who will shew them the proper form. 

The Officers to see that their men are pj:ovided as 
soon as possible with Bladder or thin Leather to put 
between the Lining and crown of their Hatts to guard 
against the Heat of the Sun. 

One Subaltom Officer of Dunbars Regiment to 
march to morrow morning to Frederick in Mary- 
land who upon his arrival is immediately to take 
upon him the command of the several Detachments 
of the Regiment that are now there or may arrive 
and he is to see y^ they are properly provided and 

Alexandria, Thursday, lOth April, 1755. 
Parole — Winchester. 

A Detachment from the two Regiments of a Subal- 
tern, two Sergeants, two Corporals and 20 men is to 
remain at Alexandria as a Guard for the Hospital 
and to march with it to Frederick. 


The Generals Guard is to be taken off on Friday. 

A Sergeant and twelve men of Cob Dunbars Regi- 
ment to mount as the Generals Baggage Guard and 
to March with it 

The Provost Marshall is to March with Colo I>an- 
bar's Regiment and to have a guard of a Sergeant 
and ten men who is to make the rear of the whole. 

Two Officers and forty men of the four remaining 
companies of Sir Peter Halketts Regem^ is to mount 
the Town Guard till further Orders. 

Alexandria, Friday, April 11th, 1755. 

Parole — Kendall . 

The Officer of the Town Guard to make his report 
to the General through an Aid de Camp. 


Col® Dunbars Regimen^ to hold themselves in 
readiness but not to march till further Orders. 

They are to give their proportion of men for the 
Guard to morrow ; one Sergeant, one Corporal and 12 
men to parade immediately at the Town Guard of 
Cob Dunbars Regiment. 

They are to take their Knapsacks, Haversacks, 
and provisions with them, when they come to the 
Town Guard the Sergeant is to enquire for M^. Leslie 
assistant Quarter master who will give him Order i. 

No Person whatever to press or employ any 
Waggons without an Order from General Braddock 
the Quarter master Gen^ or his assistant. 

This Order to be read not only to the Soldiers but 
to the Officers, Servants and followers of the Army 
as any one who shall be found guilty of disobeying 
it shall be severely punish'd. 


As there are Boats provided to carry CoV* Dunbars 
Regiments Baggage to Rock Creek the former orders 
relative to their march to be obeyd. 



Eight Waggons will be orderd to be at the head 
of that Regiment on Wednesday night for the Tents, 
Baggage, &c. of those Companys application is to be 
made to M^* Leslie assistant Quarter master for a 
proper Guide ; Every man is to receive 8 Days 
Provisions to carry with him. The Lt Col® is to be 
left with the 8 remaining Companys till farther 

All the sick are to be left in the General Hospital. 

The Regiments find the Grenerals (xuard as usual 
and ihe proportion of Duty is to be made up by 
Co^ Dunbars Regiment in the Town and other 

March Rout of Sir Peter Halketts Regiment from 
the Camp at Alexandria to Winchester. 


To y« old Court House 18 

To Mr Colemans on Sugar Land Run were 1 -. o 

there is Indian Corn, &c j 

To Mr Miners 15 

To Mr Thompson y^ Quaker w^ ye is 3000 wt com 12 

ToMrThey's 17 y« Ferry of Shan" 12 17 

From M"- They's to Winchester 23 


If the Bridge should not be laid over the Opeckon 
Canves will be provided for the Troops. 

As soon as the Artillery arrives at Winchester a 
Detachment of their Regiment and what ever part 
you shall judge proper of the Rangers must be orderd 
to march with the Artillery to Wills Creek. 

But if the road should be cut from the bridge on 
the Opeckon to Bear Garden and is made passable 
for y« Artillery, It is then to go along that Iload and 
not by Winchester and your Detachment from Win- 
chester must join them at Henry Enochs , A 

Report will be made to you whether this road is 
passable or not. 

As the Removal of the Troops firom Winchester 


to Wills Creek must depend upon the Quantity of 
Flower that is to be sent from Pennsylvania when a 
proper Quantity is arrivd you shall receive advice 
of it. 

Alexandria, Saturday, April 12th, 1755. 
Parole — Leicester. 

One Company of Sir Peter Halketts Regim'to March 
to morrow Morning, they are to Parade opposite to 
the town Guard at 6 oclock where they will be joind 
by five Waggons belonging to the Artillery, which 
they are to take under their Escort to Winchester. 

The Town Guard to be reduced to morrow morning 
to one Subaltorn Officer and thirty men. 

Mr Leslie will take care that there shall be at Sir 
Peter Halketts Quarter Guard this afternoon 3 Wag- 
gons, one for the Companys Tents and Baggage and 
the other two are to carry ye Regiments spare arms 
and Stores. 

The Men are to take eight Days Provisions with 

Alexandria, Sunday, April 13th, 1755. 
Parole— M arlborough . 

Alexandria, Monday, April 14tii, 1755. 
Parole — Oxford. 

Alexandria, Tuesday, April 15th, 1755. 
Parole — Petersborough. 

Alexandria, Wednesday, April 16th, 1755. 
Parole — Rochester. 

Thursday, April 17th, 1755. 
Parole —Queen Town. 



Friday, April 18th, 1755. 
Parple — Salisbury. 

Saturday, April 19th, 1755. 

Parole — Tam worth . 

The commanding Officer of the Artillery to apply 
to Mr. Leslie for a Store House to lodge their new 
cloathing in, and the Officers are to see that their 
men comply with the Orders of the 8'*» of Ap^ (viz) 
to leave their Shoulder Belts waist Belts and Hangers 
behind, and are only to take with them to the field 
one spare shirt one spare pair of stockings one spare 
pair of shoes and one pair of brown Gaters. 

Frederick, Monday, April 21st, 1755. 
Parole — Dunbar. 

Frederick, Tuesday, April 22nd, 1 755. 

Parole — Westminster. 

One Sergeant one Corporal and 12 men to parade 
immediately at the Town Guard to March with the 
Waggons laden with Artillery Stores to Conogogee 
and to return back with the- Waggon's to Frederick 
as soon as they are unloaded. 

Frederick, Wednesday, April 23rd, 1755. 

Parole Exeter. 

The commanding Officers of Regiments to order 
their Officers to provide themselves as soon as possi- 
ble with Bat men out of such recrui1» and Levies, as 
are unfit to the Duty to do the of sold^^" and such 
men are to be enlisted as can act as Bat men and are 
to be taken for any Term and to be alowed as 
effectives; and according to the number settled in 
Flanders 3 men to each company and 4 to the staff*, 
you are to go immediately to that part of the 



Antietum that lies in the road to Connogogee and 
press such Boats dr Canoes as you shall meet with 
upon the river agreeable to the Orders you shall 
receive from Governor Sharpe K you shall find any 
difficulty in the execution of this Order, you are to 
send an express to me and you shall be immediately 
supplied with a party of men to inforce it sending 
woni when they shall join you, and you are to collect 
all the Boats &c at that pass by the 28th of this 

Frederick, Thursday, April 24th, 1755. 
Parole — Yarmouth. 

Frederick, Friday, April 25th, 1755. 

Parole — Appleby. 

Colu Dunbars Regiment to hold themselves in 
readiness to March by the 29th. 

AFTER orders. 

One Corporal and four men to March to morrow 
Morning to Bock Creek with four Waggons that 
came up this Evening; when the party comes to 
Rock Creek they are to put themselves under the 
command of Ensign French. 

Frederick, Saturday, April 26th, 1755. 

Parole — Bedford . 

Colo Dunbars Regiment to furnish 3 Officers for a 
Court Martial, to try some prisoners of the Inde- 
pendant Company & Captn Gates Preside the report 
to be made to General Braddock. 

Frederick, Sunday, April 27th, 1755 
Parole — Chester. 
Colo Dunbars Regiment is to march y*^ 29 th and to 


proceed to Wills Creek agreeable to the following 
Route : 


29jh From Fred*^ on y® road to Conogogee 17 

30th From that halting place to Congogee 18 

Iflt From Conogogee to John Even's 16 

2d Rest 

3d To the Widow Baringer 18 

4 th To George Polls 9 

6th to Henry Knock's 15 

6th Rest 

7th To Cox's at y« mouth of little Cacapb 12 

8th To Col" Cresaps 8 

9th To Wills Creek 16 

Total, 129 

The men are to take from this place three Days 
provisions ; at Conogogee they will have more, at 
the Widow Baringers 5 Days, at Colo Cresaps one or 
more Days, and at all these places Oats or Indian 
Corn mast be had for the Horses but no Hay. 

At Conogogee the Troops cross the Potomack in a 
Float When the Troops have marchd 14 miles from 
Jn® Evans they are tc) make the new road to their 
Right, which leads from Opeckon Bridge. 

When the Troops have marchd 14 miles from 
George Polle's they come to the great Cacapepon 
they ave to pass that River in a Float, after passing 
they take the road to the Right. 

If the water in the little Cacapepon is high the 
Troops must encamp opposite to Cox's. 

At the mouth of the little Cacapepon the Po- 
tomack is to be crossd in a Float Four miles beyond 
this they cross Town Creek if the Float should not 
be finishd Canves will be provided. 

If the Bridges are not finishd over Wills Creek and 
Evans Creek, Waggons will be orderd to carry the 
men over. It will be propr to get 2 Days Provns at 
Cob Cresaps y^ whole sh^ not arrive till y© 10t*>. 


A Subaltom and thirty men are to be left behind 
with a proper number of tents which will be carried 
for them ; these men are to have six days Provisions. 

The Generals Guard is not to be relievd to monlbw 
but proper Centrys are to be found from the 30 men 
orderd to remain. 

Frederick, Monday, April 28th, 1755. 
Parole — Daventry. 

The Detachment of Sailors, and the Provost 
Marshalls Guard consisting of one Sergeant, one 
Corporal and 10 men to march with GfA"^ Dunbars 
Regiment to morrow morning, and to make the Rear 

ToCAPT^ Gates, 28th April, 1755. 

You are directed by His Excellency Gen^ Brad- 
dock to proceed with your Company to Conogogee 
where you are to act as a covering party for the 
magazines, and you are to remain there till further 
Orders unless all the Stores, Ammunition, &c, should 
be come up from Rock Creek and forwarded to Wills 
Creek, in that case you are to join the General at 
Wills Creek as soon as possible. 

You are to give all possible assistance and use 
your utmost endeavours in transporting the several 
Stores, Ammunition, Provision, &c to Wills Creek 
with the utmost expedition. 

Whilst you remain at Conogogee you are to send 
a Sergant or Corporal with such of your men as are 
to be trusted with all the Waggon's which arrive at 
that place from Rock Creek allowing one man to 
each Waggon and you are to send them immediately 
back to Rock Creek for more Stores till you shall he 
informd from the Officers there, that every thing is 
sent up. 

To Ensign French, at Rock Creek. 

28th April, 1755. 

You are ordered by his Excellency Gen^ Braddock 


to forward with all Expedition the ammunition 
Stores &c at Rock Creek to Mr Cresaps Conogogee 
taking care to send the ammunition Train Stores &c 
first, then the Hospital Stores and Salt Fish. 

You are not wait for the Beeves but as soon as the 
aforementioned things are gone up you will move 
with your party and join the Regiment at Wills 
Creek agreeable to the follows March Route; as you 
will find Provisions very scarce on the Road you 
must take with you as many days of salt Provisions 
as the Men can carry. 


From Rock creek to Owens Ordy 15 

To Dowdens 15 

To Frederick 15 

On the Road to Conogogee 17 

To Conogogee 18 

To John Evans 16 

To Widow Baringers 18 

To George PoUs's 9 

To Henry Enocks 15 

To Mr Cox's 12 

To Colo Cresap's 8 

To Wills Creek 16 

Total, 174 

You must if you should find it necessary, take 
with you Guides from place to place, and make such 
halts as you shall find absolutely necessary being 
careful not to loose any time. 

K the Waggons should come in very slowly make 
your application to the Civil Officers and if that 
should not succeed send Parties to fetch in any 
Waggons you shall hear ofi*. Inform Lieut Breerton 
of the March Route, and tell him it is the Generals 
Orders that he make all imaginable dispatch. 

As soon as the Paymaster arrives he must also 
victual his men when the last Stores of all kinds 


which are to be sent and dismissd from Rock Creek, 
you are to send a Letter to Cap' Gates at Conogogee 
informing him of it. 

The hand barrows and wheel barrows of the Train 
except 6 of each are to be left behind all but the 
Wheels and Iron Work which are to be forwarded. 

Camp at Fort Cumbsri^ind, 
Saturday, May 10th, 1756. 
Parole — Connecticut. 

Mr. Washington is appointed aid de camp to His 
Excellency General Braddock. 

Field officer for to morrow Maj*" Sparke. 

The articles of war to be read to morrow morning, 
at which time the servants, women and followers of 
the army are to attend with the respective corps and 
companies that they belong to. 

The two Independent companies and Rangers to 
receive three Days provisions to morrow. 

For the Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 

Col Dunbars Regiment to relieve the Fort Guard 
immediately, and the Fort Guard is to march to 
Fraziers as a Grass Guard, and to be relieved every 
48 hours. Cap^ Pilson's company of carpenters is to 
send one corporal and 6 men with their tools and to 
make such fences as the officer of the Grass Guard 
shall think proper. 

The Virginia and Maryland Rangers and the com- 
pany of carpenters to settle their men's accts imme- 
diately, giving them credit for what arrears &c are 
due, and they are for the future to be subsisted 
regularly twice a week as the rest of troops are. 

A return to be given in to morrow morning of the 
strength of each of the Regiments by companys, the 
return to be signed by the commanding officer of 
each corps the Independent Companys, Virginia and 
Maryland Rangers and the Troop of Light Horse are 
also to send in a return to morrow morning of their 


strength, which return is to be signed by the captain 
or officer commanding each company, and to be given 
in separately. 

The General has fixed the hour for his Levy, from 
ten till eleven in the forenoon every Day. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland. 

Sunday, May 11, 1765. 

Parole — Albany. 

Field officer to morrow L^ Col Burton. 
The Generals Guard 44th Regmt. 

A return to be sent in of the numbers of men who 
understand the springing of rocks, & those men that 
are fitt are to be told that they will receive proper 
encouragement all the troops are to begin their field 
Days. Powder may be had from the train by apply- 
ing for it, and each man is to have 12 rounds for 
every field Day. 

A Return is to be given in to morrow morning at 
orderly time of the recruits of the whole army, 
setting forth their age size country and occupation 
one Sargeant and 6 men from piquet to attend during 
the time of marketting to prevent Disputes, and if 
any should happen he is to apply to the capt" of the 
Picquet he belongs to. This duty to be done alter- 

All provisions brought into camp to be settled 
according to a settled rule, a copy of which will be 
given to the troops by the Major of Brigade and no 
person bringing provisions shall presume to ask more 
nor shall anybody offer less for good and wholesome 

The 48th Regiment is to receive their Days pro- 
visions to morrow at 10 o'clock. 


All the out guards to be relieved to morrow morn'g 
and parade at 5 o'clock. 



It is His Excellency^' General Braddocks orders 
that no oiEcer soldier or others give the Indiana men 
women or children any rum other Liquor or money 
upon any account whatever. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Monday, May 12th, 1755. 

Parole — Boston . 

Field Officer to morrow Maj"^ Sparke. 

The (jenerals Guard 48th Regiment. 
Whereas Capt Poulson, one of the Virginia com- 
pany of carpenters desired a court martial to enquire 
into his character, having been accused of being in 
arms in the late Rebellion in Scotland His Excellency 
has been informed that the accusations is scandalous 
and groundless ; if therefore any person whatever 
can prove Capt" Poison to have been in the late 
Rebellion they are desired immediately to send their 
accusation to the General ; if not Uis Excellency 
entirely frees him from any imputation of that 
kind, and desires that no reflections for the future 
may be thrown on Capt" Poison on that acc^ 

AJTER orders. 

A General Court Martial to sit immediately at 
the President's Tent, it is to consist^ of one field 
officer, 6 Capt"8 and 6 Subalterns. 

Majr Sparke President. 
Mr Shirley Judge Advocate. 
His Excellency has thought proper to Brigade the 
Army in the following manner and they are for the 
future to encamp accordingly : 

Thefint Brigade^ Commanded hy Sir PHer HcUkH. • 

OompUaMttt. Kl h Ui » » . 

44tb Reeiment of Foot 700 700 

Captn Kntherford'8 ) lodependant Compy ) ^f^ ^e 

Capt" Gates \ of New York , ^^ ^ 

Capt. Poison's Carpenters 50 4S 

Capt. Peronnee's ( Virginia Ranfcers 50 47 

Capt. Wagner's j Virginia Rangers nO 45 


Capi Dagworthy'B Maryland Rangers 60 49 

Second Brigade^ Commanded bj Colonel Dunbar, 

48th Regiment of Foot 700 660 

Capt. Demerie's South Carolina Detacht 100 97 

Capt. Dnbb's North Carolina Rangers 100 80 

Capt. Mercer's Company of Carpenters 60 '86 

Capt Stevens's 1 Virginia lElangers 60 48 

Capt. Hogg's } Virginia Rangers 60 40 

Capt. Cox's J Virginia Rangers 60 43 

Any soldier or follower of the army who shall 
stop any one bringing in provisions or forage to the 
camp shall immediately suffer death. 

No out post to march from or to camp with beat 
of drum, nor is any beat of drum to beat before the 
Troop unless when any of the Troops are out at 
exercise, and of which they are to acquaint the 
General the night before thro' one of His aid de 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Tuesday, 13th May, 1755. 

Parole — Charleston. 

Field Officer for to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

The quartermasters, Camp colour men, and 
Pioneers of the two Regiments with two men of the 
Independent Companies with proper Tools for 
clearing the ground in the Front to parade at fiye 
o'clock in the Evening at the head of the 48th 
Regiment, and to remain there for the Field Officer 
of the Day's orders. 

The Picquetts are to lay advanced and to remain 
att their parade till they receive the Field Officers 
orders. Each of the two Regiments to send 6 tents 
to the companies in each Brigade, and also to send 6 
tents each for the men of their advanced Picquets. 
The centrys on the advanced Picquetts not to suffer 
any body to pass unquestioned after sun set. 

The Picquett returns at 6 o'clock in the morning. 

The quarter Guard of Sir Peter Halketts Regi- 



ment for the future to be posted on the right flank. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Wednesday, 14th May, 1755. 
Parole — Dumfries. 
Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
The Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 
The General Court Martial is dissolved. Luke 
Woodward soldier in the 48th Regiment, commanded 
by Col Dunbar, having been tryed for Desertion by a 
General Court Martial whereof Majr Wm Sparke 
was president, is by sentence of that Gen* Court 
Martial adjudged to suflfer death. His Excellency, 
Genl Braddock has approved of the sentence, but 
has been pleased to pardon liim. 

Thomas Conelly, James Fitzgerald and James 
Hughes, soldiers in the 48th Regiment, and tryed 
for theft by the said Court Martial whereof Major 
Sparke was President, are by the sentence of the 
s'd Court Martial adjudged to suffer the following 
punishments : 

Thomas Conelly one thous^ 1 Lashes att the 
Jas Fitzgerald, eight hund<^ V Head 

J as Hughes eight hund^ j of the Line. 
Also that they be obliged to make satisfaction for 
the Kegg of Beer stolen by them to the value of 
thirty three shil«» Maryland Cury, and that proper 
stopages be made out of their pay by their officers 
for that purpose ; His Excellency has approved the 
sentence, but has been pleased to remit one hundred 
lashes from the puishment of Conelly and two hun- 
dred from each of the other two. Conelly is to 
receive 900 lashes at 3 different times 300 lashes 
each time. Jas Fitzgerald and Jas Hughes are to 
receive 600 lashes each at two different times, 300 
lashes each time. The 48th Regiment to send the 
Drummers to the head qf yc line, to put the sentence 
in execution, the first time of punishment to be to 


morrow morning at troop beating. The two Picquetts 
formed from the Independent Companies Virginia 
and Maryland Rangers, to consist of one Captn 2 
Subalterns, 2 Sargeants, 2 Corporals and 38 Cen- 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Thursday, 15th May, 1755. 
Parole — Portsmouth. 
Field Officer to morrow Majr Sparke. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 
The Officers who were ordered to get themselves in 
readiness to go with the paymaster are cont^^ 

On subaltern, one serg^ 1 corpl and 30 cent'l to 
march this evening to Mr Martin's where the troop 
of Light Horse graze, the men to take tents with 
them and provisions for three days, the officer to 
receive his orders from Capt Stuart of the Light 
Horse ; this guard to be relievd every 3d Day. 

One SergS one Corpl and 12 men to parade att 
the Fort Guard this Day at 12 o'clock m. 

The Surgeant will receive his orders from Capt 


The Subalterns Guard that was ordered to march 
to Martin's is countermanded. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Friday, 16th May, 1755. 
Parole — Winchester. 
Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Gage. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 
Any Indian Trader, Soldier or follower of the 
army who shall dare to give liquor to any of the 
Indians or shall receive or purchase from them any 
of their presents made to them by His Majesty thro' 
His Excellency Genl Braddock, shall suffer the 
severest punishment a court martial can inflict. 


There will be a public congress of the Indians to 
morrow at 12 o'clock at the Generals Tent. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Saturday, 17th of May, 1755. 

Parole — Eskaw. 

The congress of Indians mentioned in yesterdays 
orders is put off. 

Field officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Grenerals Guard 48th Regiment. 

The Two Regiments, the Independent compys, the 
companys of carpenters, the Virginia and Maryland 
company of Rangers and the Troop of Light Horse 
are to send immediately to Mr Lake, commissary of 
Provisions a separate return of the number of persons 
they each of them draw provisions for, this return to 
be signed by the commander of the two regt and by 
the captains or officers commanding each of the Inde- 
pendent companys &c. The form of this return is 
sent to the Brigade Major and is to be given in 
regularly every eight Days. 

His Excellency expects that this order will be 
punctually obeyed, as the commissary will not be 
able to provide a prof)er quantity of Provisions for 
the army unless he has the above return sent to him 

One Subaltern, one Sergt 1 corporal, & 30 men to 
mount as a guard on the artillery, They are to parade 
this afternoon at 5 o'clock and to be relieved every 
48 hours. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Sunday, May 18th, 1755. 

Parole — Famham. 

There will be a public congress of the Indians this 
day at 12 o'clock at the Genls Tent. 


Field officer to morrow Maj Sparke. 
For the Genls Guard 44th Reg^ 

One corpl, & 8 men of the line to attend the 
Engineer in Surveying; they are to parade at 9 

Each Regiment, Independent Company &c in the 
making up of their cartridges are to allow 36 round 
of ball to 1 lb of powder, and for Field Days or 
Exercise they are to allow 46 with or without ball. 

Six women per company are allowed to each of 
the two Regimts and the Independent companys; 
Four Women to each of the companys of carpenters 
Virginia and Maryland Rangers five women to the 
troop of Light Horse, as many to the detachment of 
seamen, and 5 to the detachment of artillery. 

His Excellency expect that this order will be 
punctually complied with, as no more Prov^" will be 
allowed to be drawn for than for the above number 
of women. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Monday, 19th of May, 1755. 
Parole — Guilford, 
Field officer to morrow Lt Col Gage. 
For the Generals Guard 44 th Regiment. 
Each Brigade to send a man to the Gen'l Hospital 
as Orderly who are to receve and obey the directions 
of Doct^ Napper Director of the 2d Hospital. 

All the troops are to acct with the Director of the 
Hospital once in three months or as soon after as can 
be, for stoppages at the rate of 5 pence stirl'g per 
Day, for every Man that is admitted in the Gen'l 
Hospital; this stoppage to commence from the 24 th 
of May ensuing. 

As soon as the Retreat has been beat this night 
the Drum Maj^* of each of the two Regimets are to 
march with the Drummers and Drumers to the Head 
of the artillery where they will receive orders. 



A return to be given into the Brigade Major to 
morrow at orderly time of the number of smiths and 
carpenters that are in the two Regiments, Inde- 
pendent Companies &c. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Tuesday, May the 20th, 1755. 
Parole — Hendon. 
Field officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 48th Regmt. 
One Subaltern, 1 Sergt, 1 corp & 24 men to parade 
to morrow morning at 5 o'clock They are to have 
three Days Provisions with them and the oflBcer is 
this night to recieve his orders from Sir John St. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland. 

Wednesday, 2l8t of May 1755. 
Parole — ^Ilchester. 

Field officer to morrow Maj Chapman. 
The Generals Guard 44th Regmt. 

No soldier that is employed as a Baker by Mr 
Lake, commissary of Provisions, is to be put upon 
any duty whatever till further orders. 

It is His Excellency's orders that no Sutler give 
any liquor to the Indians on any account: if any one 
does he will be severely punished. 

The provost is to go his round every Day through 
all the Roads leading to the camp, Every soldier or 
woman that he shall meet with on the other side of 
the River, or beyond the advanced Picquets without 
a pass from the Regiment or from the officer com- 
manding the company to which they belong, he is to 
order his executioner to tye them up and give them 
fifty lashes and to march them prisoners thro' 
the camp to expose them. 

One gill of spirits mixed with three gills of water 


may be allowed each man per Day, which the ofl&cers 
of the picquet are to see delivered out every day at 
Gleven o'clock, any settler that shall sell any spirits 
to the soldiers without an oflBcer being present shall 
be sent to the Provosts. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Tuesday, 22d May, 1755. 

Parole — Kensington . 

Field Officer to morrow Maj'f Sparke. 
The Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Friday, May 23d, 1755. 

Parole — Lincoln . 

Field officer to morrow Maj*" Chapman. 
For the Genls Guard 44th Regemt. 
A General Court Martial to sitt to morrow morn- 
ing, at 8 o'clock at the Genl's Tent to consist of one 
Field officer, 6 captns 6 Subalterns. 

Lt Col Gage President. 
Mr Shirley Judge Advocate. 
If any officer, soldier or follower of the army shall 
dare to give any strong liquor, or money to the 
Indian Men or Women, if an officer he shall be 
brought to a General Court Martial for disobedience 
of orders; if a non commissioned officer soldier or 
follower of the army he shall receive 250 lashes 
without a C't Mart'l. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
•Saturday, 24th May, 1755. 

Parole — Monmouth . 

Field officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Genls Guard 48th Regmt. 


Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Sunday, May 25th, 1755. 

Parole — Norwich . 

Field oflGicer to morrow Majr Sparke. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Elegmt. 

If any non commissioned officer or soldier belonging 
to the army is found gaming he shall immediately 
receive three hundred lashes without being brought 
to court martial, and all standers by or lookers on 
shall be deemed principals and punished as such. 

One Capt«, 1 Lent, 1 Ensign and 70 men of the 2 
Brigades to parade immediately att the Fort. They 
are to take Tents and 10 days Proves with them. 
The Capt is to receive his orders from Sir John St 

A Genl Court Martial of the Line, to sitt to 
morrow to try Lt McLead of the Royal Regt of Ai^ 
tillery confined by Genl Braddock to consist of one 
Col. 2 Field Officers, and 10 Captns. 

Sir Peter Halkett President. 
Mr Shirley Judge Advocate. 

To sit at the Presidents Tent and to meet at 12 

Camp at ForT Cumberland, 
Monday, 26th May, 1755 

Parole — Oxford . 

Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Gage. 

For the Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 

The General Court Martial whereof Lt Col Gage 

was President is dissolved His Excellency having 

approved of the several sentences allotted them. 

John Nugent of the 44th Regiment having been 
tryed for theft and found guilty of the crime laid to 
his charge as an accomplice in receiving a share of 
the money that was stole, is adjudged to receive one 
thousand lashes, and to be drum'd out of the Reg't 


through the line with a halter about his neck. 

Samuel Draumer, of the 44th Regim't and George 
Darty of Capt Demere's Independent Company 
having been tryed for desertion are adjudged each of 
them to receive two hund'd lashes. 

Henry Dal ton, of the 48th Reg't having been 
tryed for shooting Henry Pelkington, sold'r in the 
said Regiment the Court Marshal is of opinion that 
the said Dalton did not shoot the said Pelkington 
with design but that it was done by accident, there- 
fore His Excellency Gen'l Braddock has ordered 
him to be released and to be sent back to his duty. 

If any soldier is seen Drunk in Camp he is to be 
sent immediately to the quarter guard of the Regmt 
he belongs to, and the next morning he is to receive 
two hundred lashes without a Court Martial. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Tuesday, May 27th, 1755. 

Parole — Petersfield. 

Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

The party of the Picquets that lay advanced to 
load with raming ball, the rest of the picquets to 
load with powder and to have their ball in their 

The following detachments to march on Tuesday 
morning to parade at Revelle beating. The men to 
be provided with two days provisions ready dress'd. 
The 44th, 48th Regts are to furnish 1 field officer, 4 
capts 12 subalterns 12 sergeants and 250 rank and 

Capt Rutherford's Capt Demere's Independent 
Companys, Capt Waginer's Capt Peyrouneys Com- 
panies of Virginia Rangers and Capt Poison's 
Company of Carpenters are also to march with this 


detachment, who are to take with them their camp 
equippage and baggage. 

Major Chapman Field Officer foe. the detachment. 

The Independent Company and company s of Vir- 
ginia Rangers ordered for this Detachment to furnish 
no men for the guards to morrow and any men that 
they may have upon the out Guards are to be relieved 
immediately. Particular care is to be taken that the 
men's arms are in good order and that each man is 
provided with ten flints and compleated to 24 rounds 
of ammunition. 

The Tools and Tomahawks of the 2d Brigade are 
to be given at Gun firing this evng to the quarter 
master General at his tent and a dem'd to be made 
to morrow nig at 6 o'clock of ye number of Tools 
each Brigade will want, the quarter master to attend. 

Camp at Cumberland, 
Wednesday, May 28th, 1755. 

Parole — Quarendon. 

Field officer to morrow Maj Sparke. 
Generals Guard 48th Regt. 
The Regulation of stoppages with the Director of 
the Genl Hospital to commence from the 24 th of this 

As it is necessary to employ the soldiers in making 
and amending the roads His Excellency has been 
pleased to appt the foUowg allowances 

To overy sub: officer 3 0' 

To every sergeant I 

To every corporal 9 

To every dramer and private centinal 6 

But as at present there is no public market and of 
course the men will have no opportunity of making 
use of the ready money His Excellency is so kind as 
to promise that he will see that they are punctually 
paid whatever is due to them when they arrive in 



winter quarters therefore whatever Subaltern officer 
or sergeant has^the command of any working party 
as soon as they are relieved or come back they are to 
make an exact return of the number of men of their 
party and give it in to the quarter master Genl. 

But if hereafter there should be any public market 
or that the money will be found to be of use to the 
men upon a proper application His Excellency will 
give orders for their being paid. 

The companies of Rangers are for the future to 
furnish their proportion of men for duty with the 
rest of the line. 

As there will be an express going in a few days, 
any officers that have any letters to send to Great 
Britain are desired to give them to either the Genl's 
aid de camps or to Mr. Shirley. 


The men of the Detachment that march to morrow 
to be commanded by the officers of their own corps 
or company. 

Sixteen men from line to be appointed to the Guns 
to morrow that march and to be under the direction 
of the officer of artillery. 

The Independant company and Rangers of the two 
Brigades to mount but one picquet. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Thursday, 29th May, 1755. 

Parole — ^Queensbury. 

Field officer to morrow Lt Col Gage. 
The Genls Guard 44 th Regiment. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Friday, 30th of May, 1755. 

Parole — Rochester. 
Field officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 


Generale Guard 48th Regmt. 

The troops to hold themselves in readiness to 
march in 24 hours warning. 

Whatever Barrells the Regiments and companys 
have got belonging to the artillery are to be sent 
back immediately with their troops to the foreman of 
the train. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Saturday, Slst May, 1755. 

Field Officer to morrow Maj^ Sparke. 
Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Sunday, 1st of June, 1755. 

Parole — Tamworth . 

Field officer to morrow Lt Col Gage. 
Generals Guard 48th Regmt. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Monday, 2d of June, 1755. 

Parole — Weybridge. 

Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 

The Hatchet men of the two Regements and one 
man per company from the r^st of the line to Parade 
this afternoon att 3 o'clock at Mr Gordon's (En- 
gineer) Tent. 

Four Sergeants 2 corporals & 100 men with arms 
1 subaltern, 1 sergeant 1 coporal and 30 men with 
arms to parade to morrow morning at Revelle beat* 
ing at the head of the Line and to receive their 
orders from Mr Gordon Engineer. 

His Excellency has been pleased to appoint Col 
Innes Governor of Fort Cumberland. 



Three subaltern officers to march with the detach- 
ment of 100 men without arms, which is to parade 
to morrow morning at Reville beating. 

. Camp at Fort Cumberland. 

Tuesday, June 3d, 1755. 

Parole — Yarmouth 

A General Court Martial of the Line consisting of 
6 captains & 6 subalterns to sitt to morrow morning 
at 8 o'clock at the Presidents Tent. 

Major Sparke President. 
Mr Shirley Judge Advocate. 
Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 
Four Subalterns, 5 Sergts, 5 Corpls, and 150 men 
without arms to parade to morrow morning at 
ye head of the line at Revelle beating. 

One Subaltern, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl, and 30 men with 
arms to parade at the same time and act as a cover- 
ing party ; they are to receive their Order from Mr 
Gordon, Engineer. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Wednesday, 4th June, 1755. 

Parole — Doncaster, 

Field officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 
For the Generals Guard 44th Regiment. 
The 44th Regiment and Capt Mercer s Company 
of Virginia Carpenters to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march in an hour's warning. The working 
Party to be relieved to morrow morning, and by the 
same number. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Thursday, June 6th, 1755. 
Parole — Boston . 


Field Officer to morrow Major Sparke. 
For the Generals Guard 48th Regiment. 
The working party to be relieved to morrow 
morning and by the same number of men. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Friday, June 6th, 1755. 

Field Officer to morrow Lt Col Burton. 

Sir Peter Halketts Regiment to march to morrow 
morning ; the sick of the Regiment unable to march 
to be sent to the Gen'l Hospital. One Subaltern 
officer to be left behind with them. 

The men of Sir Peter Halketts Regiment now 
upon Guard when they are relieved or ordered to 
come off are to be assembled together and marchd 
regularly to the Regiment by an officer. 

Captn Gates's Independant Company and all 
ye remaining companies of provincial Troops to 
march on Sunday morning with the whole Park of 

No more women are allowed to march with each 
Regiment and Company than the number allowed 
of by His Excellency in the orders of the 18th of 

Any soldier, sutler, woman or other person what- 
ever who shall be detected in stealing, purloining or 
wasting of any provisions shall suffer Death. 

The General Court Martial whereof Majr Sparke's 
was President is dissolved. 

Michael Shelton and Caleb Sary, soldiers be- 
longing to Capt° Edward Brice Dobbs*s company of 
Americans tryed for Desertion are by sentence of the 
Court Martial found guilty and adjudged to receive 
1,000 lashes each. 

John Igo, a convict servant, accused of theft is by 
the sentence of the Court Martial found guilty of 


receiving* and concealing goods the property of 
soldiers in His Majesty's service and is adjudged to 
receive 500 Lashes with a cat and nine Tails by the 
hands of the common hangman. 

John McDonald soldier in Sir Peter Halketts 
Regiment accused of being an accomplice and con- 
cerned with John Igo is acquitted. 

The Guards advanced up Wills Creek, the Potomac 
and the Flats* to be taken oflF to morrow morning, 
and to join their several corps, the other guards to 
remain and to be relieved as usual. 

Captn Gates Independent Company and ye re- 
maining companies of the Provincial Troops to 
furnish their proportion for the Guards to morrow 
and when they are relieved they are to join their 
companys in the same manner as those of Sir Peter 
Halketts Regiment are directed to do in this days 

No Soldiers wife to be suffered to march from this 
ground with a Horse as their own. 

Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

Saturday, June 7th, 1755. 
Parole — Doncaster. 

Capt Yates's Independant companies & the remain- 
ing companies of Provincial Troops & ye whole Park 
of Artillery to march to morrow morning and to be 
under the command of Lieut Col Burton, 

The artillery & companies that march to morrow 
to receive this afternoon Provisions to compleat them 
to the 11th inclusive & ye women to ye 17th. 

The 48th Regiment to take all the Guards to 
morrow; the men of the 48th Regiment now upon ye 
train Guard are to join their corps to morrow morning 
when the Artillery marches off & that Guard to be 
mounted by the companys that march to morrow. 

_ j_ Bill ^^^^^-.^^^^^__— ^_^^^-^^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y ^ ^ II— I I M— l^-^"^- 

•TlM JUU wn OD tb« BMt M» of Will's Graak. 


The 48th Regiment to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march on Monday next. 


The Generals Guard is to be reduced to morrow to 
1 Sergt 1 corpl and 12 men who are not to be re- 
lieved but to remain with the Genl's Baggage. 

Camp at Fort Cumberlakd, 

Sunday, June 8th, 1755. 
Parole — Essex. 

Capt" Gates's Independant Company and the 
maining companys of the Provincial Troops and 
artillery are to march to morrow. 

The 48th Regt to march on Tuesday as Col Dun- 
bars Regiment is not to march to morrow the Genl's 
Guard to be relieved to morrow morning. 

The Companies that march to morrow to send 
immediately 1 Sergeant corporal & 12 men to assist 
Mr Lake commissary of Provisions at the Fort. 

A Return to be sent immediately from Col Dun- 
bar's Reg't Capt Gates's company & the American 
Troops of the number of men they have fitt for 
Waggoners or Horse Drivers. 

In the return of Col Dunbar's Regt they are only 
to include those men that have joined the Regiment 
since they have been landed in America. 

Camp in Fort Cumberland, 

Monday, June 9 th, 1765. 
Parole — Fallmouth. 

Col Dunbars regiment to send their sick unable to 
march to the General ^Hospital and to leave a 
subaltern oflBcer behind with them. 

One sergeant, 1 corpl and 24 men without arms to 
parade to morrow morning at Day bre^ to assist 
Mr Lake, commissary of Provisions in^oading of 
ye waggons. 


Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
Tuesday, June the 10th, 1755. 
The Fort Guard to join their Regiments as soon 
as Governor Innes has taken possession of it and 
placed his centrys. • 

Camp at the Grove, 
(First Camp from Fort Cumberland.) 

Parole — Gainsborough. 

All the officers of the Line to be at the Gen's 
tent to morrow morning at 11 o'clock. 

No Fires to be made upon any acct whatever 
within 150 yards of the Road on either side, any 
person acting contrary to this order shall be very se- 
verely punished. 

All the waggons to be drawn up to-morrow morn- 
ing as close as possible and as soon as the waggons 
belong to the detachment under the command ^of 
Majr Chapman have closed up to the rear of the 
Artillery that Detachment then to join the respective 

Col Dunbars Regiment to encamp to morrow 
morning upon the left of the whole, according to the 
line of Encampment. 

Camp at the Grove, 
Wednesday, June 11th, 1755. 

Parole — Hartford . 

Captn Rutherford and Cap" Gates Indep com- 
panys and all the American's Troops to be under 
arms immediately att the head of their respective 

Any person whatsoever that is detected in stealing 
shall be immediately hanged with^ being brought to a 
Court Martial. 

One Subaltern Officer 1 Serg^ 1 Corporal & 40 men 



with^ arms from each of ye two Regement to parade 
immediately at ye h^ of the artillery. 

One Sub: 1 Sergt 1 D^ & 30 Men of the line to 
Parade in the Rear of Col^ Dun bars Reg^ as soon as 
they have come to their proper ground The Officer is 
to receive his Orders from Maj' Sparkes. 

Whatever number of Horses are furnisd by the 
Officers are to be paraded as soon as possible in the 
Rear of Col^ Dunbars Regimt and to be reviewd by 
Maj"^ S